WRITTEN SUBMISSION BY THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND: EQUALITY AND HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION (EHRC) - NOTE BY THE SECRETARIAT
As part of the roll out of Universal Credit, the Department of Work and Pensions
(DWP) has identified automatic fraud prevention as an important element of this process, as
remarked in a National Audit Office (NAO) report: “The Department [DWP] intends to
develop a fully automated risk analysis and intelligence system on fraud and error.”7
Since 2011, the DWP has encouraged local authorities to use Risk Based Verification (RBV)
“to assess the risk of ‘fraud and error’ in welfare claims” 8 . This was encouraged to
“streamline benefit applications by allowing low risk applicants for housing benefit and
1 Taskforce on Innovation, Growth and Regulatory Reform (2021), Independent Report.
2 Equality and Human Rights Commission and Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission (2021),
Report of the EHRC and the NIHRC following the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Privacy’s
visit to the UK in June 2018.
3 Court of Appeal (2020), R (Bridges) –v- CC South Wales & ors.
5 Information Commissioner’s Office (2019), Information Commissioner’s Opinion: The use of live
facial recognition technology by law enforcement in public places.
6 Information Commissioner’s Office (2021), Information Commissioner’s Opinion: The use of live
facial recognition technology i n public places.
7 National Audit Office (2018), Rolling out Universal Credit.
8 Big Brother Watch (2021), Poverty Panopticon.
(...) The tool,
which the Home Office described as a digital ‘streaming tool,’ assigns a Red, Amber or Green
risk rating to applicants.”30 This coding system also related to nationalities, which Foxglove
claimed amounted to “a secret list of suspect nationalities automatically given a ‘red’ traffic-
light risk score – people of these nationalities were likely to be denied a visa.”31 Both JCWI
and Foxglove stated that the algorithm established a feedback loop where previous decisions
based on this system would reinforce future decisions, making it more likely for individuals
from the flagged nations to be coded as high risk.
SECOND BIENNIAL HIGH-LEVEL MINISTERIAL DIALOGUE ON CLIMATE FINANCE: A MULTI-STAKEHOLDER APPROACH TO THE MOBILIZATION AND DELIVERY OF ADAPTATION FINANCE. NOTE BY THE PRESIDENT
Subsequently, the Moroccan Presidency will pursue actions to achieve the following:
A) Promote adequate economic and regulatory environment so as to expand investment opportunities in the green
economy for the private sector, including:
Adequate public policies and regulations in favor of the green economy and climate resilient investments,
along with appropriate support mechanisms for the private sector (mobilization of production resources,
infrastructure, removal of regulatory and administrative barriers, …);
Enhancing business climate, particularly in relation to reinforcing markets transparency on “price
formation”, access to information, judicial security of transactions, public procurement procedures, and
more generally promoting and protecting investments;
Supporting country-driven efforts to establish carbon pricing mechanisms and tools including municipal
and national fiscal policy tools, including the use of generated revenues in adaptation projects;
B) Use guarantees’ mechanisms provided by development banks and multilateral agencies and concessional
finance to catalyze private investment towards funding climate action projects in developing and least developed
There is a clear opportunity to build mutualized mechanisms of guarantee provided by MDBs and dedicated to
investments in climate mitigation and/or adaptation projects in developing and least developed countries, so as to
Significant investment risk reduction in developing and least developed countries, including credit risk,
commercial risks, political risks, as well as regulatory and administrative barriers, especially for trans-
Mobilization of new actors including philanthropists and impact investors by mutualizing available
finance around large-scale projects in the South and providing adequate finance at various project stages,
as well as risk coverage for specific countries;
Maximized leveraging of public resources mobilized through mixed financing structures and public-
(...) Such platforms/facilities would be conceived to lower transaction costs for project
developers/lenders, and aimed to:
Achieve economies of scale and efficiency by aggregating guarantees from multiple institutions with
improved coordination to support riskier climate related projects;
Use guarantee mechanisms to attract institutional capital;
Significantly enhance the credit score of climate projects in developing countries, and help remove
political, regulatory and administrative barriers especially for cross-border projects.
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE RIGHT TO FOOD ON HER MISSION TO PHILIPPINES : NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
A recent Food Nutrition Research Institute study on household food insecurity in the
regions of Mindanao, using the World Food Programme (WFP) food consumption score
tool, revealed that the region had a low variety in the diet, with 38.57 per cent of the
surveyed population not having consumed meat, milk, milk products, tubers, roots, legumes,
nuts or seeds in the past seven days, while 43.1 per cent of households were severely food
insecure and 48.1 per cent of households had coped with food insecurity, with household
members having to eat a smaller meal than they felt they needed because there was not
28. (...) Only 89 of those NGOs provide credit and
saving services, and only 3 implement an insurance mechanism. (...) With less than 3
per cent of women who work in the agriculture and fisheries sectors benefiting from
support services such as credit, seeds, training and access to technology, it is almost
impossible for them to access a sustainable income and livelihood.
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