TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE : NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
Water conveyance networks are composed of creeks/natural drainage systems that act as
receptor and distributor of rainwater in and around the rice terraces. (...) Only areas that receive full
sunlight are developed into rice terraces, and shaded areas are left to natural and forest
6. Natural springs serve as receptors of recycled and filtered water coming from the terraces
that accumulates during irrigation of the rice terraces.
REPORT OF THE ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON ITS 26TH SESSION :HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL, ADVISORY COMMITTEE, 26TH SESSION, 16-20 AUGUST 2021
They aim either to reduce the
amount of sunlight reaching the Earth’s atmosphere and becoming trapped by greenhouse
gases (solar radiation management) or to remove the greenhouse gases already released into
the atmosphere by human activities. (...) Interventions in the atmosphere
• Stratospheric aerosol injection: releasing inorganic particles (e.g. sulfur dioxide) into
the upper layer of the atmosphere to create a reflexive barrier that would reduce the
amount of sunlight reaching the Earth
• Cloud seeding: spraying chemicals (such as silver iodide) into clouds to increase
precipitation and cloud cover, which would reflect sunlight back into space
• Marine cloud brightening: spraying sea water droplets into marine clouds to make
them whiter and thus able to reflect more sunlight
• Space mirrors: positioning man-made orbital mirror satellites on the outer layer of
Earth’s atmosphere to deflect sunlight
2. (...) The consequences most frequently cited are the reduction in biodiversity, disruptions to food
chains and biogeochemical cycling, possible habitat destruction, the negative impact on soil
caused by chemical agents, and drastic local changes in weather patterns that can result in
natural disasters, such as flooding or droughts. In the case of maritime geoengineering, ocean
acidification and localized excess alkalinity may well be relevant, as also the risk of
eutrophication and anoxia, which are lethal to marine life.
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF THE ILLICIT MOVEMENT AND DUMPING OF TOXIC AND DANGEROUS PRODUCTS AND WASTES ON THE ENJOYMENT OF HUMAN RIGHTS, OKECHUKWU IBEANU : ADDENDUM
Artisanal mining is widespread in Tanzania due to the abundance of natural resources, the
lack of employment and livelihood opportunities and limited regulation by Government. (...) In addition to working in harsh environments, often exposed to direct sunlight and not able
to afford safety equipment, the women are sometimes subjected to threats and intimidation by
other members of the community, especially when they are migrants.
41. (...) A/HRC/9/22/Add.2
believe it has ownership of the natural resources found in the land. Non-governmental
organizations and other local institutions could play the role of independent facilitators.12
VISIT TO MALDIVES :REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON TORTURE AND OTHER CRUEL, INHUMAN OR DEGRADING TREATMENT OR PUNISHMENT, NILS MELZER
saw a number of cells where four or five prisoners shared two beds, and cells with
inadequate space, natural light, sleeping and sanitary facilities.
50. (...) Malé prison was severely overcrowded, with inmates in very tight quarters with
no access to sunlight or fresh air during their entire detention. (...) In the other wings, 16 male
prisoners were held in dormitories equipped with 10 beds. There was a lack of natural
light, sleeping and sanitary facilities, as well as insufficient access to fresh air.
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON TORTURE AND OTHER CRUEL, INHUMAN OR DEGRADING TREATMENT OR PUNISHMENT ON HIS MISSION TO MAURITANIA : NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
In others, however, detainees had no or very limited access (i.e. 15 minutes per
day) to open areas and sunlight.
50. In none of the visited centres were inmates given opportunities for schooling,
vocational training or work. (...) He received credible reports
from inmates who had been detained there during the first three years of its existence of the
inhumane and cruel detention conditions, which included exposure to extreme heat or cold
depending on the season and time, the locking of inmates in small bare cells at all times
(without beds, mattresses or blankets), insufficient nutrition of poor quality, salty drinking
water leading to serious health problems, denial of access to open areas and sunlight,
unsanitary conditions with inadequate access to water resulting in skin allergies and rashes,
and insufficient or total lack of medical care.
53. (...) Inmates were still
forced to drink salty water, had no access to sunlight (except for a few days before the
Special Rapporteur’s visit) and could not be visited by their families.
HUMAN RIGHTS AND WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION, OR WITH INDISCRIMINATE EFFECT, OR OF A NATURE TO CAUSE SUPERFLUOUS INJURY OR UNNECESSARY SUFFERING : WORKING PAPER / SUBMITTED BY Y.K.J. YEUNG SIK YUEN IN ACCORDANCE WITH SUB-COMMISSION RESOLUTION 2001/36
The protection of the natural environment during warfare is covered by article 35 (3) and
article 55 of Protocol I. (...) At paragraph 31 of its Advisory
Opinion, the ICJ finds that article 35 (3) of Protocol I also prohibits attacks against the natural
environment by way of reprisals. The gist of the two above-mentioned articles is restated in
article 1 of the Environmental Modification Convention of 1977:20 “each State party to this
Convention undertakes not to engage in military or any other hostile use of environmental
modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects as the means of
destruction, damage or injury to any other State party.”
37. (...) At noon, the sun would have about one third its usual
brightness. Months later, sunlight would return to more than its usual intensity, enhanced in the
ultraviolet range by depletion of the high-altitude ozone layer.29
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE HUMAN RIGHT TO SAFE DRINKING WATER AND SANITATION, CATARINA DE ALBUQUERQUE :ADDENDUM
Access to water and sanitation in Namibia is further complicated by the reality of
natural disasters, especially floods, which have caused extensive damage in the north of the
country, where 60 per cent of the population live. (...) The Otji toilet is made almost entirely of local
materials (except for the toilet bowl), and makes optimal use of Namibia’s natural climatic
conditions, especially its abundant sunlight, to aid in the process of drying the waste.
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON TORTURE AND OTHER CRUEL, INHUMAN OR DEGRADING TREATMENT OR PUNISHMENT ON HIS MISSION TO TURKEY :NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
The majority of facilities visited, with the exception of the police holding cells, had
adequate ventilation or an adequate supply of fresh air, as well as sufficient natural and
artificial light in the cells.
46. (...) Detainees in police stations had no access whatsoever to a yard, sunlight and fresh
air, which may be acceptable for a few hours, but clearly is not for periods exceeding 48
THIRD REPORT ON PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT IN RELATION TO ARMED CONFLICTS :ADDENDUM / BY MARJA LEHTO, SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR
The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1995, pp. 75–
Natural Resources and Conflict in Africa: The Tragedy of Endowment. (...) NICHOLS, eds.
Governance, Natural Resources, and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding, Abingdon: Routledge, 2016.
(...) “The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital”, Nature, vol. 387 (1997), pp. 253–260.
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON TORTURE AND OTHER CRUEL, INHUMAN OR DEGRADING TREATMENT OR PUNISHMENT ON HIS MISSION TO SRI LANKA : NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
others, detainees have or insufficient or no access to open areas or sunlight (i.e., 15 minutes
60. The Special Rapporteur observed unsanitary and unhygienic conditions in cells,
lavatories and yards; at several smaller detention centres there was a total lack of toilet or
shower facilities or makeshift lavatories (bottles in the cells).