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In such circumstances, national population projections may not effectively and accurately reflect the demographic settings in its administrative or regional entities. o Generating sub-national projections that are both internally consistent and consistent with a national projection is more challenging than preparing a national projection. o Each subnational entity presents the same data problems as the national projection but, in addition, preserving consistency across regions and dealing with data problems that are often more severe than those at the national level adds to the challenge. (...) This affects all elements of demographic components: fertility, mortality and migration. – If a population is small, its age composition is also subject to random fluctuations. – Projections of TFR, life expectancy at subnational level should be consistent with national projection • US Census Bureau subnational toolkit has tools for projecting consistent TFR (PROJTFR32) or e0 (PROJE032) given subnational estimates for base year and projected national trend Subnational cohort component projections o Migration in subnational cohort component projections – International migration for national populations is usually integrated into the projection as net migration, that is the balance of immigration and emigration. (...) The magnitude of internal migration is in most cases larger than international migration, and therefore has significant demographic impact that cannot be ignored. • US Census Bureau subnational toolkit has tool for projecting subnational net migration (MIGSUB) using input on population by duration of residence Software for subnational cohort component projections Spectrum o Create separate projection files for each subnational area. o Files are aggregated using ToolsMore toolsAggregate (for details, see section 7.2 of the Spectrum manual) o Spectrum can be used for explorative subnational projections that can be compared and aggregated. o However, Spectrum does not (yet) provide consistency mechanisms that guarantee that individual projections are consistent with and add up to the national total.
Language:English
Score: 1026375 - https://www.un.org/en/developm...ionalPopulationProjections.pdf
Data Source: un
“ The Emotional Shift Polling on Core Issues 999191Lack of consistent policies lead to unsustainable Lack of consistent policies lead to unsustainable water supplywater supply 77 21217979With appropriate training and orientation community With appropriate training and orientation community can handle technical problemscan handle technical problems 66 00100100Community should have a decisive say in decision Community should have a decisive say in decision making (technology options / costs)making (technology options / costs) 55 27277373Lack of appropriate design causes unsustainable Lack of appropriate design causes unsustainable water supplywater supply 44 29297171Women are rarely consulted and involved in Women are rarely consulted and involved in planning a drinking water supply schemeplanning a drinking water supply scheme 33 15158585OverOver drawaldrawal of ground water is a major reason for of ground water is a major reason for unsustainable water supplyunsustainable water supply 22 78782222More allotment of funds would help sustainabilityMore allotment of funds would help sustainability11 NoNo (%)(%) Yes Yes (%)(%) DescriptionDescriptionSlSl.. (...) “Secure Water for all, for ever” • Conservation of nature as a guarantee for future water • Vibrant, revived and recharged water bodies • Assured, equitable and sustainable water for all • Successful community managed water supply system through active participation of all especially women and poor • Safe disposal of solid and liquid waste for clean and healthy environment • Cost effective technology options to ensure local sustainable management • Formation of Common Water Regulatory Authority for judicious use of water for all sectors 6 Democratisation of Water Management Project Main Outcomes Main Outcomes Shift 1: Choice of Technology Option: 59% were low cost schemes - 30% focused on Rehabilitation of existing infrastructure Shift 2: Finding more cost effective solutions: Based on the above choice, Average Capital cost / HH : Project-Rs 1555;and Regular schemes-Rs 4436 (40% reduction) 41% schemes < Rs 1000 and 10% schemes alone > Rs 3000 Shift 3:Towards community Involvement: A cash contribution of 14.20 million by about 56,000 HHs # 50% villages had supply level < 20 lpcd; 34% between 20-30 lpcd & 16% between 30-35 lpcd Shift 5: Towards Conservation and Sustainability: Construction of 45 recharge structures; Revival of 120 traditional water bodies; More than 12000 tree saplings planted; Main Outcomes contd. . . . .Main Outcomes contd. . . . . Shift 4: Towards savings: Savings between 18% (Namakkal) to 44% over the annual budget in line with Marai Malai Nagar Declaration Tank Revivel - Theni 7 Shift 7: Reaching the Unreached: Response of Women Groups : Engineer Visit village regularly - 76% Behaved as community member – 84% Response of Dalits: Engineer Visit dalit areas regularly - 78% Provide space for participation – 80% Collective solutions to WS issues – 57% Main Outcomes contd. . . . .Main Outcomes contd. . . . .
Language:English
Score: 943590.3 - https://www.un.org/esa/sustdev...p_asia/presentations/nayar.pdf
Data Source: un
Shift-Share Designs: Theory and Inference Shift-Share Designs: Theory and Inference* Rodrigo Adão† Michal Kolesár‡ Eduardo Morales§ August 6, 2018 Abstract We study inference in shift-share regression designs, such as when a regional outcome is re- gressed on a weighted average of observed sectoral shocks, using regional sector shares as weights. (...) Second, Borusyak, Hull and Jaravel (2018), also focusing on the use of a shift-share regressor as an instrumental variable, show that it is a valid instrument if the set of shifters is as good as randomly assigned conditional on the shares, and discuss consistency of the instrumental variables estimator in this context. (...) Since Xi is observed, to construct a consistent standard error estimate, it suffices to construct a consistent estimate of VN , the middle part of the sandwich.
Language:English
Score: 935817.2 - https://www.wto.org/english/re...tdw_e/wkshop18_e/morales_e.pdf
Data Source: un
This “big shift” was outlined in the MAB Brand & Story Toolkit and has become inspiration for creating more dynamic and effective communication plans. (...) And so this is also a time of transformation - shifting the way we see our relationships with nature, with each other, and with our current ways of living and working. (...) By amplifying examples of how biosphere reserves are the shift we need in the world, we are cultivating hope and connection within our communities.
Language:English
Score: 925914.7 - https://en.unesco.org/sites/de...ting_the_biosphere_reserve.pdf
Data Source: un
Kyle Bagwell Stanford () Economic Research and the Rationale for Trade AgreementsDecember 10, 2018 3 / 7 Theoretical Approaches International Externality Terms-of-Trade Theory Profit-Shifting Theory Firm Delocation Theory Trade Policy Uncertainty Theory Offshoring Theory Commitment Theory Kyle Bagwell Stanford () Economic Research and the Rationale for Trade AgreementsDecember 10, 2018 4 / 7 Problem for a trade agreement to solve E E τ * τ W * W WN N W N* Theoretical Approaches International Externality Terms-of-Trade Theory Profit-Shifting Theory Firm Delocation Theory Trade Policy Uncertainty Theory Offshoring Theory Commitment Theory Kyle Bagwell Stanford () Economic Research and the Rationale for Trade AgreementsDecember 10, 2018 6 / 7 Summary Mutual gains from a trade agreement exist when a problem arises under unilateral policy setting, due to International externalities (terms of trade, profit shifting, firm delocation, trade policy uncertainty, bilateral bargaining) Commitment (time-consistency) problems.
Language:English
Score: 919704.7 - https://www.wto.org/english/re...er_e/session1_kyle_bagwell.pdf
Data Source: un
Project on the digital broadcasting transition roadmap in Africa-Introduction   عربي   |   中文   |   Español   |   Français   |   Русский     Advanced Search   Home : ITU-D : Technologies, Infrastructure and Applications     Project on the digital broadcasting transition roadmap in Africa   Summary of the Project The objective of the project is to assist the African countries in making their own roadmap to shift smoothly from analogue to digital terrestrial TV (DTTB) and on the use of mobile TV (MTV) as a apart of ITU/BDT activities on the implementation of regional initiatives projects approved by WTDC-06. (...) Doha, 2006), ITU/BDT has been implementing “Digital Broadcasting Roadmap in Africa project” that consists of two phases.  The first phase was devoted for carrying out feasibility study within African countries aiming to collect relevant information on current status of Television broadcasting as well as African Broadcasters programs in shifting from Analogue to DTTB and MTV. 
Language:English
Score: 916655 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/tech...lBroadcastingAfrica/Intro.html
Data Source: un
bit_2015_6-7_Final.indd 375 Developing Countries’ Reactions to the G20/ OECD Action Plan on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting This article describes and examines the reactions of developing countries to the G20/OECD Action Plan on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting as communicated to the Subcommittee on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Issues for Developing Countries of the UN Committee of Experts on International Cooperation in Tax Matters. 1. (...) Countries also prioritized Action 12 (aggressive tax planning arrangements) as being of real concern in countering base erosion and profit shifting in their countries. The identification of these top priorities reveals a high level of consistency in terms of the responses to question 2, which identified transfer pricing and inter- est deductibility as key causes of base erosion and profit shifting. also referred to the lack of available public information on comparable local entities or the relevant industry group. (...) Countries also identified Action 5 (countering harmful tax practices) as important. This response is consistent with the responses received in relation to question 2 (see section 3.3.) that identified the role of tax havens and preferential regimes as key causes of base erosion and profit shifting. 4.5.
Language:English
Score: 904360.9 - https://www.un.org/esa/ffd/wp-.../2015/10/11STM_G20OecdBeps.pdf
Data Source: un
The workshop was chaired by Mr Hugh Barton and facilitated by Ms Francesca Racioppi. It consisted of: ü Introduction to workshop objectives and background about THE PEP - F. (...) There is a strong need for high level of consistency in policy objectives, supportive arguments and strategies across different levels of government (national, sub-national and local level). (...) There is a need to improve the assessment of effectiveness of interventions that are meant to promote modal shifts towards walking, cycling and public transport.
Language:English
Score: 904139.55 - https://unece.org/fileadmin/DA...documents/HCsinputtoCyprus.pdf
Data Source: un
Accelerating the shift to renewable energy sources and dramatically improving energy efficiency will play a crucial role.  (...) The transport sector also is a consistently high-energy sector in Albania and the Republic of North Macedonia. (...) EE and RE policy development requires consistent and sustained introduction of new measures and their constant improvement.
Language:English
Score: 902856.6 - https://unece.org/media/sustai...y/Energy-Efficiency/press/1486
Data Source: un