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District Head of Holding:………………………………… Constituency Community Council Holding No………… Zone PSU Season (Winter = W, Summer = S) List of all livestock owned by the household CATTLE Male Female Total Calves under 1 year Calves 1 but under 2 years Cattle 2 years and over ALL CATTLE SHEEP Male Female Total Lambs under 1 year Sheep 1 year and over ALL SHEEP GOATS Male Female Total Kids under 1 year Goats 1 year and over ALL GOATS PIGS Total Pigs under 6 months Pigs 6 months and over - of which breeding soars - of which other pigs ALL PIGS Number of Litters during the last 6 months Details of litters for each Pig during the last six months Pig No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 No. of Litters This information is confidential according to the Statistics Act of 2001 Page 2 List of all livestock owned by the household Details of Lactation and Calving intervals for each cow milked at household’s Cattle Post Cow no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Months milked Calving interval (in months) HORSES Male Female Total Horses under 1 year Horses 1 but under 2 years Horses 2 years and over ALL HORSES DONKEYS Male Female Total Donkeys under 1 year Donkeys 1 to under 2 years Donkeys 2 years and over ALL DONKEYS 2 yrs and above COWS, OXEN AND BULLS Cows Oxen/Pholo Bulls/Poho Kept mainly for draught Kept mainly for meat Kept mainly for milk Kept mainly for draught & milk TOTAL 1 YR AND ABOVE RAMS AND HAMMEL Rams Hammels TOTAL Number MILK PRODUCTION Numbers of cows milked Milk produced In litres Milk Sold to Lesotho Dairy(lt) Yesterday Day before yesterday Details of Lactation and Calving intervals for each cow milked at household’s home Cow no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Months milked Calving interval (in months) Page 3 List of all livestock owned by the household Chicken and Poultry Number Improved Number of Eggs produced last 3 days Broilers Grower Pullets Laying Hens Number of dogs Others Total Improved Number of mules Unimproved Koekoeks Number of cats Laying Hens Others Total Unimproved Mortality during past six months CATTLE Male Female Total Under 1 year of which - Weaned before death - Unweaned before death 1 to under 2 years at death 2 years and over at death Total number died SHEEP Male Female Total Under 6 months of which -Weaned before death -Unweaned before death 6 months to 1 year at death 1 year and over at death Total number died GOATS Male Female Total Under 6 months of which - Weaned before death - Unweaned before death 6 months to 1 year at death 1 year and over at death Total number died Page 4 Stock changes during past six months No. at beginning of ……… Cattle Sheep Goats Horses Donkeys Pigs INCREASES Purchased: Imported Domestic Purchased: Total Number born Mafisad, Lobolad in etc TOTAL INCREASE DECREASES ) Deaths due to disease: Imported Domestic Total disease Deaths due to other causes TOTAL DEATHS Stolen (theft) Slaughtered Sold: Exported Domestic Bartered, Lobolad out, etc TOTAL DECREASE No. at end of …………..
Language:English
Score: 1728116.6 - https://www.fao.org/fileadmin/..._AC_10_LIVESTOCK_INVENTORY.pdf
Data Source: un
GUIDANCE DOCUMENT ON CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR PREVENTING AND ABATING EMISSIONS OF AMMONIA / SUBMITTED BY THE CHAIRMAN OF THE EXPERT GROUP ON AMMONIA ABATEMENT
chopped straw, peat, bark, LECA balls, etc.) (Cat. 2) 40 Concrete or steel tanks and silos. (...) Ammonia emissions of different cattle housing systems (reference systems and category 1 and 2 techniques) Housing type Reduction (%) c/ Ammonia emission (kg/cow place/year) Cubicle house (reference 1) 0 11 Tied systema/ (reference 2) 60 4.4 Grooved floor (cat. 1) 25 8.3 Solid manure, sloped floor or deep litter system [with sufficient amount of straw (5–6 kg/cow/day] (cat. 2) b/ 30 7.5 a/ Tied systems are not favoured for animal welfare reasons. (...) It may be applied in conjunction with (automatically) controlled naturally-ventilated housing systems, where straw would allow the animals to control the temperature themselves, thus requiring less energy for ventilation and heating. In systems where litter is used, the pen is divided into a dunging area (without litter) and a littered solid floor area.
Language:English
Score: 1583566.2 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...ECE/EB.AIR/WG.5/2007/13&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
CONTROL OPTIONS/TECHNIQUES FOR PREVENTING AND ABATING EMISSIONS OF REDUCED NITROGEN / PREPARED BY A GROUP OF DESIGNATED EXPERTS LED BY THE UNITED KINGDOM
Not on etc.) farms with frequent (CAT 2) slurry spreading Natural crust Cattle 35 Not on farms with (CAT 2) frequent slurry spreading Replacement of All 14.5 lagoons, etc. with covered tanks (CAT 2) Emission reductions are agreed best estimates of what might be a chievablea/ across UN/ECE. (...) Traditionally, broilers are kept in buildings with a solid fully littered floor. To prevent ammonia emission it is important to keep the litter as dry as possible. (...) Reduction in ammonia emissions from different poultry systems relative to reference* E x t r a Extra Code Housing type Reduction (%) Ammonia emission (g/animal place/ year) i n v e s t - Costs m e n t s (ECU (ECU/ poultry/ p o u l t r y year) place) Laying hens a Dry manure 1 Deep pi t, tilt house and canal Reference 386 Reference Reference system 2 Manure belt with forced drying 80 85 -/- -/- 3 Manure belt with forced drying 35 90 -/- -/- with sealed storage Free ange system 4 Barn housing (slatted floor) 20 315 0.56 0.26 5 Aviary manure belt force d 90 75 0.50 0.25 drying by ventilation b Wet manure 6 Open manure storage under th e 83 85 -/- -/- cage (flat deck, stair step , compact battery) with o r without scraper 7 Removal of manure at leas t 90 35 0.09 -/- twice a week to a close d storage (manure belt) Broilers 1 Traditional (Litter) Reference 50 Reference Reference 2 Fl oating floor with drying of 90 5 3.82 0.15 litter (CAT. 2) 3 Perforated floor with force d 85 14 4.64 - NL 0.10 - NL drying of litter (CAT. 2) 3.71 - UK 0.56 - UK * Emissions refer to experience in the Netherlands.
Language:English
Score: 1489215.4 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...&DS=EB.AIR/WG.6/1998/10&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
GE.12-24740 Eco
ECE/EB.AIR/2012/L.9 3 Annex Draft guidance document for preventing and abating ammonia emissions from agricultural sources List of abbreviations and acronyms ACNV Automatically controlled natural ventilation ATMS Application Timing Management Systems AU Animal units BAT Best available techniques BMPs Best management practices BNF Biological nitrogen fixation BREF Best available technique reference document CLRTAP Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution °C Celsius degree C/A Cation-to-anion ratio Ca Calcium CaCl2 Calcium chloride CaCO3 Calcium carbonate Ca(NO3)2 Calcium nitrate CaSO4 Calcium sulphate (gypsum) CAPEX Capital expenditure Cat. Category CH4 Methane CO Carbon Mono-oxide CO2 Carbon Di-oxide CP Crude protein DM Dry matter DON Dissolved organic nitrogen € Euro EMEP European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme under the CLRTAP EU European Union Fe Iron FNEV Fertilizer nitrogen equivalence values FYM Farm-yard manure ECE/EB.AIR/2012/L.9 4 GHG Greenhouse Gases Ha Hectare HCl Hydrochloric acid H2S Hydrogen sulphide H2SO4 Sulphuric acid IPPC Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive (2008/1/EC) IED Industrial Emissions Directive (2010/75/EU) Kg Kilogramme LECA Light expanded clay aggregates Mg Magnesium mg/l Milligramme per litre mm Millimetre MUN Milk urea nitrogen N Nitrogen N2 Di-nitrogen NH3 Ammonia NH3-N Ammonia nitrogen NH4 Ammonium NH4NO3 Ammonium-nitrate NO3 Nitrate NOx Nitrogen oxides N2O Nitrous oxide Nsurplus Nitrogen surplus of the input-output balance sheet NSP Non-starch polysaccharides NPK Nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium NUE Nitrogen Use Efficiency OPEX Operational expenditure O2 Oxygen P Phosphorus pH ~acidity; negative logarithm of proton (H+) activity. (...) For animal housing, abating NH3 emissions is based on one or more of the following principles: (a) decreasing the surface area fouled by manure; (b) rapid removal of urine; rapid separation of faeces and urine; (c) decreasing of the air velocity and temperature above the manure; (d) reducing the pH and temperature of the manure; (e) drying manure (esp. poultry litter); (f) removing (scrubbing) NH3 from exhaust air; and (g) increased grazing time.
Language:English
Score: 1486310.7 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...&DS=ECE/EB.AIR/2012/L.9&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
CONTROL OPTIONS/TECHNIQUES FOR PREVENTING AND ABATING EMISSIONS OF REDUCED NITROGEN COMPOUNDS
(straw, Not on farms peat, bark, with frequent LECA balls, slurry etc.) spreading (CAT. 2) Natural Cattle 35 - 50 Not on farms 0.00 crust with frequent (CAT. 2) slurry spreading Replacement All 14.9 of lagoon, (cost of tank etc. with 6.94) covered tank (CAT. 2) Emission reductions are agreed best estimates of what might bea achievable across UN/ECE. (...) In one Dutch system (“floating floo r system”), the litter is aerated by forcing air under the clot h (“ floating”) floor and the manure and litter. (...) Reduction in ammonia emissions from different poultr y systems relative to reference* Syst Housing type Reductio Ammonia Extra Extra em n (%) emission Investme costs (g/anima nts l costs place/ye (ECU/ ar) poultry place) (ECU poultry /place/ year) Laying hens a Dry manure 1 Referenc 386 Referenc ReferencDeep pit, and canal system e e e Belt systems without drying 60 150 2 Manure belt wi th forced drying 80 85 -/- 0.68 - and outside storage UK 3 Manure belt wi th forced drying 90 35 -/- 0.68 - with sealed storage UK Free range system NL to provide data 4 Barn housing (slatted floor) 20 315 0.56 0.26 - NL 5 90 75 0.50 0.25 -Aviary manure belt force d drying by ventilation NL b Wet manure 6 Open manure storage under th e 83 85 -/- -/- cage (flat deck, stair step , compact battery) with o r without scraper 7 Removal of manure at leas t 90 35 0.09 -/- twice per week to a close d storage (manure belt) Broilers 1 Traditional (Litter) Referenc 50 Referenc Referenc e e e 2 Flo ating floor with drying o f 90 5 3.82 0.15 - litter (CAT. 2) NL 3 Perforated floor with force d 85 14 4.64 - 0.10 - drying of litter (CAT. 2) [doesn’t NL NL Air circulation in house Air circulation in pit agree 3.71 - 0.09 - with UK UK g/yr.] 0.39 - UK 0.22 - UK * Emissions refer to experience in the Netherlands.
Language:English
Score: 1485627.1 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...n&DS=EB.AIR/WG.5/1999/8&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
GUIDANCE ON PREVENTING ABATING AMMONIA EMISSIONS
Mitigation options (category 1) for reducing ammonia emissions from urea-based fertilizers 59 Figure Relationship between the percentage of TAN emitted as NH3 during the land application of slurry and the DM content (DM% weight) of the slurry, according to six estimates .......... 50 ECE/EB.AIR/120 4 List of abbreviations and acronyms °C Degree Celsius ACNV Automatically controlled natural ventilation ATMS Application timing management systems AU Animal units BAT Best available techniques BNF Biological nitrogen fixation BREF Best available technique reference document C Carbon Ca Calcium CaCl2 Calcium chloride CaCO3 Calcium carbonate Ca(NO3)2 Calcium nitrate CaSO4 Calcium sulphate (gypsum) CAPEX Capital expenditure Cat. Category CH4 Methane cm Centimetre CO2 Carbon dioxide CP Crude protein DM Dry matter DON Dissolved organic nitrogen ECE United Nations Economic Commission for Europe EU European Union FNEV Fertilizer nitrogen equivalence values FYM Farm-yard manure g gram ha Hectare IPPC Integrated pollution prevention and control kg Kilogramme LECA Light expanded clay aggregates Mg Magnesium mm Millimetre MUN Milk urea nitrogen N Nitrogen ECE/EB.AIR/120 5 N2 Di-nitrogen NH3 Ammonia NH3-N Ammonia-nitrogen NH4 Ammonium NH4NO3 Ammonium-nitrate NO3 Nitrate NOx Nitrogen oxides N2O Nitrous oxide Nsurplus Nitrogen surplus of the input-output balance sheet NSP Non-starch polysaccharides NPK Nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium NUE Nitrogen use efficiency OPEX Operational expenditure P Phosphorus pH ~acidity; negative logarithm of proton (H+) activity PM2.5 Fine particulate matter ( 2.5 micrometre) PM10 Coarse particulate matter (10 micrometre) Ref. (...) For animal housing, abating NH3 emissions is based on one or more of the following principles: (a) Decreasing the surface area fouled by manure; (b) Rapid removal of urine; rapid separation of faeces and urine; (c) Decreasing the air velocity and temperature above the manure; (d) Reducing the pH and temperature of the manure; (e) Drying manure (especially poultry litter); (f) Removing (scrubbing) NH3 from exhaust air; (g) Increasing grazing time. 8.
Language:English
Score: 1472810.7 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...?open&DS=ECE/EB.AIR/120&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR PREVENTING AND ABATING EMISSIONS OF AMMONIA
Traditionally, broilers are kept in buildings with a solid, fully littered floor. This is taken as the reference. To prevent ammonia emission it is important to keep the litter as dry as possible. (...) floating floor system"), the litter is aerated by forcing air under the cloth (? (...) Reduction in ammonia emissions from different poultry systems relative to reference*/ Code Housing type Reduction Ammonia emission Extra Extra costs (%) (g/animal investment (Euros/ place/year) costs poultry/ (Euros/poultry/ place/year place Laying hens a Dry manure 1 Deep pit and canal Reference 386 Reference Reference system Belt systems 60 150 without drying 2 Manure belt with 80 85 -/- 0.68 - UK forced drying and outside storage 3 Manure belt with 90 35 -/- 0.68 - UK forced drying with sealed storage Free-range system 20 315 0.56 0.26 - NL 4 Barn housing 20 315 0.56 0.26 - NL (slatted floor) 5 Aviary manure belt 90 75 0.50 0.25 - NL forced drying by ventilation b Wet manure 6 Open manure storage 83 85 -/- -/- under the cage (flat deck, stair step, compact battery) with or without scraper 7 Removal of manure 90 35 0.09 -/- at least twice per week to a closed storage (manure belt) EB.AIR/WG.5/1999/8/Rev.1 page 26 Broilers 1 Traditional Reference 50 Reference Reference (litter) 2 Floating floor with 90 5 3.82 0.15 - NL drying of litter (Cat. 2) 3 Perforated floor 85 14 4.64 - NL 0.10 - NL with forced drying 3.71 - UK 0.09 - UK of litter (Cat. 2) Air circulation in 0.39 - UK house Air circulation in 0.22 - UK pit */ Emissions refer to experience in the Netherlands.
Language:English
Score: 1455777.3 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...B.AIR/WG.5/1999/8/REV.1&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
UNEP AND THE MARINE LITTER MARINE LITTER UNEP/GPA & UNEP/RS Marine Litter Definition: – ‘any persistent, manufactured or processed solid material discarded, disposed of, or abandoned in the marine and coastal environment’ Source: Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities (adopted in Washington DC, 1995) Marine Litter Quantities: the total input of Marine Litter into the oceans and seas worldwide is estimated at - 6.4 Million tonnes per year - 8 Million items every day 13,000 pieces of plastic on every square km Marine Litter Characteristics: • Consistency: variety of plastics (90-95%), metals and glass • Mobility: travels huge distances around the world with ocean currents and winds • Persistency: long-lived and active for decades • Effects: a threat to marine life and humans, directly and indirectly • Impact: entails economic losses to fishermen, coastal communities, boat owners, tourism, etcetera Marine Litter Distribution: • in the water column being transported horizontally and vertically mostly floating on or close to the water surface (90%) are light plastics, or related polymers items • on the seabed heavier components at all depths, 70 % ends up on the seabed (15 % on the beaches, 15 % floating) • on beaches, shores deposited worldwide Marine Litter has affected all parts of the world’s seas and oceans ! Marine Litter • Sea-based sources: – Merchant shipping, ferries and cruise liners – Fishing vessels and fish farming – Naval vessels and research ships – Pleasure craft – Offshore oil and gas platforms – Ghost fishing • Land-based sources: – Waste from municipal landfills located on the coast or by river transport – Discharge of untreated municipal sewage and storm water – Industrial facilities – Tourism and beach-going leftovers Threats to marine life: • Entanglement • Ingestion • Destruction or smothering of the seabed, incl. coral reefs and seagrasses • Transportation of invasive species Marine Litter Other damages: • Affecting pristine habitats • Contamination of beaches • Damage to peoples health and safety risks • Injury to cattle grazing in coastal areas • Contamination of harbours and marinas • Damage to fishing vessels and gear • Damage to power stations and desalination plants Marine Litter Marine Litter Report May 2005: Joint study of UNEP and partners: “An Analytical Overview of the Sustainable Management of Marine Litter” • Compilation on the current status, problems and threats associated with Marine Litter • Examples of international, regional and national legal instruments and policies for the sustainable management of Marine Litter Marine Litter Trend: • Worldwide inputs of Marine Litter into the oceans are increasing, despite international, regional and national efforts Causative factors: • A lack of international legal instruments • Increasing deficiencies in implementation and enforcement of existing regulations and standards • Lack of awareness among main stakeholders and the general public Relevant Conventions and Agreements • MARPOL 73/78 Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (Annex V) • London Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Dumping of Wastes • Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal • Agenda 21, Johannesburg Plan of Implementation • Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities • Convention on Biological Diversity, with the Jakarta Mandate • Convention on Migratory Species • FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries Marine Litter Marine Litter Some (UNEP) Regional Seas Initiatives: • Mediterranean (MAP) > guidelines > recent assessment: importance of, e.g., coastal cities, lack of relevant policies • Caribbean region (AMEP, SPAW) > management plan, special attention to SIDS • North West Pacific (NOWPAP) > Joint initiative under development (IGM 9) • Black Sea: Development Regional Action Plan • South Asian Seas (SACEP) • South Pacific (SPREP) etcetera GPA and Marine Litter GPA recognizes Marine Litter as an important marine pollution category to be addressed GPA Objectives on Marine Litter: - to establish controlled and environmentally sound facilities for receiving, collecting, handling and disposing of litter from coastal area communities - to reduce significantly the amount of litter reaching the marine and coastal environment by the prevention or reduction of the generation of solid waste and improvements in its management, including collection and recycling of litter Actions proposed: national, regional and international GPA is mainly implemented through the Regional Seas Programme 2nd IGR meeting on GPA Beijing, China: 16 – 20 October 2006 • Could be a venue to review progress in addressing marine litter, or strengthening partnerships • Will consist, among others, of a ministerial and a partnership segment Marine Litter Report May 2005: Recommendations Awareness raising A series of national, regional and global activities aimed at controlling, reducing and abating the problems associated with Marine Litter Creating regional partnerships, engaging all relevant stakeholders MARINE LITTER Marine Litter Marine Litter Marine Litter Marine Litter Marine Litter Marine Litter Marine Litter Marine Litter Marine Litter Marine Litter Marine Litter GPA and Marine Litter 2nd IGR meeting on GPA Marine Litter
Language:English
Score: 1272472.4 - https://www.un.org/Depts/los/c...process/documents/6_guchte.pdf
Data Source: un
OSPAR_MEETING_DOCUMENT _______________________________________________________________________________________________ OSPAR Commission OSPAR 14/21/1-E, Annex 4 OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic OSPAR Regional Action Plan for Prevention and Management of Marine Litter in the North-East Atlantic Summary: OSPAR Ministers had highlighted in 2010 the importance of the problem of marine litter, stating that in many areas of the North-East Atlantic levels of litter were unacceptable. (...) The actions have been grouped in four themes: A. the reduction of litter from sea-based sources and B. the reduction of litter from land-based sources, C. the removal of existing litter from the marine environment and D. education and outreach on the topic of marine litter.  Section III describes the necessary monitoring and assessment process.  Section IV outlines how the plan will be implemented and followed up by OSPAR. (...) See: http://www.ospar.org/work-areas/eiha/marine-litter/regional-action-plan http://www.ospar.org/work-areas/eiha/marine-litter/regional-action-plan _______________________________________________________________________________________________ OSPAR Commission OSPAR 14/21/1-E, Annex 4 OSPAR Action on Marine Litter: The OSPAR Regional Action Plan for Prevention and Management of Marine Litter in the North-East Atlantic.
Language:English
Score: 1261178.7 - https://www.un.org/Depts/los/g...on_to_ICP_on_marine_debris.pdf
Data Source: un
Global distribution, composition and abundance of marine litter. In Marine anthropogenic litter (pp. 29-56). (...) Actions and activities With support from UNEP’s Global Partnership on Marine Litter, COBSEA produced two documents on marine litter: 1) Regional Review – Marine Litter in the East Asian Seas Region, and 2) COBSEA Regional Action Plan on Marine Litter (RAP-MALI). (...) In recent years, NOWPAP has published the following reports related to marine litter: a) Regional overview of marine litter in the NOWPAP region24. b) Negative impacts of marine litter in the NOWPAP region: case studies25. c) Regional report on sea based marine litter in the NOWPAP region26. ii.
Language:English
Score: 1259270.7 - https://www.un.org/Depts/los/g...on_to_ICP_on_marine_debris.pdf
Data Source: un