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,CzechHospitals (16) Average Payback Cost Range (000’s) CountriesType (#) WHY WE USE DCA • Addresses insufficient donor funds by leveraging limited development assistance with private capital • Overcomes lender reluctance by reducing risk, increasing their willingness to extend loans • Addresses barriers to borrowers: reduced collateral requirements, increases size of loans • Well-suited for energy efficiency and renewable energy: short paybacks enable borrowers to repay 3 PROJECT IDENTIFICATION AND PREPARATION • USAID-funded technical assistance identifies projects and prepares technical and financial analyses • Important to get understanding, trust from borrower and lender • Requires additional development assistance funding SUCCESS STORY: BULGARIA DCA • Partner Bank: UBB • Partial Loan Guarantee Initially 50%, now 30% Leveraging started at 12:1, improved to 20:1, now 40:1 Reduced risk to lenders; reduced collateral requirements; increased size of loans; extended terms of loans 4 BULGARIA DCA RESULTS • Initial $10 lending facility 33 projects financed • 22 municipal, 11 industrial Annual savings: 400 GWh electricity; 1.419 TJ fuel and thermal; and 530,000 tons CO2 100% repayment rate (vs. pre-DCA default rate of 4.5% among total loan portfolio) Maximum terms: 5 years municipal, 10 years industrial (vs. 1-3 years non-DCA) TA <10% of loan amounts • Additional $10 million (revolving) now in place BULGARIA DCA ACCOMPLISHMENTS • For years, DCA was the only lending source for energy efficiency of any sort. • DCA was only source of municipal loans. Demonstrated right and ability to borrow Established right to borrow beyond electoral term • DCA opened the market for small loans Average loan: $250,000 39% of loans <$100,000 Only 12% of loans >$500,000; 6% >$1 million • Paved the way for BEEF, EBRD, other IFIs 5 OTHER COUNTRIES WITH DCA FACILITIES • Ukraine: UkrSib Bank, Nadra Bank -- $3 million • Kazahstan: Kazkommertsbank (KKB) -- $15 million • Georgia -- $3 million • Macedonia – ~$12 million (under development) Critical Success Factors • Lending environment – Niche banking markets – Tariff and bill-paying discipline; consumption-based billing • Lender commitment, motivation • Legal, creditworthy borrowers • Good project preparation meeting lender’s needs 6 Sustainable Project Preparation • Phase I: Donor-funded TA (<10% of loan amount) • Phase II: Include costs in loan repayment – Initial TA paid as part of borrower’s share • Phase III: ESCO includes as part of comprehensive turn-key package Future Challenges • Lending to ESCOs • Residential energy efficiency lending • Concerns: Creditworthiness, lack of borrowing history • Requires innovative approaches • Other innovative financing tools – PEPSEI – Pooled finance 7 Contact Information Mr.
Language:English
Score: 942472 - https://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/csd/csd15/lc/usaid_europe.pdf
Data Source: un
UN launches African repo market in bid to lower borrowing costs | Financial Times 03/11/2021 16:20UN launches African repo market in bid to lower borrowing costs | Financial Times Page 1 sur 4https://www.ft.com/content/0c5c2e7f-32e9-4e91-9fca-fab9d5ff59b7 Vera Songwe of UNECA: ‘Cash is king, and you don’t get cash very fast from a lot of African bonds. (...) Vera Songwe, executive secretary of UNECA, said the launch of a repo market for African debt would make it more attractive to investors, lowering borrowing costs for governments. “Cash is king, and you don’t get cash very fast from a lot of African bonds,” she said. (...) “African governments have historically faced a high cost of borrowing” said Mohamed Maait, Egypt’s finance minister and Ken Ofori-Atta, Ghana’s finance minister, in a joint statement.
Language:English
Score: 941090.6 - https://www.uneca.org/sites/de...sts%20%20Financial%20Times.pdf
Data Source: un
Other reasons behind the recent surge in borrowing by African countries, according to the IMF, are changes in the institutional environment, such as more flexibility for low-income countries with access to non-concessional borrowing, reduced debt burdens, large borrowing needs and historically low borrowing costs. (...) The sovereign Eurobonds carry significantly higher borrowing costs than concessional debt, Stiglitz notes. He worries about “excessive borrowing” over the long term, which benefits only the banks because they “take their fees up front.”
Language:English
Score: 938340.2 - https://www.un.org/africarenew...e/april-2014/hunting-eurobonds
Data Source: un
It reports on the adequacy of the current level of the WCF and on the appropriation of the level of the borrowing authority as requested by the Assembly in Resolving Clause 2 of A35-28. (...) The continuation of the borrowing authority has been provided for in Resolving Clause 2 d) of Assembly Resolution A35-28. It has not been necessary to use this borrowing authority as there were sufficient funds on hand. 4.2 ICAO’s only other potential source of funds, excluding commercial borrowing, is miscellaneous income, surplus of other Special Funds and Accounts.
Language:English
Score: 937166.3 - https://www.icao.int/Meetings/...ers%20by%20Number/wp048_en.pdf
Data Source: un
Loans WTO Secretariat staff can borrow up to five items simultaneously for periods of one month per loan. Loans are made directly through the Library, under the name of the staff member Member and Observer delegates can borrow up to five items simultaneously for periods of one month per loan. (...) Categories of users not listed above may not borrow items from the WTO Library. Transferring a loan is not permitted.
Language:English
Score: 931300.2 - https://www.wto.org/english/re.../library_e/using_library_e.htm
Data Source: un
Class, gender and indebtedness in Ecuador’s credit market Available in: English Español Who borrows to accumulate assets? Class, gender and indebtedness in Ecuador’s credit market August 2017 | Regular Publications, Reviews and Bulletins » CEPAL Review Economic development Social development Author: Deere, Carmen Diana - Catanzarite, Zachary B. (...) Specifically, we discuss how the sources of credit and the purposes of borrowing may help perpetuate inequality. In Ecuador, the asset-poor are more likely than the asset-rich to borrow from the informal sector for expense purposes and to have higher debt-to-net-wealth ratios. We also investigate the correlates of borrowing by men and women to acquire assets and show that the main factor associated with holding asset debt for both men and women is having a formal savings account.
Language:English
Score: 931114.1 - https://www.cepal.org/en/publi...d-indebtedness-ecuadors-credit
Data Source: un
At timely repayment the borrower receives a larger amount. The advantages of step lending for the borrower are the lower interest and manageable redemption rates. (...) The net margin of the bank per borrower is 95€ respectively 4,750€ for all 50 borrowers. (...) The risk premium is 250€ per remaining borrower. The loss is 5,000€ for every delinquent borrower.
Language:English
Score: 927761.7 - https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/gro...ts/publication/wcms_117965.pdf
Data Source: un
Collateral is an asset pledged by a borrower to a lender until a loan is paid back. If the borrower defaults, then the lender has the right to seize the collateral and sell it to pay off the loan. (...) In other instances, borrowers "in the informal markets provide . . . real guarantees for their loans (physical collateral) often up to 200% of the amount borrowed" (Bailey, p. 3). (...) The pledge in a collateral arrangement means that the borrower could lose part of his property if he does not pay back; the borrower has an interest in paying back.
Language:English
Score: 925228.3 - https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/gro...ts/publication/wcms_117987.pdf
Data Source: un
On the other hand, the peak borrowing during 2011/12 reached $93 million in September 2011, compared to a peak of $47.5 million during 2010/11. A more detailed picture of the cross-borrowing is presented in Annexes II and III of the report. (...) This amount, combined with the $41.5 million borrowed by active missions as at 30 June 2011, can provide $69.1 million of cross-borrowing capacity to manage cash shortfalls in active peacekeeping operations.
Language:English
Score: 923540.3 - https://www.un.org/en/ga/fifth...osed%20PKOs_ASG_Controller.pdf
Data Source: un
Borrow Books & More | United Nations Skip to main content Toggle navigation Welcome to the United Nations العربية 中文 English Français हिन्दी Português Русский Español Kiswahili Dag Hammarskjöld Library Toggle navigation About » Contact Us Our Activities Our Mandate & History Our Collections UN Depository Libraries Library News Research the UN » UN Resources & Documents UN Digital Library Index to Proceedings Linked Data Services Research Guides Speeches Voting Information UN Member States on the Record Find » Articles, Books & More Databases Journals UN Resources & Documents UN Libraries Help » Training Research Guides Ask DAG Services for... » Delegates UN Staff Researchers & Librarians General Public Using the Library » Access Electronic Resources Borrow Books & More Print, Scan & Copy Request Articles, Books & Documents Visit the Library Open Science Conference 2021 Contact Us » Contact Us Search: Search:  Search for: Books, articles and more in DAG Discovery (this search will open in a new window) UN documents and publications in the United Nations Digital Library (this search will open in a new window) Borrow Books & More Borrow books and more | UN/John Gillespie Who can borrow books from the Dag Hammarskjöld Library? Employees of the Permanent Missions, UN staff, interns, and consultants may borrow up to 10 items at the time. Circulating items can be checked out for 28 days. (...) Some materials may have shorter loan periods or may not be borrowed at all. Clients are permitted, however, to make photocopies of the following non-circulating items: UN documents Reference materials League of Nations & Woodrow Wilson Collections materials Anyone with a valid UN pass (including NGOs and media) can consult books, journals, official documents, or any other material on the library premises.
Language:English
Score: 873310.45 - https://www.un.org/en/library/page/borrow-books-more
Data Source: un