IMPLEMENTATION REPORT ON THE UNITED NATIONS GUIDELINES ON CONSUMER PROTECTION, 1985U+20132013 : NOTE / BY THE UNCTAD SECRETARIAT
The issues related to the
information on environmental impact are covered in the OECD Guidelines for Multinational
Enterprises and in Environmental Claims: Findings and Conclusions of the OECD Committee on
Consumer Policy (www.oecd.org/sti/consumerpolicy/48127506.pdf).
60 Consumers International suggests inclusion of the structural dimension of competition policy and the
need to address upstream issues.
61 Consumers International suggests reference to the anti-competitive effects of certain international
agreements including those reached by governments, e.g. the World Trade Organization agriculture
and intellectual property agreements.
62 Poland (the Office of Competition and Consumer Protection runs an educational campaign entitled
“Entrepreneur, don’t collude！” (...) This
commission is the executive body of Swiss foundation for fair business practices
(http://www.lauterkeit.ch/komm1F.htm) whose members are the most important private organizations
and associations of the marketing branch in Switzerland.
91 Consumers International suggests a generic reference to technological neutrality to the effect that all
transactions have the same basic protections for consumers.
92 For example, Botswana (Weights and Measures Act), Colombia (Ley 1480 de 2011, artículo 68),
China (Metrology Law 1985, State Council Order on Applying Uniform Metrology Unit 1984), the
Dominican Republic (Ley 3925 de 17 septiembre de 1954 sobre pesas y medidas, Reglamento para la
ejecución de la Ley 3925 sobre pesas y medidas y La Ley General de Protección de los Derechos del
Consumidor o Usuario, No.358-05, artículo 51), El Salvador (Ley de Protección al Consumidor,
artículo 58(j), the European Union (Communication on the application of Directive 2005/29/EC),
Indonesia (Law No. 2/1981 concerning Legal Metrology, Law No. 8/1999 concerning Consumer
Protection, article 8), Malaysia (Weight and Measures Act 1972, Weights and Measures Regulation
1981, Specification for Weights or Measures or Instrument for Weighing or Measuring Order 1981),
Mexico (Ley Federal de Protección al Consumidor), Peru (Ley Nº 23560, en el que se establece el
Sistema Legal de Unidades de Medida del Perú), the United Republic of Tanzania (Weights and
Measures Act), the United Kingdom (Weights and Measures Act
PROPOSALS FOR AMENDMENTS TO ANNEXES A AND B TO THE MINAMATA CONVENTION ON MERCURY
Environmental and health risks and benefits of alternatives: LEDs remove unnecessary risk of
exposure to toxic mercury for consumers and workers when lamps break in homes, offices, schools,
and businesses. (...) The small size and weight of bulbs makes them easy for consumers to
mistakenly dispose of in general waste, and consumers may not be aware that they require special
disposal. (...) To support these bans, many countries carried out trade-in
programmes with consumers to actively encourage the transition from incandescent lamps to more
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS, ESPECIALLY WOMEN AND CHILDREN, JOY NGOZI EZEILO : ADDENDUM
with the International Labour Rights Fund to provide consumers with information about the
links between forced labour, human trafficking and consumer products to enable them to
make better, more-informed choices about their purchases.10 One of the key initiatives of
Not For Sale is the Free2Work website and smartphone application, which allows
consumers who visit the website or scan a product barcode with the application to have
access to detailed information about initiatives by companies to address modern- day
slavery. (...) Discussions held during session 6 focused on new strategies for supply chain
engagement and the role of consumers in that this field. The aim of the session was to
introduce new normative and technical tools for businesses and consumer-based and IT
approaches for fighting human trafficking.
19. (...) These included
the Buy Responsibly Campaign launched by the International Organization for Migration
(IOM),11 which seeks to raise the awareness of consumers about the products they buy and
to have a positive influence on consumer behaviour.
CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY
车评估方案和消费者组织的有力活动，日产同意在 2017年 5月前停止生产 Tsuru。See Consumers
International, 2018, Protecting consumers in a globalized world: Time for a global approach to
product safety? (...) 50 See https://ec.europa.eu/consumers/consumers_safety/safety_products/rapex/alerts/? (...) 53 See https://ec.europa.eu/consumers/consumers_safety/safety_products/rapex/alerts/?
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN RIGHTS OF THE ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND WASTES ON HIS MISSION TO THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA : NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
Issues in focus .................................................................................................................................. 8
A. Protecting consumers from hazardous substances in products ................................................ 8
B. (...) The Act does not adequately
address the very problem that inspired the legislation: the risk that consumers will be
exposed to substances without adequate information regarding their health hazards (see
section on protecting consumers below). (...) Consumers in the Republic of Korea, not unlike other consumers around the world,
are exposed to hundreds of substances with known and unknown hazardous properties
through consumer goods.
VISIT TO ITALY :REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE RIGHT TO FOOD
Another initiative would be to support urban markets where farmers can bring their
products directly to the consumers without passing through big supermarkets. This option
reduces costs for farmers, ensures better quality for consumers and represents a more
sustainable food purchase. (...) Respect for the right to food requires a stronger intervention to halt the import,
production and use of illegal pesticides that have negative effects on workers and
consumers’ health, along with a reliable system of sanitary support for anyone directly
exposed to toxic products (for further information, see A/HRC/34/48).
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN RIGHTS OF THE ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND WASTES ON HIS MISSION TO GERMANY : NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
consumers have the right to contact businesses to inquire whether a chemical linked to
cancer, hormone disruption or other health and environmental hazards are found in certain
products if they are on the “candidate list”. (...) When a substance is placed on the “candidate list”, a notification of
obligations is sent to the whole supply chain, which can benefit consumers’ right to
16. Germany plays a prominent role in the implementation of REACH and other
European Union chemicals legislation and in discussions on future policy directions. (...) Since the
level of hazardous substance exposure for workers is at much higher levels than the
permissible exposure levels for consumers, information about adverse effects of chronic
exposure is critical.
CONSUMER PROTECTION IN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE - NOTE BY THE UNCTAD SECRETARIAT
处应作有利于消费者的解读 (见 http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/consumer_rights/
odr/index_en.htm)。 (...) 并见欧洲联盟，2015年，Consumer conditions scoreboard,
available at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/consumer_evidence/consumer_scoreboards/
index_en.htm (2017年 4月 18日访问)。
LETTER DATED 6 MARCH 2018 FROM THE PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVE OF UKRAINE TO THE UNITED NATIONS ADDRESSED TO THE SECRETARY-GENERAL
The contract is consequently of great importance to European buyers and
consumers. Naftogaz expects that transit to Europe will continue as before.
(...) The plan involves industrial consumers, the public sector and heat producers and
is aimed at reducing the daily gas demand.
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE RIGHT TO FOOD, OLIVIER DE SCHUTTER :ADDENDUM
It may be recalled in this regard that
excessive buyer power can result not only from excessive concentration at certain segments
of the food chain and in certain markets, but also from the concrete obstacles that small
farmers may face in reaching markets, when they are in remote areas with poor
communication routes to the urban centres and face buyers that are in a quasi-
monopsonistic position—in effect, the gatekeepers through which farmers must pass in
order to reach consumers. The Competition Commission could also play a role in ensuring
that high degrees of concentration, or the acquisition of dominant positions, be paired with
an obligation to source from local and small-scale producers, as was discussed during the
2011 takeover of Massmart by Wal-Mart.
41 Statistics South Africa, Social Profile (footnote 1 above), p. 62.
42 M. (...) These various tools could be seen as part of a broader process of rebuilding the local
food markets, which are generally more accessible to small-scale farmers than the larger
export markets and improve access to fresh and nutritious food for urban consumers.
V. Food accessibility: protecting access to food for the poorest