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Adjustments under ERCs are inherently more complicated than adjustments under ceilings. (...) Rather than the adjustment reducing emissions in 2020 (example adjustments A–D), the adjustment increases emissions in 2005. (...) Their potential use of adjustments remains unchanged, and they may apply for a new adjustment under ceilings and/or continue to report previously approved adjustments.
Language:English
Score: 791239.5 - https://unece.org/sites/defaul....AIR_GE.1_2022_21-2210479E.pdf
Data Source: un
p pa pw a b c Q Objective • Why is this important? Without adjustment there are no gains from tradep pa pw a b c Q Adjustment of production Adjustment of consumption Objective • Key concerns – How do agents adjust to take full advantage of the new trading opportunities? – How do agents ease the burden of adjusting to reforms? – How big are adjustment costs? – What factors drive the adjustment? – What can governments do? – Distributional conflicts when easing adjustment costs?
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Score: 789409.96 - https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/gro...s/presentation/wcms_142206.pdf
Data Source: un
The ERT recommends the EMEP SB to accept the new adjustment applications submitted by France. An overview of the impact of the adjustment on the NMVOC emission inventory for the years 2005 and 2020 is given in table 4 below. 7 Technical Guidance for Emissions Inventory Adjustments under Inventory adjustments in the context of Emission Reduction Commitments, available at: https://www.ceip.at/gothenburg- protocol/adjustments ECE/EB.AIR/GE.1/2022/10 ECE/EB.AIR/WG.1/2022/21 6 Table 4 Impact of adjustments on the NMVOC emission inventory of France for the year 2005 and 2020 Unit 2005 2020 ERC % of 2005 -43% ERC unadjusted (kt) 905 NT for Compliance unadjusted (kt) 1587 939 Gap to ERC unadjusted (%) -4% ERC adjusted (kt) 678 Adjusted NT for Compliance (kt) 1190 550 Gap to ERC adjusted (%) 19% Impact of adjustment on NT for Compliance (kt) -398 -389 Notes: ERC: emission reduction commitment, NT: National total C. (...) Table 6 Impact of adjustments on the NMVOC emission inventory of the Netherlands for the year 2005 and 2020 Unit 2005 2020 ERC % of 2005 -8% ERC unadjusted (kt) 251 NT for Compliance unadjusted (kt) 273 272 Gap to ERC unadjusted (%) 8% ERC adjusted (kt) 229 Adjusted NT for Compliance (kt) 249 228 Gap to ERC adjusted (%) 0% Impact of adjustment on NT for Compliance (kt) -24 -44 Notes: ERC: emission reduction commitment, NT: National total D. (...) Table 8 Impact of adjustments on the NH3 emission inventory of the United Kingdom for the year 2005 and 2020 Unit 2005 2020 ERC % of 2005 -8% ERC unadjusted (kt) 258 NT for Compliance unadjusted (kt) 280 259 Gap to ERC unadjusted (%) -1% ERC adjusted (kt) 258 Adjusted NT for Compliance (kt) 280 257 Gap to ERC adjusted (%) 0% Impact of adjustment on NT for Compliance (kt) 0 -3 Notes: ERC: emission reduction commitment, NT: National total IV.
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Score: 789163.87 - https://unece.org/sites/defaul....AIR_GE.1_2022_10-2213009E.pdf
Data Source: un
Trade & Factor Adjustment Costs What do we care about? The welfare costs of trade reforms with costly factor adjustment lost income, wages, profits high in the short run, high for affected individuals (the unemployed) mixed results when compared to overall intertemporal gains (sometimes high, sometimes small; higher in developing countries) Sources of costly factor adjustment what are the sources of labor adjustment costs? (...) Trade & Factor Adjustment Costs What do we care about? The welfare costs of trade reforms with costly factor adjustment lost income, wages, profits high in the short run, high for affected individuals (the unemployed) mixed results when compared to overall intertemporal gains (sometimes high, sometimes small; higher in developing countries) Sources of costly factor adjustment what are the sources of labor adjustment costs? (...) Adjustment Costs in Labor Why is adjustment costly in labor markets?
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Score: 785999 - https://www.cepal.org/sites/de...s/presentacion_guido_porto.pdf
Data Source: un
The CLRTAP therefore needs processes which accommodate “ceiling Adjustments” and “ERC Adjustments”. TFEIP co-chairs have discussed the existing guidance material in this context, and are of the general opinion that: • EB Decisions: The text in the EB Decisions is appropriate for both ceiling Adjustments and ERC Adjustments. • Adjustment Technical Guidance: This includes guidance on mathematical accounting of ceiling Adjustments, but not ERC Adjustments. The mathematical accounting for ERC Adjustments is expected to be more complex than that for ceiling Adjustments. An updated guidance document is therefore needed. • Adjustment Application/Reporting Templates: The templates for Adjustment applications and reporting previously approved Adjustments only support ceiling Adjustments.
Language:English
Score: 785215.2 - https://unece.org/sites/defaul...s_Guidance_EB_BNote_issue1.pdf
Data Source: un
Agreed settlement An adjustment made based on an agreement between partners. (...) Early payment allowance adjustment Adjustment results from the application of an early payment allowance. (...) Quantity discount Adjustment due to a quantity discount. Promotion discount Adjustment due to a promotion discount.
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Score: 782040 - https://unece.org/fileadmin/DA...ReasonDescriptionCode_D09B.xsd
Data Source: un
Seasonal Adjustment, Index of Industrial Production Seasonal Adjustment of National Index Data at International Level Shyam Upadhyaya, Shohreh Mirzaei Yeganeh United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), Vienna, Austria unido.org/statistics Overview What and why Basic concepts Costs and risks Methods Software UNIDO experience Recommendation unido.org/statistics 2 Seasonally adjusted and original series - Industrial Production Index unido.org/statistics Seasonally adjusted and original series - Industrial Production Index unido.org/statistics IIP percentage change QII 2011 to QI 2011 QII 2012 to QI 2012 Cameroon Russia Cameroon Russia -17.17% -15.48% -6.86% -1.39% Original -0.66% -8.51% 8.43% -0.66% SA unido.org/statistics Why seasonally adjust? (...) This is not the case: if there is some kind of unusual event, we need that information for analysis, and outliers are included in the Seasonally Adjusted series unido.org/statistics Seasonal Adjustment Facilitates the comparison of long-term and short-term movements among series and countries Fluctuations due to exceptionally strong or weak seasonal influences will continue to be visible in the seasonally adjusted series. In general, other random disruptions and unusual movements that are readily understandable in economic terms (for example the consequences of economic policy, large scale orders or strikes) will also continue to be visible unido.org/statistics Seasonal Adjustment the Seasonally Adjusted results do not show “normal” and repeating events, they provide an estimate for what is new in the series which is the ultimate goal of Seasonal Adjustment unido.org/statistics Costs and Risks Seasonal Adjustment is time consuming, significant computer/human resources must be dedicated to this task Inappropriate or low-quality Seasonal Adjustment can generate misleading results and increase the probability of false signals (credibility effects) The presence of residual seasonality, as well as over-smoothing, are concrete risks which could negatively affect the interpretation of Seasonally Adjusted data unido.org/statistics Seasonal adjustment methods Model based method TRAMO/SEATS Filter based method X12-ARIMA unido.org/statistics TRAMO/ SEATS TRAMO (Time Series Regression with ARIMA Noise, Missing Observations and Outliers) and SEATS (Signal Extraction in ARIMA Time Series) developed by Victor Gómez and Agustin Maravall at Bank of Spain.
Language:English
Score: 780963.53 - https://www.unido.org/sites/de.../files/2014-07/UNIDO-SA_0.pptx
Data Source: un
Chapter 5: Setting and adjusting minimum wage levels: 5.2 How frequently should minimum wages be adjusted? (...) Most frequently, countries adjust their minimum wages once a year. Some countries, adjust rates every six months, while others have 2-years intervals. (...) What to do if there is high inflation? Yearly adjustments allow for predictability and smooth adjustments, and can be complemented by more frequent adjustments when inflation exceeds some threshold.
Language:English
Score: 776717.72 - www.ilo.org/moscow/area...WCMS_439254/lang--en/index.htm
Data Source: un
Chapter 5: Setting and adjusting minimum wage levels: 5.2 How frequently should minimum wages be adjusted? (...) Most frequently, countries adjust their minimum wages once a year. Some countries, adjust rates every six months, while others have 2-years intervals. (...) What to do if there is high inflation? Yearly adjustments allow for predictability and smooth adjustments, and can be complemented by more frequent adjustments when inflation exceeds some threshold.
Language:English
Score: 776717.72 - https://www.ilo.org/moscow/are...WCMS_439254/lang--en/index.htm
Data Source: un
Frequently Asked Questions - Inequality- adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) What is the purpose of the Inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI)? (...) Category: Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) How is the IHDI computed? (...) Category: Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) How should the IHDI be interpreted?
Language:English
Score: 776159.67 - https://www.undp.org/sites/g/f...P-TR-EN-HDR-2019-FAQS-IHDI.pdf
Data Source: un