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TECHNOLOGY AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT PANEL REPORT ON ASSESSMENT OF ALTERNATIVES TO HCFCS AND HFCS AND UPDATING OF DATA: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Nearly all air-cooled air conditioners and heat pumps manufactured prior to 2000 used HCFC-22 as their working fluid. 14. In the non-Article 5 countries, HFC refrigerants have been the dominant replacement for HCFC-22 in all categories of unitary air conditioners. The most widely used replacement is R-410A, a blend of two HFC refrigerants. (...) Hydrocarbons have been used in some very low charge applications; including lower capacity portable room units and split system air conditioners. 15. The transition away from HCFC-22 is nearly complete or well underway in most developed countries.
Language:English
Score: 1073706.4 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...EP/OZL.PRO/WORKSHOP.4/3&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSALS FOR AMENDMENTS TO THE MODEL REGULATIONS ON THE TRANSPORT OF DANGEROUS GOODS : MISCELLANEOUS : PACKING GROUP OF UN 3316 / TRANSMITTED BY THE EXPERT FROM GERMANY
When they are transported as a consignment, these substances shall be transported under the relevant entry of the Dangerous Goods List in Chapter 3.2 in accordance with the associated conditions of transport. 5.5.3.1.2 This section is not applicable to gases in cooling cycles. 5.5.3.1.3 Dangerous goods used for cooling or conditioning portable tanks during transport are not subject to this section. 5.5.3.1.4 Cargo transport units containing substances used for cooling or conditioning purposes include cargo transport units containing packages with substances used for cooling or conditioning purposes as well as cargo transport units with unpackaged substances used for cooling or conditioning purposes. 5.5.3.2 General 5.5.3.2.1 Cargo transport units containing substances used for cooling or conditioning purposes (other than fumigation) during transport are not subject to any provisions of these Regulations other than those of this section. 5.5.3.2.2 When dangerous goods are loaded in cooled or conditioned cargo transport units containing substances used for cooling or conditioning purposes any provisions of these Regulations relevant to these dangerous goods apply in addition to the provisions of this section. 5.5.3.2.3 For air transport, arrangements between consignor and operator shall be made for each consignment, to ensure that ventilation safety procedures are followed. 5.5.3.2.4 Persons engaged in the handling or transport of cooled or conditioned cargo transport units containing substances used for cooling or conditioning purposes shall be trained commensurate with their responsibilities. 5.5.3.3 Packages containing a coolant or conditioner 5.5.3.3.1 Packaged dangerous goods requiring cooling or conditioning assigned to packing instructions P203, P620, P650, P800, P901 or P904 shall meet the appropriate requirements of that packing instruction. 5.5.3.3.2 For packaged dangerous goods requiring cooling or conditioning assigned to other packing instructions the packages shall be capable of withstanding very low temperatures and shall not be affected or significantly weakened by the coolant or conditioner. (...) The dangerous goods shall be packed in such a way to prevent movement after the dissipation of any coolant or conditioner. ST/SG/AC.10/C.3/2012/53 3 U N /S C E T D G /3 7 /IN F .7 5.5.3.3.3 Packages containing a coolant or conditioner shall be transported in well ventilated cargo transport units. 5.5.3.4 Marking of packages containing a coolant or conditioner 5.5.3.4.1 Packages containing dangerous goods used for cooling or conditioning purposes shall be marked with the proper shipping name of these dangerous goods followed by the words "AS COOLANT" or "AS CONDITIONER" as appropriate. 5.5.3.4.2 The markings shall be durable, legible and placed in such a location and of such a size relative to the packaging as to be readily visible. 5.5.3.5 Cargo transport units containing unpackaged dry ice 5.5.3.5.1 If dry ice in unpackaged form is used, it shall not come into direct contact with the metal structure of a cargo transport unit to avoid embrittlement of the metal. (...) The warning mark shall include: (a) The word "WARNING" in red or white with lettering not less than 25 mm high; and (b) The proper shipping name followed by the words "AS COOLANT" or "AS CONDITIONER" as appropriate, shown below the symbol in black letters on a white background with lettering not less than 25 mm high.
Language:English
Score: 1072951.2 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...ST/SG/AC.10/C.3/2012/53&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
PROPOSAL OF AMENDMENT TO SECTION 5.5.3
When they are transported as a consignment, these substances shall be transported under the relevant entry of the Dangerous Goods List in Chapter 3.2 in accordance with the associated conditions of transport. 5.5.3.1.2 This section is not applicable to gases in cooling cycles. 5.5.3.1.3 Dangerous goods used for cooling, or conditioning or protecting portable tanks or MEGCs during transport are not subject to this section. 5.5.3.1.4 Cargo transport units containing substances used for cooling, or conditioning or protection purposes include cargo transport units containing ST/SG/AC.10/C.3/2017/21 3 substances used for cooling, or conditioning or protection purposes inside packages as well as cargo transport units with unpackaged substances used for cooling, or conditioning or protection purposes. 5.5.3.2 General 5.5.3.2.1 Cargo transport units containing substances used for cooling, or conditioning or protection purposes (other than fumigation) during transport are not subject to any provisions of these Regulations other than those of this section. 5.5.3.2.2 When dangerous goods are loaded in cargo transport units containing substances used for cooling, or conditioning or protection purposes any provisions of these Regulations relevant to these dangerous goods apply in addition to the provisions of this section. 5.5.3.2.3 For air transport, arrangements between consignor and operator shall be made for each consignment, to ensure that ventilation safety procedures are followed. 5.5.3.2.4 Persons engaged in the handling or transport of cargo transport units containing substances used for cooling, or conditioning or protection purposes shall be trained commensurate with their responsibilities. 5.5.3.3 Packages containing a coolant, or conditioner or protective agent 5.5.3.3.1 Packaged dangerous goods requiring cooling or conditioning assigned to packing instructions P203, P620, P650, P800, P901 or P904 of 4.1.4.1 shall meet the appropriate requirements of that packing instruction. 5.5.3.3.2 For packaged dangerous goods requiring cooling or conditioning assigned to other packing instructions, the packages shall be capable of withstanding very low temperatures and shall not be affected or significantly weakened by the coolant, or conditioner or protective agent. (...) The dangerous goods shall be packed in such a way as to prevent movement after the dissipation of any coolant, or conditioner or protective agent. 5.5.3.3.3 Packages containing a coolant, or conditioner or protective agent shall be transported in well ventilated cargo transport units. 5.5.3.4 Marking of packages containing a coolant, or conditioner or protective agent 5.5.3.4.1 Packages containing dangerous goods used for cooling, or conditioning or protection shall be marked with the proper shipping name of these dangerous goods followed by the words "AS COOLANT", or "AS CONDITIONER" or "AS PROTECTIVE AGENT" as appropriate. 5.5.3.4.2 The marks shall be durable, legible and placed in such a location and of such a size relative to the package as to be readily visible. 5.5.3.5 Cargo transport units containing unpackaged dry ice 5.5.3.5.1 If dry ice in unpackaged form is used, it shall not come into direct contact with the metal structure of a cargo transport unit to avoid embrittlement of the metal. (...) For example: CARBON DIOXIDE, SOLID. ** Insert "AS COOLANT" or "AS CONDITIONER" or "AS PROTECTIVE AGENT" as appropriate.
Language:English
Score: 1069164.1 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...ST/SG/AC.10/C.3/2017/21&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
Efficient lighting and appliance Project in Mexico https://www.facebook.com/UNIDO.HQ http://www.twitter.com/UNIDO https://www.youtube.com/user/UNIDObeta https://www.instagram.com/unido_newsroom/ https://www.flickr.com/photos/unido http://www.unido.org https://www.linkedin.com 3 Outcomes • Replacement of 1,884,129 inefficient appliances, approximately 90 % refrigerators and 10 % air conditioners. • The program also included a comprehensive ecological strategy to collect and then destroy the old appliances in specialized centers at which the refrigerant gases could be confined and the materials generated could be reuse.
Language:English
Score: 1067777.3 - https://www.unido.org/sites/de...ountryExperiences_Mexico_0.pdf
Data Source: un
NAECA 1987 EPAct 1992 EPAct 2005 EISA 2007 Refrigerator-freezers Fluorescent lamps Ceiling fan light kits Incandescent lamps Freezers Incandescent reflector lamps Dehumidifiers Additional motors (e.g. large) Room air conditioners Electric motors (1-200 hp) Compact fluorescent lamps Walk-in coolers and freezers Central AC & heat pumps Commercial AC & HP Torchiere lighting fixtures Metal halide lighting fixtures Furnaces & boilers Comm'l furnaces/boilers Large comm'l AC & HP External power supplies Water heaters Comm'l water heaters Comm'l clothes washers Furnace fans* Clothes washers Showerheads Distribution transformers Clothes dryers Faucet aerators Exit signs Dishwashers Toilets Comm'l ice makers Ranges & ovens Small electric motors* Comm'l refrigerators/freezers Direct-fired space heaters Mercury vapor lamp ballasts Pool heaters Traffic signals Fluorescent lamp ballasts Pre-rinse spray valves Comm'l unit heaters Battery chargers* Large comm'l refrigeration* * DOE rulemakings. (...) Standards Net Benefit ($Billion) 2000 2010 2020 2000 2010 2020 2000 2010 2020 2000 2010 2020 Thru 2030 1987 NAECA 8.0 40.9 45.2 0.21 0.55 0.61 1.4 14.9 16.5 3.7 10.0 10.1 46.3 1988 Ballasts 18.0 22.8 25.2 0.21 0.27 0.29 5.7 7.1 7.9 4.4 5.0 5.0 8.9 1989&91 NAECA updates 20.0 37.1 41.0 0.23 0.43 0.47 3.6 6.9 7.7 4.8 8.1 8.1 15.2 Enact Year Standards Electricity savings (TWh/yr) Primary energy savings (Quads/yr) Peak load reductions (GW) Carbon Reductions (MMT) 1989&91 NAECA updates 20.0 37.1 41.0 0.23 0.43 0.47 3.6 6.9 7.7 4.8 8.1 8.1 15.2 1992 EPAct (lamps, motors, etc) 42.0 110.3 121.9 0.59 1.51 1.67 10.1 26.2 28.9 11.8 27.5 27.9 84.2 1997 Refrigerator/freezer update 0.0 13.3 28.0 0.00 0.13 0.28 0.0 1.7 3.6 0.0 2.9 5.5 5.9 1997 Room Air Conditioner update 0.0 1.3 2.1 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.0 1.0 1.6 0.0 0.3 0.4 0.6 2000 Ballasts update 0.0 6.2 13.7 0.00 0.06 0.13 0.0 1.8 3.0 0.0 1.3 2.7 2.6 2001 Clothes Washer Update 0.0 8.0 22.6 0.00 0.11 0.28 0.0 1.3 6.1 0.0 2.2 5.4 15.3 2001 Water heater update 0.0 2.5 4.9 0.00 0.08 0.13 0.0 1.5 3.6 0.0 1.4 2.2 2.0 2001 Central AC&HP update 0.0 10.7 36.4 0.00 0.11 0.35 0.0 3.5 41.5 0.0 2.3 7.2 5.0 2005 EPAct 2005 0.0 14.7 53.0 0.00 0.21 0.65 0.0 5.8 23.9 0.0 3.7 11.5 47.5 TOTAL 88 268 394 1.2 3.5 4.9 21 72 144 25 65 86 234 % of projected U.S. use 2.5% 6.9% 9.1% 1.3% 3.1% 4.0% 2.8% 8.3% 15.1% 1.7% 3.6% 4.4% Source: ACEEE, “Leading the Way”, 2006 Commercial Building Codes in U.S. (~% savings relative to prior code) 20% 25% 30% 0% 5% 10% 15% 1989 1999 2004 2010 Long-term Annual Utility Electricity Saving Targets in the U.S.
Language:English
Score: 1065555.5 - https://www.un.org/esa/sustdev...entations/04_nadel_keynote.pdf
Data Source: un
PROPOSED ADJUSTMENTS TO THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL: NOTE BY THE SECRETARIAT
These “ banks” are contained mostly in refrigerators,1 stationary and mobile air conditioners (AC), thermal insulating foam, and stockpiles of new or recovered ODSs. (...) Establish safe disposal requirements to ensure removal of refrigerants from goods that enter the waste stream with the charge intact such as motor vehicle air conditioners, home refrigerators, and room air conditioners and/or make voluntary emissions of refrigerants an offense (e.g. (...) See UNEP, 2006 Report of the Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Technical Options Committee 2006 Assessment, (2006) (“RTOC 2006 Assessment Report”) at 2, available at http://ozone.unep.org/teap/Reports/RTOC/rtoc_assessment_report06.pdf. 10 See id.
Language:English
Score: 1061012.6 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...OZL.PRO.WG.1/28/3/ADD.1&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
PROPOSAL OF AMENDMENTS TO SECTION 5.5.3
ST/SG/AC.10/C.3/2017/46 4 ** Insert "AS COOLANT" or "AS CONDITIONER" or "AS PROTECTIVE AGENT" as appropriate. (...) The dangerous goods shall be packed in such a way as to prevent movement after the dissipation of any coolant or conditioner. 5.5.3.3.3 Packages containing a coolant or conditioner shall be transported in well ventilated cargo transport units. 5.5.3.4 Marking of packages containing a coolant or conditioner 5.5.3.4.1 Packages containing dangerous goods used for cooling or conditioning shall be marked with the proper shipping name of these dangerous goods followed by the words “AS COOLANT” or “AS CONDITIONER” as appropriate. 5.5.3.4.2 The marks shall be durable, legible and placed in such a location and of such a size relative to the package as to be readily visible. (...) For example: CARBON DIOXIDE, SOLID. ** Insert "AS COOLANT" or "AS CONDITIONER" or "AS PROTECTIVE AGENT" as appropriate.
Language:English
Score: 1057251.4 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...ST/SG/AC.10/C.3/2017/46&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
SUMMARY OF THE WORKSHOP ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES WHILE PHASING DOWN HYDROFLUOROCARBONS
The average energy efficiency of air conditioners currently on the market is less than half that of efficient products available in most markets, and one third that of the best available technology. (...) Some examples described were: (a) Reductions in cooling demand through such measures as ventilation cooling, improved building design, doors on retail display cases, and LED lighting (b) Improved thermodynamic performance of certain refrigeration cycles and refrigerants, including CO2 trans-critical systems for retail applications and R-290 for movable room air conditioners (c) Improved system components, such as inverter-driven compressors, electronic expansion valves, ejectors and new heat exchanger designs (d) Improved control systems at the product, system and building automation system levels. 17. (...) Some appliances, such as air conditioners, can be remotely controlled through smartphone applications to reduce or shift periods of peak demand.
Language:English
Score: 1056820.7 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...=UNEP/OZL.PRO.WG.1/40/6&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
SUMMARY OF THE WORKSHOP ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES WHILE PHASING DOWN HYDROFLUOROCARBONS
The average energy efficiency of air conditioners currently on the market is less than half that of efficient products available in most markets, and one third that of the best available technology. (...) Some examples described were: (a) Reductions in cooling demand through such measures as ventilation cooling, improved building design, doors on retail display cases, and LED lighting (b) Improved thermodynamic performance of certain refrigeration cycles and refrigerants, including CO2 trans-critical systems for retail applications and R-290 for movable room air conditioners (c) Improved system components, such as inverter-driven compressors, electronic expansion valves, ejectors and new heat exchanger designs (d) Improved control systems at the product, system and building automation system levels. 17. (...) Some appliances, such as air conditioners, can be remotely controlled through smartphone applications to reduce or shift periods of peak demand.
Language:English
Score: 1056820.7 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...OZL.PRO.WG.1/40/6/REV.1&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
SILVIA ESPÍNDOLA, UNDERSECRETARY OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ECUADOR, AT THE WORKSHOP ENTITLED “SOUTH-SOUTH COOPERATION FORTY YEARS SINCE BAPA: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES” (Buenos Aires, September 6, 2017) Excellencies, distinguished panelists, Since the Buenos Aires Plan of Action for Promoting and Implementing Technical Cooperation among developing countries (1978), South- South cooperation has been steadily gaining momentum and has shown encouraging trends. (...) As laid out in the Nairobi Outcome document, South-South Cooperation and its agenda have to be set by countries of the South and should continue to be guided by the principles of respect for national sovereignty, national ownership, and independence, equality, non- conditionality, non-interference in domestic affairs and mutual benefit. (...) Mr. Chair, The Buenos Aires Plan of Action (BAPA) + 40 to be held in 2019 represents an opportunity to enhance the current institutional arrangements to better support South-South cooperation and promote the South-South agenda and its principles.
Language:English
Score: 1055012.4 - https://www.un.org/ecosoc/site...revisado_25_agosto_2017_en.pdf
Data Source: un