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CONSUMER PROTECTION NEEDS OF VULNERABLE AND DISADVANTAGED CONSUMERS IN CONNECTION WITH PUBLIC UTILITIES
CONSUMER PROTECTION NEEDS OF VULNERABLE AND DISADVANTAGED CONSUMERS IN CONNECTION WITH PUBLIC UTILITIES
语言:中文
得分: 1041027 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...pen&DS=TD/B/C.I/CPLP/22&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
CONSUMER LAW, POLICY AND REGULATORY ACTIONS IN RESPONSE TO AND IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC
9 贸发会议,2020d,“消费者与 COVID-19”,4 月 7 日,可查阅 https://unctad.org/news/ consumers-vs-covid-19 (2021年 3月 18日访问)。 10 大会第 70/186号决议,附件,第 22段。 (...) 36 贸发会议,2020e,“航空公司必须尊重消费者权利”,6 月 4 日,可查阅 https://unctad.org/ news/airlines-must-respect-consumers-rights(2021年 3月 18日访问)。 37 澳大利亚竞争和消费者委员会,2020年。 (...) 49 见经济合作与发展组织,2020c,“在 COVID-19 危机期间保护在线消费者”,4 月 28 日,可 查 阅 https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/protecting-online-consumers-during-the- covid-19-crisis-2ce7353c(2021年 3月 18日访问)。
语言:中文
得分: 1033174.6 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...pen&DS=TD/B/C.I/CPLP/23&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE RIGHT TO FOOD ON HER MISSION TO POLAND : NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
While the right to adequate food is not explicitly enshrined in the Constitution or in any legislation in Poland, the Constitution stipulates rights that contribute to the realization of the right to adequate food: the right to life and the right to health are stipulated in article 68, the protection of the environment that is explicitly mentioned in article 74 and the protection of consumers stipulated in article 76. Furthermore, it protects family farms as forming the basis of the agricultural system (art. 23). (...) The Government has launched several programmes to change the awareness of young consumers through widespread education, prevention of bad nutritional habits and actions to increase physical activity in line with guideline 11 of the FAO Voluntary Guidelines to Support the Progressive Realization of the Right to Adequate Food in the Context of National Food Security.
语言:中文
得分: 1033174.6 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...en&DS=A/HRC/34/48/ADD.1&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
VISIT TO THE EUROPEAN UNION :REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON EXTREME POVERTY AND HUMAN RIGHTS, OLIVIER DE SCHUTTER
However, despite ample evidence that social or regulated tariffs can help reduce energy poverty by lowering prices for vulnerable consumers,38 member States will soon be forced to abolish them,39 and the recommendation reinforces the market liberalization model that has led to higher prices in countries without such tariffs.40 Similarly, in its current form, it is unclear how the Renovation Wave Strategy will benefit low-income groups (aside from simply protecting them from harm), address housing exclusion and avoid becoming another instrument of urban segregation. 26. (...) As a result, poverty 35 COM(2019)640 final, 11 December 2019, p. 3. 36 See, in this regard, the thematic report of the Special Rapporteur to the General Assembly on how to reconcile the ecological transformation with poverty eradication (A/75/181). 37 www.energypoverty.eu/about/what-energy-poverty. 38 Steve Pye et al., “Energy poverty and vulnerable consumers in the energy sector across the EU: analysis of policies and measures” (INSIGHT_E, May 2015), pp. 45–48. 39 European Parliament, “EU deal on electricity market rules to benefit both consumers and environment”, press release, 19 December 2018. 40 See Recommendation (EU) 2020/1563, rec. 1; see also French Ecological Transition Ministry, “Tarifs réglementés de vente de l’électricité : le Gouvernement prend acte de la délibération de la CRE et confirme qu’il n’appliquera pas ces nouveaux tarifs pendant l’hiver”, press release, 13 February 2019.
语言:中文
得分: 1012062.4 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...en&DS=A/HRC/47/36/ADD.1&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE RIGHT TO FOOD, OLIVIER DE SCHUTTER : ADDENDUM
Domestic support measures may be placed in this category (a) if they are “provided through a publicly-funded government programme (including government revenue foregone) not involving transfers from consumers”; and (b) if they do not have the effect of providing price support to producers (annex 2, AoA, 1). (...) This impact is increasing as consumers are encouraged to expect all foods to be available at all times of the year, without regard for the seasons.25 Such modes of food consumption are not sustainable in the long term. 31.
语言:中文
得分: 1012062.4 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...pen&DS=A/HRC/10/5/ADD.2&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE HUMAN RIGHTS TO SAFE DRINKING WATER AND SANITATION ON HIS MISSION TO PORTUGAL :NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
Among its conclusions, in its first report of March 2014, the Court concluded that the majority of concessions consistently benefited the private sector to the detriment of municipal budgets and individual consumers. That was due to a lack of contractual provisions that would pass the risks of financial non-sustainability (such as those relating to the market, tendering, finances, construction and exploitation) on to the private parties, hence leaving those risks to be assumed by the public partner. 17 Furthermore, some contracts included clauses that guaranteed the private partner coverage from financial risks or even from operational risks resulting from increasing maintenance costs. 17 Tribunal de Contas, 2014, p. 8.
语言:中文
得分: 1012062.4 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...en&DS=A/HRC/36/45/ADD.1&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
INCLUSION OF A NATIONAL NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION IN THE REGISTER IN CONFORMITY WITH DECISION 43(VII) OF THE TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT BOARD : NOTE / BY THE UNCTAD SECRETARIAT
地 址: 伯拉卡德 District Consumers' Association Kit's College, Court Road, 伯拉卡德 – Kerala State 678001 Kerala India Tel:(91 491) 2569952 / (91. 491) 2522320 Mobile:944 744 2505 E-mail:surendranpdca@rediffmail.com 11.
语言:中文
得分: 983367.3 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...get?open&DS=TD/B/54/L.1&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE RIGHT TO FOOD, OLIVIER DE SCHUTTER : ADDENDUM
The liberalization of agricultural trade, launched in the mid-1980s and completed in 2008 under the North American Free Trade Agreement, created opportunities for some agricultural producers oriented towards exporting commodities, while the import of certain low-cost products benefited the livestock industry and poor consumers. The gradual liberalization of agricultural trade also had, however, a severe negative impact on some of the most vulnerable producers as a result of the dumping in local markets of often heavily subsidized products from the United States of America. (...) In particular, measures aimed at supporting food producers and measures aimed at improving the accessibility of adequate food to consumers should be made mutually supportive rather than designed in isolation from each other. For instance, such food aid programmes as Diconsa and Liconsa could be encouraged to source more of their food supplies from small-scale local producers in order to improve access to markets for these producers and ensure a certain stability of income, while ensuring that consumers are provided with fresh and nutritious foods ; (c) Third, owing to their multi-year nature, national strategies can help to address the tension between short-term objectives (such as ensuring the supply of low-priced products to urban populations or boosting levels of agricultural production) and long-term objectives (such as increasing the incomes of small-scale farmers and inclusive rural development, or encouraging the sustainable use of natural resources) because they define not only a set of benchmarks to be achieved (the “what”) but also a pathway (the “how”). 2 See also A/HRC/12/31, para. 28.
语言:中文
得分: 971516.6 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...en&DS=A/HRC/19/59/ADD.2&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
MODALITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RECOMMENDATION ON PREVENTING THE CROSS-BORDER DISTRIBUTION OF KNOWN UNSAFE CONSUMER PRODUCTS
v=Y97lzJRjOT8. 19 例如,见 https://www.saferproducts.gov/IncidentReporting. 20 例如,见 https://www.cpsc.gov/Newsroom/News-Releases/2021/CPSC-Urges-Consumers-to- Schedule-a-Safety-Check-Up-on-Products-in-Their-Homes-2. 21 在贸发会议消费品安全工作组框架内组织。 (...) 22 见 European Commission, 2021, Behavioural study on strategies to improve the effectiveness of product recalls,可查阅 https://ec.europa.eu/safety/consumers/consumers_safety_gate/effectiveRecalls/documents/Product.Re call.Main.Report.pdf; 和 European Commission, 2019, Survey on consumer behaviour and product recalls effectiveness。Final report,可查阅 https://ec.europa.eu/consumers/consumers_safety/safety_products/rapex/alerts/repository/tips/Product .Recall.pdf. 23 见 https://www.consumidor.gob.pe/primerolosclientes. 24 见 https://ec.europa.eu/safety-gate/#/screen/pages/safetyAward. 25 OECD, 2020, Policy guidance on maximizing product recall effectiveness, DSTI/CP/CPS(2019)4/FINAL.
语言:中文
得分: 939500.2 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...pen&DS=TD/B/C.I/CPLP/28&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
THE BENEFIT OF COMPETITION POLICY FOR CONSUMERS : NOTE / BY THE UNCTAD SECRETARIAT
THE BENEFIT OF COMPETITION POLICY FOR CONSUMERS : NOTE / BY THE UNCTAD SECRETARIAT
语言:中文
得分: 904949.6 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...open&DS=TD/B/C.I/CLP/27&Lang=C
数据资源: ods