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Digital liquidity enables the Bottom of the Pyramid (BoP) to receive, retain, and pay with e-money, which provides safety, greater access to credit (and ease of access to related information), income growth, and other documented benefits. (...) In much 2 of the developing world, however, growth of MSMEs are stifled by lack of access to capital. It is estimated that 50-60 per cent of small businesses around the world are underserved by traditional banks and do not have access to credit. (...) Accordingly, it is not surprising that in 5 most emerging and frontier markets, fewer than 1 in 5 MSMEs have access to mainstream and affordable credit. These businesses are sometimes referred to as “credit invisibles”.
Language:English
Score: 951112.3 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page208.html
Data Source: un
In the latter case, the bank explains the reasons for rejection and the aspects of the micro enterprise that should be improved in order to be able to access credit. The bank has a big staff dedicated to the close follow-up of the micro credit clients. (...) It is costly to reach the potential micro credit clients because traditionally they do not themselves come to the bank to gain access to credit or other financial services. (...) When asked how to increase access, he explained that in his opinion what one needed were large networks of financial institutions and to authorize those networks to mobilize savings and give credit.
Language:English
Score: 949445.2 - https://www.un.org/esa/ffd/wp-...c2005-Summary-Santiago-Eng.pdf
Data Source: un
 Page 246 - The Digital Financial Services (DFS) Ecosystem           Basic HTML Version Table of Contents View Full Version Page 246 - The Digital Financial Services (DFS) Ecosystem P. 246 ITU-T Focus Group Digital Financial Services Ecosystem • E-value proposition: Merchants such as local agro-dealers could sell more merchandise, track amounts owed, send automated repayment requests, generate interest income, and access bank credit through proof of receivables. Consumers could buy more, track amounts owed, and access bank credit through a credit history. • Examples: Store credit is very important. (...) Those deemed creditworthy can also access a line of credit (LoC), with a maximum loan amount greater than the interest- bearing account balance. (...) With help from FSD Kenya, CBA tailored their risk models to identify a credit worthy low-income segment. 11 • Digital liquidity impact: The BoP needs frequent, quick access to short-term credit in general and to avoid cash-in and cash-out requirements.
Language:English
Score: 945481 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page246.html
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 Page 209 - ITU-T Focus Group Digital Financial Services – Technology, innovation and competition           Basic HTML Version Table of Contents View Full Version Page 209 - ITU-T Focus Group Digital Financial Services – Technology, innovation and competition P. 209 ITU-T Focus Group Digital Financial Services Technology, Innovation and Competition and used as a basis for developing an alternate credit score, or affecting current credit bureau scoring data. (...) In particular, the study will assesses: 194 ‘The level of equal compliance with Credit Bureau reporting by digital credit providers and if they report both positive and negative borrower data as required by law and if there exists disparate treatments that gives them anti-competitive advantage and inhibits consumers’ ability to take advantage of their own data for financial access.’ 195 The enquiry was apparently prompted by ‘good’ borrower’s accessing loan while ‘bad’ borrowers were denied access to loans in other financial institutions since they lack access to any past credit information. The CAK 196 study also looks at current practices around consumer control over their transactional data and how this is sold or accessed by third parties such as the usage of mobile credit data to score and award credit offers without consumer consent. 193 See Government Of Kenya (2016) Gazette Notice No. 678: Proposed Market Inquiry And Sector Study On The Kenya Banking Sector-Phase II By Competition Authority Of Kenya, available at https:// goo. gl/ wbqDX6 194 Daily Nation (2016) Govt Launches Study On Mobile Money Practices, available at https:// goo. gl/ h9OumW.
Language:English
Score: 943353.1 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page209.html
Data Source: un
Table 2 – Access of payment system operators to the RTGS system ACH Operators Payment Card Switch Operators Direct access Direct access to account Direct access to to account and Direct access to and credit account, no credit account, no credit credit Total countries worldwide 15 44 6 22 (117) Source: World Bank Group, Global Payment Systems Survey 2012 (adaptation of Table IX.1). (...) Only a small fraction of ACH and payment card switch operators also have access to central bank credit. Additional relevant data from the GPSS 2012 shows that access criteria in RTGS systems was still largely institution-based: 107 respondents (91% of the total) mentioned that direct access is based on the type of license/authorization of the applicant or potential participant. B. Access to ACHs Table 3 – Direct access of non-bank institutions to ACHs Credit Supervised Unsupervised Other Postal Exchange Unions MTOs Cooperatives Cooperatives MFIs network bureaus Other Total countries worldwide (96) 17 7 14 2 11 14 3 9 By Region East Asia and the Pacific (8) 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Europe and Central Asia (8) 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 Latin America and the Carib- 7 2 5 1 2 1 1 1 bean (22) Middle East and North Africa 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 (6) South Asia (4) 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 Sub-Saharan Africa (19) 1 0 2 0 0 1 0 4 86     91     92     93     94     95     96     97     98     99     100     101          
Language:English
Score: 938430.3 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...y/files/basic-html/page96.html
Data Source: un
 Page 95 - ITU-T Focus Group Digital Financial Services – Interoperability           Basic HTML Version Table of Contents View Full Version Page 95 - ITU-T Focus Group Digital Financial Services – Interoperability P. 95 ITU-T Focus Group Digital Financial Services Interoperability 5 International evidence and trends The purpose of this Section is to show global data on access-to-payment infrastructures issues. A number of specific cases studies are then presented in Annex I. (...) Most recent data was publicly released in 2014 and shows information as of end-2012, and is therefore referred to below as the "GPSS 2012". A. Access to RTGS systems Table 1 – Access of non-bank institutions to the RTGS system Non-financial institutions Supervised NBFIs Unsupervised NBFIs (other than Ministry of Finance or equivalent) Direct Direct Direct Direct Direct access to access to Direct access access to access to access to settlement settlement to settlement settlement settlement settlement account and account, NO account and account, NO account and account, NO credit credit credit credit credit credit Total countries worldwide (117) 18 18 1 5 1 9 By Region East Asia and the Pacific (9) 1 3 0 2 0 1 Europe and Central Asia (13) 1 2 0 1 1 3 Latin America and the Caribbean 3 8 0 1 0 3 (24) Middle East and North Africa (10) 2 0 0 0 0 0 South Asia (3) 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sub-Saharan Africa (19) 0 1 0 0 0 1 Euro area (15) 3 2 0 1 0 0 Other European Union members 2 1 0 0 0 1 (11) Other developed countries (13) 6 1 1 0 0 0 Notes: 1. (...) In only half of those cases an NBFI can access payment system-related central bank credit. 85     90     91     92     93     94     95     96     97     98     99     100          
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Score: 938303 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...y/files/basic-html/page95.html
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If women could have better access to credit, they would have so many more opportunities to change or improve their lives and reach their dreams. (...) In order to facilitate their access to credit, in 1999 WWB initiated the project GIVE WOMEN CREDIT. (...) WWB in Spain has been working since 1989 to facilitate access to credit for women. While we are highly satisfied with our credit lines, problems still exist with the banks, as they provide 20% of the guarantee and we have to work very hard with them to have credit approved.
Language:English
Score: 934981 - https://unece.org/fileadmin/DA...nterp/women/documents/ber2.pdf
Data Source: un
Digital Credit Technologies and Financial Inclusion TALA | Digital Credit Technologies and Financial Inclusion Building the Future of Finance About Tala We are a financial technology company on a mission to enable and accelerate financial health for all. We use mobile technology and data science to make financial services simple, inclusive, and accessible. TALA | Digital Credit Technologies and Financial Inclusion About Tala Credit Product Our first product is an Android app that offers instant credit and personalized financial education in Kenya, the Philippines, Mexico, and India. (...) We serve customers in Kenya, the Philippines, Mexico and India KENYA MEXICO INDIA PHILLIPINES TALA | Digital Credit Technologies and FInancial Inclusion Digital Credit Challenges and Opportunities ● $2.1-2.5 trillion unmet need for credit in developing markets, with over 2.5 billion people in those regions accessing the internet via their mobile device. ( Mckinsey ) ● 3 billion people are financially underserved, according to the Center for Financial Services with only 31% of the adult population worldwide is covered by credit bureaus.
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Score: 934161.9 - https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/w.../Documents/Diana%20Wanjuhi.pdf
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Page 104 - ITU-T Focus Group Digital Financial Services – Recommendations           Basic HTML Version Table of Contents View Full Version Page 104 - ITU-T Focus Group Digital Financial Services – Recommendations P. 104 ITU-T Focus Group Digital Financial Services Recommendations Title of recommendation Transparent disclosure of digital credit costs using standardized definitions Working Group Consumer Experience and Protection Theme Digital credit Audience for recommendation Regulators Regulators should establish standard definitions for the cost of digital credit including all bundled services (and including all interest, credit-related fees, and fees for bundled products), and require clear, conspicuous, and understandable disclosure of the cost, as well as financial and other consequences of early, partial, late, or non-repayment of the loan. (...) There are few opportunities for customers to ask questions in person, and some information may only be posted online even if the customer is using a mobile handset to access the product. For example, M-Shwari in Kenya, which offers instant access to credit without a previous banking history, provides terms and conditions through a web link, even though many users lack access to the internet. (...) The standardized method for determining total cost should include all interest and credit-related fees. Disclosing fees and requirements for tied and bundled products, such as insurance or deposit accounts, may be especially problematic due to the limited space available and increased complexity of the offer. 69 CGAP The Proliferation of Digital Credit Deployments (2016) https:// www. cgap. org/ sites/ default/ files/ Brief- Proliferation- of- Digital- Credit- Deployments- Mar- 2016_ 1. pdf 70 Mazer, R., USSD Access: A Gateway and Barrier to Effective Competition (2015) http:// www. cgap. org/ blog/ ussd- access- gateway- and- barrier- effective- competition 71 Mazer, R., Rowan, P., Competition in Mobile Financial Services: Lessons from Kenya & Tanzania (2016) http:// www. cgap. org/ publications/ competition- mobile- financial- services- lessons- kenya- tanzania 98     99     100     101     102     103     104     105     106     107     108     109          
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Score: 931162.9 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page104.html
Data Source: un
Global network for capacity building to increase access of small-scale fisheries to financial services (CAFI SSF Network) | Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries | Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO.org العربية 中文 english français Русский Español Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication Background SSF Guidelines Where we work Illuminating Hidden Harvests Implementation News and Events Resources Global network for capacity building to increase access of small-scale fisheries to financial services (CAFI SSF Network) 08/04/2021 - Online Webinar on ‘Guidelines for microfinance and credit services in support of small-scale fisheries’ The FAO-initiated and -supported ‘Global network for capacity building to increase access of small-scale fisheries to financial services’ (CAFI-SSF Network) organized the first webinar on 8 April 2021 on the ‘ Guidelines for microfinance and credit services in support of small-scale fisheries ’, in association with its regional partners AFRACA (African Rural and Agricultural Credit Association) and  APRACA (Asia -Pacific Rural and Agricultural Credit Association). (...) While there is experience in the provision of microfinance and credit services to rural economies, access to financial services is still a challenge for coastal and inland small-scale fisheries communities as compared to small-holding agricultural farming communities. The SSF Guidelines recognize the limitations in financial access and the dearth of investments in the small-scale fisheries sector and call upon States to support access of small-scale fishing communities to savings, credit, and insurance schemes.
Language:English
Score: 928810.5 - https://www.fao.org/voluntary-...nd-events/detail/en/c/1396376/
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