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Because they remain important tools to plan instruction, these taxonomies are discussed below [8, 9]. 2.3 The Cognitive Domain Bloom’s cognitive domain arranges mental activity into six levels: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. (...) Use e-learning as self-instruction for cognitive objectives, for a larger, dispersed population. (...) Use self-instruction offered through mobile learning for a dispersed population that needs performance support, especially for cognitive objectives. 11. Use e-learning (self-instruction) for a larger population, for cognitive objectives.
Language:English
Score: 863443.2 - https://www.icao.int/training/...Training%20Taxonomy%202016.pdf
Data Source: un
DISTRACTED DRIVING
Several studies1,2 have identified three main types of distraction: visual distractions (driver’s eyes off the road), manual distractions (driver’s hands off the wheel) and, cognitive distractions (driver’s mind off the driving task). (...) However, even in this case some national laws provide for driver’s liability in the event of an accident (i.e. cognitive distraction). 3. Nowadays, distracted driving has become synonymous-both in terms of frequency and media attention-with driving while using nomadic devices.
Language:English
Score: 860854.4 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...S=ECE/TRANS/WP.1/2016/1&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
UNICEF/ZAMBIA/2016/Schermbrucker Highlights The first years of a child’s life are crucial for their cognitive, emotional, social, behavioural, and physical development. (...) Further, it is widely agreed that children’s cognitive competencies develop though everyday activities such as farming and fishing. (...) A number of respondents identified the relationship between nutrition and cognitive development, even identifying specific foods that stimulate intellectual growth.
Language:English
Score: 859402.5 - https://www.unicef.org/zambia/...nd-child-care-practices-zambia
Data Source: un
To thrive is to develop – to our potential ‒ those capacities that make us human • Vertical strength, mobility and speed • Fine-motor dexterity • Communication and language • Emotional understanding, empathy • Cognitive skills, faculties for maths, logic, etc. • And, MOST IMPORTANT, the ability to identify with and learn from other human beings (which is why the quality of caregiving is so critical) Children survive and thrive when, a.o. … • Pregnancy is wanted, healthy and protected • Birth is safe • Women have education and autonomy • And they have the support of partners and family • Families have the means to afford necessities • They are protected from disease and violence • And they can access health and other services • Children have opportunities and are encouraged to learn Both survival and development are under threat when risks substantially outweigh protection Protection needs to outweigh risks Protection > risks Risks > protection Protection increases and risks decline through early intervention The importance of early intervention Important to intervene early because … • Young children’s development is extremely rapid • Genetic capacities adapt to the foetal and infant environment • Development is hierarchical with complex capacities built on basic abilities • Emerging brain and other organ systems are vulnerable to impairment • Brain plasticity and the ability to change behaviour decrease over time • Disadvantages emerge early and differences widen • We have effective interventions, and • There is a high cost associated with inaction Extremely rapid development … E.g., brain development from conception to birth E.g., synaptic development from birth to 6y Neurogenesis, neuronal migration, differentiation, apoptosis, arborization, synaptogenesis, synaptic sculpting, myelination Disadvantages emerge early, and grow… C um ul at iv e Vo ca bu la ry (W or ds ) 1200 600 200 16 mos. 24 mos. 36 mos. Child’s Age (Months) Source: Hart & Risley 1995 800 1000 400 Children of Parents in Poverty Children of Lower Middle Class Children of College Educated Effective interventions to promote survival, growth, health and development We have effective interventions • Reviewed in, amongst others: – Child survival (Lancet 2003) – Child survival, growth & development (WHO 2004) – Maternal survival (Lancet 2006) – Child development (Lancet 2007, 2011) – Maternal, newborn and child care (Lancet 2007) – Maternal and child nutrition (Lancet 2008, 2013) – Countdown to 2015 (Lancet 2013) – Women deliver (Lancet 2013) – Every newborn (Lancet 2014) • Interventions to promote child survival, health and growth also promote child development – but not usually with intention We have effective interventions that promote child development and are/can be integrated into child survival, growth and health programmes Including • Facility, home and community programmes to: – Promote child nutrition and development – Provide opportunities for young children to learn – Address maternal depression and promote mental health Interventions to promote child wellbeing (growth and development) • Low & middle income countries • 11 RCTs, 2non-RCT trials, 8 program evaluations • Stimulation programs benefit children’s development • Nutrition programs benefit children’s nutrition • Combining stimulation and nutrition is important 2014 Opportunities for children to learn • Adapted WHO/UNICEF Care for Child Development • Integrated into the Lady Health Worker Programme in Pakistan • Children in the ‘responsive stimulation’ condition had significantly higher motor, cognitive and language scores at 2y The Lancet 17 June 2014 Address maternal depression • Prevalence around 30% in LMICs1 • Maternal depression associated with: – Threats to maternal and child health (LBW, substance use, access to services, chronic conditions)2 – Poor growth among children3, behaviour problems and delayed development1 • Successfully treated by: – Social support (Taiwan, Pakistan) – Group therapy (Uganda) – Home visits by CHWs (Jamaica) – Improving mother-infant interaction (South Africa)1,2 Early interventions can have long- term benefits in LMICs ‒ nutrition • Children who received a nutrition supplement before 3y – but not after • Controlling for a variety of potential family and socioeconomic confounders • At age 30y, were earning 46% more than average wages in the sample The Lancet, 2008, 371 Early interventions can have long- term benefits in LMICs ‒ stimulation • Stunted children in Jamaica who received 2-weekly home visits from CHWs for 2y • Which taught parents to stimulate and support children’s cognitive & socio-emotional development • 20 years later, had caught up with non-stunted peers, earning 25% more than the control group The Lancet, 2008, 371 Science, 2014, 344 The high cost of inaction The high cost of inaction • 200 million children under 5y of age fail to reach their developmental potential • This is 20 times the number of children who die before their 5th birthday and roughly 1/3 of all children of this age in the world • The vast majority of these children live in low and middle income countries • There is a very high cost to our inaction – For individuals and their families – And for the societies in which they live High costs of poor development for individual and families • Scarcity and stress during foetal and infant development have long-term consequences. • Many are associated with poverty, and include: – Undernutrition, nutritional deficiency – Exposure to toxins, injury – Experience of violence, parental ill-health – Neglect, abuse – Lack of affection, care and opportunities to learn Known adverse impacts on long- term health, wellbeing and human capital • Health, including cardiovascular and metabolic disease1 • Motor, sensory and cognitive disability2 • Poor mental health and social wellbeing3 • Loss of education (up to 1 grade of schooling)4 • Lower earnings5 • Lower birthweight of offspring6 High social costs of poor early child development • Without interventions to protect young children, the burden of morbidity and poor development rise as infant mortality drops, with severe costs to individuals and societies (‘mortality selection’) • Early interventions are critically needed because countries, especially low and middle income countries, cannot grow economically with an increased burden of ill health and poor capacity in adulthood Social costs • The aggregation of individual costs • Impact on GDP – The Cost of Hunger Study • Costs of child undernutrition and knock-on effects on education, work capacity and earnings – Egypt: 20.3 billion Egyptian pounds (EGP), s equivalent to 1.9% of GDP – Uganda: 1.8 trillion Uganda shilling (UGX), equivalent to 5.6% of GDP – Ethiopia: Ethiopian birr (ETB) 55.5 billion, equivalent to 16.5% of GDP.
Language:English
Score: 859402.5 - https://www.who.int/pmnch/abou...e/partnersforum/1d_richter.pdf
Data Source: un
To thrive is to develop – to our potential ‒ those capacities that make us human • Vertical strength, mobility and speed • Fine-motor dexterity • Communication and language • Emotional understanding, empathy • Cognitive skills, faculties for maths, logic, etc. • And, MOST IMPORTANT, the ability to identify with and learn from other human beings (which is why the quality of caregiving is so critical) Children survive and thrive when, a.o. … • Pregnancy is wanted, healthy and protected • Birth is safe • Women have education and autonomy • And they have the support of partners and family • Families have the means to afford necessities • They are protected from disease and violence • And they can access health and other services • Children have opportunities and are encouraged to learn Both survival and development are under threat when risks substantially outweigh protection Protection needs to outweigh risks Protection > risks Risks > protection Protection increases and risks decline through early intervention The importance of early intervention Important to intervene early because … • Young children’s development is extremely rapid • Genetic capacities adapt to the foetal and infant environment • Development is hierarchical with complex capacities built on basic abilities • Emerging brain and other organ systems are vulnerable to impairment • Brain plasticity and the ability to change behaviour decrease over time • Disadvantages emerge early and differences widen • We have effective interventions, and • There is a high cost associated with inaction Extremely rapid development … E.g., brain development from conception to birth E.g., synaptic development from birth to 6y Neurogenesis, neuronal migration, differentiation, apoptosis, arborization, synaptogenesis, synaptic sculpting, myelination Disadvantages emerge early, and grow… C um ul at iv e Vo ca bu la ry (W or ds ) 1200 600 200 16 mos. 24 mos. 36 mos. Child’s Age (Months) Source: Hart & Risley 1995 800 1000 400 Children of Parents in Poverty Children of Lower Middle Class Children of College Educated Effective interventions to promote survival, growth, health and development We have effective interventions • Reviewed in, amongst others: – Child survival (Lancet 2003) – Child survival, growth & development (WHO 2004) – Maternal survival (Lancet 2006) – Child development (Lancet 2007, 2011) – Maternal, newborn and child care (Lancet 2007) – Maternal and child nutrition (Lancet 2008, 2013) – Countdown to 2015 (Lancet 2013) – Women deliver (Lancet 2013) – Every newborn (Lancet 2014) • Interventions to promote child survival, health and growth also promote child development – but not usually with intention We have effective interventions that promote child development and are/can be integrated into child survival, growth and health programmes Including • Facility, home and community programmes to: – Promote child nutrition and development – Provide opportunities for young children to learn – Address maternal depression and promote mental health Interventions to promote child wellbeing (growth and development) • Low & middle income countries • 11 RCTs, 2non-RCT trials, 8 program evaluations • Stimulation programs benefit children’s development • Nutrition programs benefit children’s nutrition • Combining stimulation and nutrition is important 2014 Opportunities for children to learn • Adapted WHO/UNICEF Care for Child Development • Integrated into the Lady Health Worker Programme in Pakistan • Children in the ‘responsive stimulation’ condition had significantly higher motor, cognitive and language scores at 2y The Lancet 17 June 2014 Address maternal depression • Prevalence around 30% in LMICs1 • Maternal depression associated with: – Threats to maternal and child health (LBW, substance use, access to services, chronic conditions)2 – Poor growth among children3, behaviour problems and delayed development1 • Successfully treated by: – Social support (Taiwan, Pakistan) – Group therapy (Uganda) – Home visits by CHWs (Jamaica) – Improving mother-infant interaction (South Africa)1,2 Early interventions can have long- term benefits in LMICs ‒ nutrition • Children who received a nutrition supplement before 3y – but not after • Controlling for a variety of potential family and socioeconomic confounders • At age 30y, were earning 46% more than average wages in the sample The Lancet, 2008, 371 Early interventions can have long- term benefits in LMICs ‒ stimulation • Stunted children in Jamaica who received 2-weekly home visits from CHWs for 2y • Which taught parents to stimulate and support children’s cognitive & socio-emotional development • 20 years later, had caught up with non-stunted peers, earning 25% more than the control group The Lancet, 2008, 371 Science, 2014, 344 The high cost of inaction The high cost of inaction • 200 million children under 5y of age fail to reach their developmental potential • This is 20 times the number of children who die before their 5th birthday and roughly 1/3 of all children of this age in the world • The vast majority of these children live in low and middle income countries • There is a very high cost to our inaction – For individuals and their families – And for the societies in which they live High costs of poor development for individual and families • Scarcity and stress during foetal and infant development have long-term consequences. • Many are associated with poverty, and include: – Undernutrition, nutritional deficiency – Exposure to toxins, injury – Experience of violence, parental ill-health – Neglect, abuse – Lack of affection, care and opportunities to learn Known adverse impacts on long- term health, wellbeing and human capital • Health, including cardiovascular and metabolic disease1 • Motor, sensory and cognitive disability2 • Poor mental health and social wellbeing3 • Loss of education (up to 1 grade of schooling)4 • Lower earnings5 • Lower birthweight of offspring6 High social costs of poor early child development • Without interventions to protect young children, the burden of morbidity and poor development rise as infant mortality drops, with severe costs to individuals and societies (‘mortality selection’) • Early interventions are critically needed because countries, especially low and middle income countries, cannot grow economically with an increased burden of ill health and poor capacity in adulthood Social costs • The aggregation of individual costs • Impact on GDP – The Cost of Hunger Study • Costs of child undernutrition and knock-on effects on education, work capacity and earnings – Egypt: 20.3 billion Egyptian pounds (EGP), s equivalent to 1.9% of GDP – Uganda: 1.8 trillion Uganda shilling (UGX), equivalent to 5.6% of GDP – Ethiopia: Ethiopian birr (ETB) 55.5 billion, equivalent to 16.5% of GDP.
Language:English
Score: 859402.5 - https://www.who.int/pmnch/abou...e/partnersforum/3a_richter.pdf
Data Source: un
COMMUNICATION NO. 18/2013: DECISION
The State party accepts that persons with cognitive impairments are more likely to have a custodial supervision order imposed on them than persons without cognitive impairments. (...) Prohibition against arbitrary detention does not mean that persons with a disability, including persons with cognitive impairment, cannot be detained at all or cannot be made subject to indefinite custody orders. (...) The law does not provide for adaptations and adjustments that would enable his culpability for the offences to be determined taking into account his cognitive impairment. No part of this regime is in any way concerned with the implementation of the obligation contained in article 12 (3) to provide support to persons to enable them to exercise legal capacity in the trial process.12 The State party has not made available any accommodation to allow him to participate effectively in the legal process, in violation of article 13.
Language:English
Score: 857700.3 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...&DS=CRPD/C/22/D/18/2013&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
FREEDOM OF RELIGION OR BELIEF :NOTE / BY THE SECRETARY-GENERAL
Others emphasize major developments in digital technology, neuroscience and cognitive psychology that could potentially enable access to the very content of our thoughts and affect how we think, feel and behave. (...) Some neuroscientists distinguish “thought” from other cognitive processes, including emotion, based on the primary part of the brain engaged. Others emphasize the complex, highly interrelated nature of anatomical aspects of the brain that support cognitive functions, comparing efforts to “trace a thought from beginning to end” to “asking where the forest begins”. 16 12.
Language:English
Score: 856948 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...sf/get?open&DS=A/76/380&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
PROMOTION AND PROTECTION OF ALL HUMAN RIGHTS, CIVIL, POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS, INCLUDING THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT : WRITTEN STATEMENT / SUBMITTED BY FUNDACION INTERVIDA
Malnutrition causes deficiencies in the cognitive, linguistic and social development of the child, attention deficiency at school, drop-outs and academic failure, among other things. (...) Several case studies show a relationship between early access to education and the subsequent benefit in terms of cognitive development and school performance and permanence.
Language:English
Score: 855426.5 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...?open&DS=A/HRC/20/NGO/4&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
HEALTH STATE SURVEY MODULE : BUDAPEST INITIATIVE - MARK 1 : NOTE / BY THE JOINT UNECE/WHO/EUROSTAT TASK FORCE ON MEASURING HEALTH STATUS
By late 2006, Task Force members were asked to carry out cognitive testing of the Budapest Initiative questions. (...) Additional documents produced by the Task Force are the testing protocol and reports of the cognitive testing in each of the four countries. These documents as well as a report from EU testing prepared by Eurostat were presented at the January 2007 Task Force meeting. (...) ” � none at all � a little � moderate � a lot � extreme Cognition How much difficulty [do/does] you have remembering important things?
Language:English
Score: 855371 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...?open&DS=ECE/CES/2007/6&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
REVIEW OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RECOMMENDATIONS AND DECISIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY AT ITS 10TH SPECIAL SESSION : ADVISORY BOARD ON DISARMAMENT STUDIES : NOTE BY THE SECRETARY-GENERAL
On the other hand, there are secondary cognitive reinforcement mechanisms which shape perceptions and reinforce hostile views. These cognitive mechanisms have detrimental consequences for the progress of disarmament since the hostile view each s1de holds about the adversary impedes and may even prevent negotiations. But these secondary cognitive mechanisms are amenable to change, and this is an area where concrete efforts need to be examined. 31.
Language:English
Score: 855315.5 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...sf/get?open&DS=A/39/553&Lang=E
Data Source: ods