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PowerPoint Presentation Use of ADS-B in GNSS RFI Monitoring Silvio Zappi, ENAV Italy, ICAO FMG Chair Abbas Niknejad, RO ANS, ICAO EUR/NAT General • ADS-B is a surveillance system used by commercial aircraft and was made mandatory in Europe and the U.S.A. by 2020 • It broadcasts position and velocity messages based on positions from certified GNSS based position estimates. These messages are transmitted every 0.4 – 0.6 sec through Mode-S Extended Squitter on the 1090 MHz frequency • Radio-frequency Interference (RFI) source can disrupt aircraft operations and result in unavailability of GNSS service. • This sudden loss of navigation can be monitored through ADS-B reports on the ground side. Application to GNSS interference detection • Radio-frequency interference (RFI) sources can cause denial of GNSS- based landings for aircraft • The sudden loss of navigation is a safety issue • Due to the growing dependence of critical and safety-of-life systems on GNSS in aviation, it is important to be able to localize the RFI source as well so that it can be removed as quickly as possible How interference event can affect ADS-B Output Application to GNSS interference detection • Aircraft broadcast their GNSS-derived position information through the Automatic Dependent Surveillance– Broadcast (ADS-B) system to the ground station. • Therefore, by monitoring the ADS-B outputs (e.g., NIC/NAC parameters) on the ground side, we can identify instances when interference impacts an aircraft’s positioning and navigation capabilities. • Similarly, the system can offer positive evidence when GPS is currently functioning well within an area providing ground personnel better situational awareness. Presenter Presentation Notes NIC: Navigation Integrity Category NAC: Navigation Accuracy Category Some ongoing initiatives • Several Project/Groups have already investigated the use of ADS-B to localize GNSS interference • Aireon: to provide alerts of potential GPS interference events by monitoring change of Navigation Accuracy Category–Position (NACp) parameter from ADS-B message • EUROCONTROL: use of ADS-B to determine GNSS affected regions in the eastern Mediterranean • ENJOY (EgNos based flight Operations) Project started in 2021 Use of ADS-B in GNSS RFI Monitoring General Application to GNSS interference detection How interference event can affect ADS-B Output Application to GNSS interference detection Some ongoing initiatives Slide Number 7
Language:English
Score: 1237314.1 - https://www.icao.int/Meetings/...ing%20-%20Abbas%20Niknejad.pdf
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That ADS-B messages in highly congested areas. The main frequency range is shared with other International Civil aim of this study is to optimize automatic dependent Aviation Organization (ICAO) and non-ICAO standardised surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) reception on-board low aeronautical applications. (...) In this first approach, simulations are terrestrial receptors of ADS-B signal by a satellite network performed to obtain the training and testing signals. (...) After the disappearance of the flight MH370, the 1.2 Detection Problem terrestrial ADS-B system was studied in order to extend its The general detection problem can be written as: coverage.
Language:English
Score: 1189964.1 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page125.html
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Each scene detected and the trackable object which is to be rendered is contains all models of that particular level, and the first scene is the model selection. (...) The plane manager creates models for each detected plane in the environment which can be added, updated, and removed. (...) The AR plane manager instantiates a prefab plane to Frame 1 represent the plane upon detection. The prefab asset type acts Detect Depth of as a template from which new model instances can be created Feature Positioning in the scene and it stores an interior model complete with its corresponding components and properties.
Language:English
Score: 1187497.9 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page103.html
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Introduction 1.1 ICAO and México, through the Civil Aviation Federal Agency (AFAC) coordinated this technical assistance mission based on the offer made at the Ottawa Automatic dependent surveillance- broadcast (ADS-B) implementation meeting in 2019 by the Surveillance Group rapporteur, in order to supply software developed by Cuba for monitoring and statistical compilation of the performance of the ADS-B systems, which was of interest to the Mexican delegation for monitoring the installed ADS-B receivers, making this request official in 2020, an action that was postponed due to the pandemic of COVID-19 and being able to execute from 15 to 21 May 2022. 1.2 For the study required on the ADS-B implementation trials, Cuba has developed several tools that made it possible to decode, store and process information from the different sources of the surveillance systems it has. such as RADAR, ADS-B and multilateration (MLAT). (...) The scenario where the ADS-B information of the Flight Information Region (FIR) of Mexico is detected has greater volumes of information, also testing the optimization characteristics of the system processing and being able to verify the stability of the system. 2.3 The receivers were configured with the Cat021 v2.1, being able to acquire the information of the ADS-B stations of: 1. (...) Achievements 3.1 It is possible to optimally process and store the information from which the statistically processed data is obtained, and other algorithms can be implemented for future statistical analyses. 3.2 A standardization of the results obtained is achieved, which can be used to demonstrate the performance of the implementation of surveillance systems and analyze both from the part of the receivers on the ground, as well as the installed configuration of the ADS-B transponders on board. of the aircraft. 3.3 A tabulated report of the statistics is obtained in a time interval with the application of several configured filters, being able to export the results to a PDF file. 3.4 The statistics of the detected flights are grouped by countries, airlines, aircraft type designator and by the ADS-B parameters of version DO260, NIC, NAC and SIL. 4.
Language:English
Score: 1184261.9 - https://www.icao.int/NACC/Docu.../2022/NACCWG7/NACCWG7-WP12.pdf
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The following NAAT assays or classes of NAAT assays will be discussed by the GDG: Centralized assays that present end-to-end solutions for detection of TB and resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid (cDST:  Index test 1 ); Cartridge-based technology for isoniazid and second-line drug resistance detection (XDR cartridge:  Index test 2 ); Hybridization-based technology for pyrazinamide resistance detection (PZA LPA:  Index test 3 ). (...) The use of a genotypic sequencing results where available will have an added value to confirm the presence of mutations in addition to phenotypic DST results. (...) Study population:  Patients with detected TB, requiring evaluation for resistance to isoniazid and second-line anti-TB agents in sites of intended use.
Language:English
Score: 1172136.1 - https://www.who.int/news/item/...nce-to-selected-anti-tb-agents
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Once again, a bias current or voltage may be added to the modulating electrical signal for a linear operation if needed. (...) Figure 7-3-a and -b represent the optical incoherent detection schemes for subcarrier signal(s) transmission and for digital signal(s) transmission, respectively. In most cases, a bias voltage should be added to the output port of photodetector for a linear operation.
Language:English
Score: 1170509.8 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page598.html
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The other one considered the likelihood coding, maximum likelihood sequence detection with re‑ of observing the unbound time of receptors for detection. duced channel memory was used in [62]. (...) The decision metric was constructed by adding w w w = argmin P e . (4) w w w the metrics of the convex property of the iltered signal, transient shape among the symbols, and the energy dif‑ Finally, using these optimal weights, a weighted sum de‑ ference between the successive symbols. tector was employed at the receiver i.e., each sample within a bit‑interval was multiplied by a weight and all The derivation of an event (e.g. presence of a cancer cell) the weighted samples were added to compare against the detection probability was presented in [70], where the threshold θ for detection, event was de ined as the hitting of a single molecule at any { ∑ (j+1)N s one of the multiple receivers within a certain period. (...) The proposed decision feedback detector consid‑ weights was proposed for detection and ISI mitigation at ered a ixed detection window of size K where a constant the receiver.
Language:English
Score: 1163230.4 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...3/files/basic-html/page56.html
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Proposal to set up an ad-hoc working group on AI for COVID-19 - Att.1: Presentation FGAI4H-I-026-A01 E-meeting, 7-8 May 2020 Source: CAICT, PAHO Title: Proposal to set up an ad-hoc working group on AI and other digital technologies for COVID-19 health emergency (WG-WE) - Att.1: Presentation Purpose: Discussion Contact: Ana Rivière Cinnamond (PAHO/WHO) Email: rivierea@paho.org Shan Xu (CAITC) Email: xushan@caict.ac.cn Abstract: This PPT contains a proposal to set up an ad-hoc working group on AI for COVID-19. 1 Proposal to set up an ad-hoc working group on AI for COVID-19 Ana Rivière Cinnamond (PAHO/WHO) Shan Xu (CAITC) Introduction Rationale WHO proposed a collection on anonymized COVID-19 clinical data and built a data platform for COVID-19 clinical data ITU-WHO released a Joint Statement on unleashing information technology to defeat COVID-19 The World Bank, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), GSMA and the World Economic Forum launched COVID-19 Crisis Response: Digital Development Joint Action Plan and Call for Action Extraordinary G20 Digital Economy Ministerial Meeting: COVID-19 Response Statement (Apr 30) Scope This ad-hoc working group on COVID-19 health emergency (WG-HE) is aimed at covering the entire cycle of an epidemic emergency, encompassing the following: prevention and preparedness, outbreak early detection, surveillance and response, recovery, rehabilitation, mitigation, etc. (...) Specific issues Targeted to COVID-19: With the urgency on fighting against COVID-19 worldwide, this ad-hoc WG focuses on the COVID-19 pandemic. No conflicts with TG-Outbreak nor with TG-Symptom: The TG-Outbreak focuses on AI solutions on early detection of outbreaks, and this group plans to cover the many stages of epidemic emergency. (...) Clinical diagnostics: speeding triag, diagnostic and treatment techniques (imaging, clinical algorithms) Early detection of cases: geolocation, movement, facial recognition etc.
Language:English
Score: 1153970.7 - https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/f...ents/all/FGAI4H-I-026-A01.pptx
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Page 43 - ITU-T Focus Group on Aviation Applications of Cloud Computing for Flight Data Monitoring - Use cases and requirements           Basic HTML Version Table of Contents View Full Version Page 43 - ITU-T Focus Group on Aviation Applications of Cloud Computing for Flight Data Monitoring - Use cases and requirements P. 43 ITU-T Focus Group on Aviation Applications of Cloud Computing for Flight Data Monitoring Use cases and requirements Data sources • ADS-B (traditional and via satellite) or Mode-S transceiver; • ADS-C; • FMC messages; • Controller-pilot data link communication (CPDLC)/automatic dependent surveillance (ADS); • ARINC 623 messaging (D-ATIS, OCL, DCL); • Airline operational communication (AOC) position reports; • Dedicated positioning system; • Flight data streaming/FOQA streaming. (...) Security mechanisms to avoid and detect misuse of the system or false data injection. (...) The collected health data are analysed during the transportation time to detect any person who might be infected and an appropri- ate action, such as seclusion, is taken as early as possible.
Language:English
Score: 1148781.8 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...q/files/basic-html/page43.html
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PowerPoint Presentation Spectrum Monitoring for ADS-B & MLAT THALES_ Massimiliano Ferla, Product Line Manager for Navaids and Non Radar Surveillance What are the Issues on 1030/1090 MHz frequency band? • 1030 MHz (SSR interrogation channel) and 1090 MHz (SSR reply channel) • Used by multiple systems: SSR, Airport / Wide Area Multilateration systems, ACAS/TCAS, IFF, ADS-B, TIS-B, and sometimes even DME crosstalk • 1030 MHz Load: Over-Interrogation • can send XPNDR into permanent suppression  no XPNDR reply or broadcast • 1090 MHz Load • Channel Access Method is “Aloha” (Ethernet: bandwidth used by >30% leads to packet collisions) • Synchronous garbling (synchronous replies), • Fruit – unsynchronized messages overlapping each other • Stronger signals can destroy weaker signals • Systems have limited “de-garbling capability”  loss of detection @ receiver EASA Report-ED0.1- 2014-ed04.00, December 3, 2014 stating in recommendation No. 3 that: “Member States ensure that the use of the 1030/1090 MHz frequency band is monitored and recorded. ...” (...) • Ground Monitoring • Airborne Monitoring • Simulations What is readily available for ground through recording Tool, real time Statistics, embedded Oscilloscope and Spectrum Analyzer: • Spectrum load Measurement on ground • Simultaneous recording 1030 and 1090 MHz • Permanent Signal Extraction and Statistics • Record Interrogations and Replies using existing Surveillance Sensors Monitoring Application • Continuous logging of extracted Mode S raw data (uplink and downlink) • Both channels synchronized • Both channels determine signal level • 1090 ES ADS-B decoding • Extracting number of targets (separately Mode S, ACAS and ADS-B) • While Mode 1/2/3A/C replies and interrogations can be also detected by design, the false alarm rate is relatively high (hence the WAM system is using correlation to interrogation patterns) • Future Applications • TDOA for Mode S Interrogators Other Features: Detect Transponder anomalies • Erroneous data content • Not replying to some interrogations • Protocol Issues • ADS-B issues • ACAS/TCAS Issues Thales tool : Evaluation Time of Occupancy • Tool reads interrogation and reply logfiles and configuration data from a WAM system and estimates the transponder occupancy time generated by the WAM system for each transponder in coverage • The tool considers • the actual interrogation activity (time, destination, interrogation type), • the actual position of all transponders in range, • the actual position and coverage of involved interrogators, • the tool estimates a worst case transponder occupancy time based on the maximum blocking times defined by ICAO ANNEX 10 Volume IV.
Language:English
Score: 1148386.6 - https://www.icao.int/Meetings/...es%20Spectrum%20Monitoring.pdf
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