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In assessing such risks, relevant elements of consideration are, inter alia: available scientific and technical information, related processing technology or intended end-uses of productsInternal market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs Article 5.1.2 of the WTO TBT Agreement – Conformity Assessment “[…] conformity assessment procedures shall not be more strict or be applied more strictly than is necessary to give the importing Member adequate confidence that products conform with the applicable technical regulations or standards, taking account of the risks non-conformity would create” Internal market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs How to conduct risk assessment? (...) Internal market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs Risk assessment in the context of legislation covered by NLF-New Approach Successful example of task sharing between: • regulatory authority • standardisers • manufacturers • market surveillance authorities Internal market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs Decision (EC) No. 768/2008 • Modernises conformity assessment modules • Choice of clear, transparent and coherent conformity assessment procedures, restricting the possible variants • Ensure uniformity in the assessment of conformity assessment bodies • Ensure a uniform high level of performance of notified bodies throughout the EU Internal market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs Conformity Assessment • Menu of modules, enabling the legislator to choose a procedure from the least to the most stringent, in proportion to the level of risk involved and the level of safety required • ISO/CASCO Toolbox • Procedures divided into 8 different modules (from manufacturer’s declaration to full quality assurance certification) • Range of options set in Directives • All procedures give equivalent results: presumption of conformity Internal market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs Criteria for the choice of the relevant conformity assessment procedure General considerations: • Proportionate and effective - economic infrastructure of the given sector (e.g. type and size of companies, complexity of product technology) - type and importance of production Criteria set in Decision 768/2008: • Appropriate to the type of product • Nature of risk involved and correlation of the procedure to the type and degree of risk • When 3rd party involvement is mandatory - manufacturer must be given the choice between quality assurance and product certification modules Internal market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs Example on choice of SDoC Restriction of Hazardous Substances • the Impact assessment considered the risk involved with products • then the benefits of SDoC vs. 3rd party assessment were considered in terms of mitigating the risks presented by the products in question, and the cost of each option • the lightest possible conformity assessment procedure was chosen to reduce costs for manufacturers: SDoC Internal market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs Example – on choice of 3rd party CA Annex IV Machinery • distinction between machinery as a whole and machines which present more serious hazards (Annex IV machinery when harmonised standards are not used) • for the first category only conformity assessment with internal inspection applies; • for the more hazardous machines - either adequacy in respect of harmonised standards, EC type- examination of the machine, or full quality assurance • simplified procedure for machinery which presents no inherent risk to safety and health Internal market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs RISK ASSESSMENT REQUIREMENTS ADDRESSED TO THE MANUFACTURER Sectoral legislation covers the typical hazards/risks potentially present in relevant products by means of “essential requirements” aiming to ensure protection of health, safety, environment, etc… • It is the obligation of manufacturers to establish the compliance of their products with relevant requirements of sectoral legislation (conformity assessment) Internal market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs RISK ASSESSMENT REQUIREMENTS ADDRESSED TO THE MANUFACTURER Con't OBLIGATIONS AFTER PLACING ON THE MARKET: Decision No. 768/2008 “Where deemed appropriate with regard to the risks presented by a product, manufacturers shall, … carry out sample testing of marketed products, investigate, and, if necessary, keep a register of complaints of non-conforming products and product recalls and shall keep distributors informed of any such monitoring” Obligations to carry out corrective measures and to inform competent authorities. Internal market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs RISK ASSESSMENT BY COMPETENT AUTHORITIES Regulation (EC) No. 765/2008 Market surveillance authorities shall perform appropriate checks of products on the market on an adequate scale by means of documentary, physical and laboratory checks.
Language:English
Score: 481142.33 - https://www.wto.org/english/tr.../tbt_e/tbtrisk13617_e/1_eu.pdf
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Correspondence tables allow to map the FCL to major international standards for the classification of production and trade of goods and services, such as the CPC and the HS. 3. (...) The main purpose of the CPC is to provide a framework for the international comparison of statistics dealing with products and to serve as a guide for developing or revising existing classification schemes of products in order to make them compatible with international standards. (...) The database contains also the link to international and regional classifications and to correspondence tables between the FCL and some agriculture product lists used at country level.
Language:English
Score: 480572.17 - https://www.fao.org/fileadmin/...hops_Events/AFCAS_22/DOC_8.pdf
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Plant Production and Protection Division: International Treaties, Conventions, Advisory Bodies english français Español FAO Home Plant Production and Protection Division Thematic sitemap Information Resources News, Events, Bulletins in Keywords Contacts NSP - International Treaties, Conventions, Advisory Bodies   International treaties, conventions, commissions  and advisory bodies play a major role in international cooperation for plant production and protection, and so are an important element of AG and AGP's work. (...) AGP's role is to provide technical expertise on aspects of plant production, and support international processes such as monitoring national implementation of the Global Plan of Action on PGRFA . The International Rice Commission The International Rice Commission, dating back to 1949, and currently with 62 members, aims to promote national and international action in matters relating to the production, conservation, distribution and consumption of rice.
Language:English
Score: 480202.73 - https://www.fao.org/agricultur...tic-sitemap/theme/treaties/en/
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Plant Production and Protection Division: International Treaties, Conventions, Advisory Bodies english français Español FAO Home Plant Production and Protection Division Thematic sitemap Information Resources News, Events, Bulletins in Keywords Contacts NSP - International Treaties, Conventions, Advisory Bodies   International treaties, conventions, commissions  and advisory bodies play a major role in international cooperation for plant production and protection, and so are an important element of AG and AGP's work. (...) AGP's role is to provide technical expertise on aspects of plant production, and support international processes such as monitoring national implementation of the Global Plan of Action on PGRFA . The International Rice Commission The International Rice Commission, dating back to 1949, and currently with 62 members, aims to promote national and international action in matters relating to the production, conservation, distribution and consumption of rice.
Language:English
Score: 480202.73 - https://www.fao.org/agricultur...tic-sitemap/theme/treaties/ua/
Data Source: un
Plant Production and Protection Division: International Treaties, Conventions, Advisory Bodies english français Español FAO Home Plant Production and Protection Division Thematic sitemap Information Resources News, Events, Bulletins in Keywords Contacts NSP - International Treaties, Conventions, Advisory Bodies   International treaties, conventions, commissions  and advisory bodies play a major role in international cooperation for plant production and protection, and so are an important element of AG and AGP's work. (...) AGP's role is to provide technical expertise on aspects of plant production, and support international processes such as monitoring national implementation of the Global Plan of Action on PGRFA . The International Rice Commission The International Rice Commission, dating back to 1949, and currently with 62 members, aims to promote national and international action in matters relating to the production, conservation, distribution and consumption of rice.
Language:English
Score: 480202.73 - https://www.fao.org/agricultur...tic-sitemap/theme/treaties/pt/
Data Source: un
Plant Production and Protection Division: International Treaties, Conventions, Advisory Bodies english français Español FAO Home Plant Production and Protection Division Thematic sitemap Information Resources News, Events, Bulletins in Keywords Contacts NSP - International Treaties, Conventions, Advisory Bodies   International treaties, conventions, commissions  and advisory bodies play a major role in international cooperation for plant production and protection, and so are an important element of AG and AGP's work. (...) AGP's role is to provide technical expertise on aspects of plant production, and support international processes such as monitoring national implementation of the Global Plan of Action on PGRFA . The International Rice Commission The International Rice Commission, dating back to 1949, and currently with 62 members, aims to promote national and international action in matters relating to the production, conservation, distribution and consumption of rice.
Language:English
Score: 480202.73 - https://www.fao.org/agricultur...tic-sitemap/theme/treaties/vn/
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Plant Production and Protection Division: International Treaties, Conventions, Advisory Bodies 中文 english français Español 粮农组织主页 Plant Production and Protection Division Thematic sitemap Information Resources News, Events, Bulletins in Keywords Contacts NSP - International Treaties, Conventions, Advisory Bodies   International treaties, conventions, commissions  and advisory bodies play a major role in international cooperation for plant production and protection, and so are an important element of AG and AGP's work. (...) AGP's role is to provide technical expertise on aspects of plant production, and support international processes such as monitoring national implementation of the Global Plan of Action on PGRFA . The International Rice Commission The International Rice Commission, dating back to 1949, and currently with 62 members, aims to promote national and international action in matters relating to the production, conservation, distribution and consumption of rice.
Language:English
Score: 480202.73 - https://www.fao.org/agricultur...tic-sitemap/theme/treaties/zh/
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Article III:2 of GATT 1994 Regulates “internal taxes or other internal charges of any kind”: - “like domestic products”: must be subject to the same tax - “directly competitive or substitutable products”: should be “similarly taxed” (see interpretative note to Art. III:2) Article III:4 of GATT 1994 “Treatment no less favourable” in respect of “all laws, regulations and requirements affecting their internal sale, offering for sale, purchase, transportation, distribution or use”. 1010 “Like products”? (...) To what degree or extent must products share qualities or characteristics in order to be “like products”?
Language:English
Score: 480043.16 - https://www.wto.org/english/th...cessions_internal_taxation.pdf
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Distribution and production- International Year of Quinoa 2013 2013 International Year of Quinoa (IYQ2013) A Future sown a thousands of years ago العربية 中文 english français pусский español Home IYQ IYQ Objective Structure and strategic allies Key partners IYQ Master Plan Activities Calendar of Events FAQs What is quinoa? Origin and history Distribution and production Varieties of quinoa Uses of quinoa Nutritional value Plant Cultivation Press room News Quinoa in the news Multimedia Publications Publications and documents Recipe books International Year of Quinoa 2013  > What is quinoa?  > Distribution and production Distribution and production Quinoa is endemic in all countries of the Andean region, ranging from Colombia (Pasto) to northern Argentina (Jujuy and Salta) and southern Chile.
Language:English
Score: 480001.1 - https://www.fao.org/quinoa-201...istribution-and-production/en/
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or knowledge creation—is essential for achieving productivity growth. Although the process of tech-knowledge creation (acquisition, adaptation and development) can also occur in developing countries, two potential channels for technology transfer 3 are international trade and foreign direct investment. (...) • To what extent should international development agencies focus their efforts on the short- term effects of actions taken to increase productivity growth? (...) In principle, the same could be argued for aid, i.e. that it be used for productivity-enhancing activities. To which extent should international development agencies be concerned with the subject?
Language:English
Score: 479995.4 - https://www.un.org/en/ecosoc/m...ues_Notes/Issues_notes-RT2.pdf
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