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PRIORITY THEMES : EQUALITY : EQUAL PAY FOR WORK OF EQUAL VALUE, INCLUDING METHODOLOGIES FOR MEASUREMENT OF PAY INEQUITIES AND WORK IN THE INFORMAL SECTOR : REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL
Four steps are involved: (a) choosing the occupations to be covered; (b) evaluating job demands on employees by means of gender-neutral job evaluations and assigning point scores (the usual criteria are skills, physical effort, level of responsibility or accountability, and working conditions); (c) imputing a pay value to the point scores obtained from the job evaluations (estimating shadow wages); and (d) adjusting pay across occupations so that jobs with the same point scores have the same pay. 23. (...) When a gender-neutral job evaluation is used, large differences in the pay of male-dominated and female-dominated jobs appear for similar point scores. For instance, in one study a secretary was found to have twice as high a point score as a delivery truck driver, yet she earned 20 per cent less. (...) Yet there are numerous exceptions: some enterprises are licensed and regulated; some use imported raw materials; some are owned by educated persons; and some obtain a loan from a formal source of credit. 30. The difficulty with defining and analysing the informal sector arises mainly from its heterogeneity: various distinctions must be drawn in order to give credit to its complexity.
Language:English
Score: 1017407.5 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...t?open&DS=E/CN.6/1994/2&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATIONS PROGRAMME AT HEADQUARTERS, 2019 / FROM THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY-GENERAL FOR HUMAN RESOURCES
Payment must be made in cash or by cheque (payable to the United Nations). Credit cards are not accepted, in accordance with Cashier ’s Office policy. 32. Participants should indicate that their payment is to be credited to the “United Nations for the Language and Communications Programme”. (...) Evaluation scores for specialized courses do not appear in Inspira.
Language:English
Score: 1013847.4 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...et?open&DS=ST/IC/2019/5&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
Poor households often face difficulties in accessing credit due to lack of assets to use as collateral or credit rationing that might occur due to factors such as adverse selection, asymmetric information, or government policies (Feder et al., 1990). (...) Only 16 percent of households used credit in 2011, and of these, less than half used credit for investment in productive activities (Table 5). Of those who did not use credit, the vast majority felt they had no means to repay loans.
Language:English
Score: 1012291.6 - https://www.fao.org/fileadmin/...Publications/Kenya_HH_2012.pdf
Data Source: un
Select language Select language English العربية 中文 Français Русский Español Português Home Health Topics All topics » A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Resources » Fact sheets Facts in pictures Multimedia Publications Questions & answers Tools and toolkits Popular » Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Ebola virus disease Air pollution Hepatitis Top 10 causes of death World Health Assembly » Countries All countries » A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Regions » Africa Americas South-East Asia Europe Eastern Mediterranean Western Pacific WHO in countries » Statistics Cooperation strategies Yemen crisis » Sadeq Al Wesabi Hasan An internally displaced family in a camp in Hudaydah © Credits   Newsroom All news » News releases Statements Campaigns Commentaries Events Feature stories Speeches Spotlights Newsletters Photo library Media distribution list Headlines » Timeline: WHO's COVID-19 response »   Emergencies Focus on » COVID-19 pandemic Ebola virus disease outbreak DRC 2021 Syria crisis Crisis in Northern Ethiopia Afghanistan Crisis Latest » Disease Outbreak News Travel advice Situation reports Weekly Epidemiological Record WHO in emergencies » Surveillance Research Funding Partners Operations Independent Oversight and Advisory Committee Health Emergency Dashboard » WHO © Credits Data Data at WHO » Global Health Estimates Health SDGs Mortality Triple billion targets Data collections Dashboards » COVID-19 Dashboard Triple Billion Dashboard Health Equity monitor Mortality Highlights » GHO SCORE Insights and visualizations Data collection tools Reports World Health Statistics 2021 » WHO © Credits About WHO About WHO » People Teams Structure Partnerships Collaborating Centres Networks, committees and advisory groups Transformation Our Work » General Programme of Work WHO Academy Activities Initiatives Funding » Assessed contributions Flexible funding WHO Foundation Accountability » Audit Budget Financial statements Programme Budget Portal Results Report Governance » World Health Assembly Executive Board Election of Director-General Governing Bodies website Home / News / item / Neglected tropical diseases course now accessible via eLearning Neglected tropical diseases course now accessible via eLearning 3 August 2017 Departmental news Geneva Reading time: The free online eLearning Platform of the World Health Organization (WHO) now carries a section on neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) with a first course on post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). (...) The course has a pre- and post-test exercise and a score 70% or more leads to a certificate of completion.
Language:English
Score: 1012046.3 - https://www.who.int/news/item/...e-now-accessible-via-elearning
Data Source: un
Select language Select language English العربية 中文 Français Русский Español Home Health Topics All topics » A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Resources » Fact sheets Facts in pictures Multimedia Publications Questions & answers Tools and toolkits Popular » Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Ebola virus disease Air pollution Hepatitis Top 10 causes of death World Health Assembly » Countries All countries » A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Regions » Africa Americas South-East Asia Europe Eastern Mediterranean Western Pacific WHO in countries » Statistics Cooperation strategies Yemen crisis » Sadeq Al Wesabi Hasan An internally displaced family in a camp in Hudaydah © Credits   Newsroom All news » News releases Statements Campaigns Commentaries Events Feature stories Speeches Spotlights Newsletters Photo library Media distribution list Headlines » Timeline: WHO's COVID-19 response »   Emergencies Focus on » COVID-19 pandemic Ebola virus disease outbreak DRC 2021 Syria crisis Crisis in Northern Ethiopia Afghanistan Crisis Latest » Disease Outbreak News Travel advice Situation reports Weekly Epidemiological Record WHO in emergencies » Surveillance Research Funding Partners Operations Independent Oversight and Advisory Committee Health Emergency Dashboard » WHO © Credits Data Data at WHO » Global Health Estimates Health SDGs Mortality Triple billion targets Data collections Dashboards » COVID-19 Dashboard Triple Billion Dashboard Health Equity monitor Mortality Highlights » GHO SCORE Insights and visualizations Data collection tools Reports World Health Statistics 2021 » WHO © Credits About WHO About WHO » People Teams Structure Partnerships Collaborating Centres Networks, committees and advisory groups Transformation Our Work » General Programme of Work WHO Academy Activities Initiatives Funding » Assessed contributions Flexible funding WHO Foundation Accountability » Audit Budget Financial statements Programme Budget Portal Results Report Governance » World Health Assembly Executive Board Election of Director-General Governing Bodies website Home / Newsroom / Facts in pictures / Detail / Mental health Mental health 2 October 2019 Good mental health is related to mental and psychological well-being. (...) WHO/K. Reidy © Credits Around 1 in 5 of the world's children and adolescents have a mental disorder. (...) WHO/E. Schwab © Credits About half of mental disorders begin before the age of 14.
Language:English
Score: 1009322.1 - https://www.who.int/news-room/...-pictures/detail/mental-health
Data Source: un
SUMMARY OF THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL SITUATION IN AFRICA, 1998
Cameroon and Swaziland in the Borda top-10 score, replaced V. State of well-being, 1998 37. (...) The focus is on the 10 countries with the highest scores and the 10 with the lowest scores. 38. The countries with the lowest Borda scores (in ascending order, Sierra Leone, Mali, Burundi, Mozambique, Malawi, Ethiopia, the Niger, Chad, the Gambia, Guinea- Bissau, Burkina Faso and Uganda) come from all subregions1 except North Africa. (...) It is important to note that 14 of the lowest-scoring Africa fill the top five positions in the ranking.
Language:English
Score: 1008472.1 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...f/get?open&DS=E/1999/16&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
Smooth transition and country specific factors.................................................................. 7 3 Summary While Equatorial Guinea’s income is six times higher than the graduation threshold in 2021, the HAI score is only 67, very low compared to the HAI scores of countries with similar income levels. (...) Progress in improving human assets has been slow. The HAI score reaches 67 in 2021, very low compared to the HAI scores of countries with similar income levels. The EVI score, 18.7 in 2021, which continues below the graduation threshold of 32, since 2017.
Language:English
Score: 1007056.4 - https://www.un.org/development...tes/45/CDP-PL-2021-PL-5A.1.pdf
Data Source: un
The outline follows the template structure defined in FGAI4H-C-105: Table of Contents 1 Introduction 3 1.1 Document Structure 3 1.2 Topic Description 3 1.3 Ethical Considerations 3 1.4 Existing AI Solutions 3 1.5 Existing work on benchmarking 3 2 AI4H Topic group 3 3 Method 4 3.1 AI Input Data Structure 4 3.2 AI Output Data Structure 4 3.3 Test Data Labels 4 3.4 Scores & Metrics 4 3.5 Undisclosed Test Data Set Collection 4 3.6 Benchmarking Methodology and Architecture 5 3.7 Reporting Methodology 5 4 Results 5 5 Discussion 5 6 Declaration of Conflict of Interest 5 Introduction Document Structure · overview of the whole document Topic Description · description of topic · categorization of the topic according to categorization guideline (currently C-0xx) · relevance of the health topic · gold standard of current health topic handling · possible impact of AI in this topic · expected impact of the benchmarking Ethical Considerations · ethical considerations on usage of AI · ethical consideration of and benchmarking including its data acquisition Existing AI Solutions · current systems available with their inputs, output, focus/bias · existing benchmarking including self-stated performance Existing work on benchmarking · papers on existing attempts to benchmark solutions on the topic · clinical evaluation attempts, RCT, etc. · including existing numbers AI4H Topic group · Topic group structure · Subtopic 1 · Subtopic 2 · Topic group participation · Tools/process of TG cooperation · TG interaction with WG, FG · Current topic group and topic status · Contributors so far · Next meetings · Next steps for the work on this document Method · Overview of the benchmarking AI Input Data Structure · possible inputs for benchmarking · ontologies, terminologies · data format AI Output Data Structure · outputs to benchmark · ontologies, terminologies · data format Test Data Labels · label types · ontologies, terminologies · data format Scores & Metrics · which metrics & scores to use for benchmarking · considering relation to parameters stakeholders need for decision making · considering scores that providers use · considering the scope providers designed their solutions for · considering the state of the art in RCT, statistics, AI benchmarking etc. · considering bias transparency Undisclosed Test Data Set Collection · raw data acquisition / acceptance · test data source(s): availability, reliability, · labelling process / acceptance · bias documentation process · quality control mechanisms · discussion of the necessary size of the test data set for relevant benchmarking results · specific data governance derived by general data governance document (currently C-004) Benchmarking Methodology and Architecture · technical architecture · hosting (IIC, etc.) · possibility of an online benchmarking on a public test dataset · protocol for performing the benchmarking (who does what when etc.) · AI submission procedure including contracts, rights, IP etc. considerations Reporting Methodology · Report publication in papers or as part of ITU documents · Online reporting · public leaderboards vs. private leaderboards · Credit-Check like on approved sharing with selected stakeholders · Report structure including an example · Frequency of benchmarking Results · insert here the reports of the different benchmarking runs Discussion · Discussion of the insights from executing the benchmarking on · external feedback on the whole topic and its benchmarking · technical architecture · data acquisition · benchmarking process · benchmarking results · field implementation success stories Declaration of Conflict of Interest · by each contributor to this document ____________________________
Language:English
Score: 1003882.1 - https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/f...ocuments/all/FGAI4H-G-043.docx
Data Source: un
. • Citizens’ report card – consumer perception on services – score sheet • Citizens Action – Lobby and advocacy with the utility managers – Bridging the gap – Urban areas • Gauge customer satisfaction then work backwards to benchmark- indicators related to customer satisfaction – dynamic from 15 to 24 hours of service. • Servicing the poor – how many of the new customers are from the poor neighbourhoods. • Gender in utility performance. ii) Benchmarking of individual managers • Efficient and effective use of resources • Capability to achieve performance targets Priority No. 2: i). (...) Financial viability of utilities – financial markets require credit rating of utilities • Possibility of bankability of utilities by local financial institutions • Commercial/financial institutions require credit rating of utilities. • Benchmarking/financial indicators to establish credit-worthiness of utilities.
Language:English
Score: 1003384.2 - https://www.un.org/esa/sustdev...esentations/working_group2.pdf
Data Source: un
Microsoft PowerPoint - dps presentation_ketkar.pptx AID SECURITIZATION: BEYOND  IFFIm Suhas L Ketkar Credit Capital Research Main Messages IFFIm has worked quite well since inception in 2006: • Secured donor commitments of USD6.2 b • raised USD3.6 b & disbursed USD1.8 b  • helped vaccinate more than 288 m children, saving     more than five million lives But scaling it up to fund education, climate change and other  development initiatives could prove quite challenging Securitization of future multilateral aid or south‐south credit  flows could be helpful, though some major implementation  problems will have to be overcome AMCs and Cash on Delivery are alternatives that are worth  exploring      Agenda Securitization embedded in IFFIm: its structure and unique  features that resulted in rating agencies awarding it AAA credit rating   But risks to the AAA credit rating of IFFIm have risen in the  current global environment and made it very unlikely that any  new deals to fund education, climate change, and other  development objectives will be rated AAA  Advanced Market Commitments (AMCs) and Cash on Delivery  (COD) are alternatives to IFF and may be more useful for  improving aid effectiveness without providing up‐front funding Structure of IFFIm Source: IFFIm Supporting GAVI  http://www.iffim.org/about/overview/ Unique Features of IFFIm IFFIm meant: • Predictable funding • Significant front‐loading of funding Funding predictability brought in several benefits: • increase in the likelihood of investment by companies in  large‐scale production capacity, thereby reducing costs • raise the possibility of investment to increase coverage • achievement of most efficient resource use over time Front‐loading can increase the spill‐over benefits of  immunization and bring in fiscal savings to developing  country governments  IFFIm’s AAA Credit Rating AAA rating important to keep down costs of raising funds  and to ensure that IFFIm continues to approve new  Vaccination and Immunization (V&I) programs  Rating agencies perceived three credit risks to IFFIm notes: •Donors honor their aid commitments in full and on time – this risk mitigated by (1) mostly I‐grade donors and (2)  compelling goal of supporting child V&I programs in poor  countries  •IFFIm’s treasurer fails in timely debt servicing – mitigated  by WB as treasurer •Several IFFIm‐eligible countries run up protracted arrears  to the IMF, the trigger used to release donors from a  portion of their annual payments   Importance AAA Credit Rating Through March 2011, IFFIm has secured USD6.2 b in donor  pledges from 11 donor countries It has undertaken 19 bond issues in five markets, raising  nearly USD3.6 b and disbursing through end 2010 USD1.8  b in 70 low‐income countries, a testament to IFFIm’s  success in frontloading of resources Overall, IFFIm has traded at a small premium to the World  Bank and, in recent times, below the spread for the EIB  and KfW; also in most cases IFFIm has priced inside the  weighted average donor spread Importance AAA Credit Rating Source: Evaluation of the IFFIm, June 2011 But downgrade below AAA is no longer academic risk which  brings into question IFFIm’s ability to fund new programs Scaling‐up IFFIm Needs for funding are massive, both in the context of specific  MDGs as well as other development objectives EFA has identified a funding gap of $11 b per year if MDGs and  EFA goals  – universal primary education and elimination of  gender gap ‐ are to be met This funding gap is some three‐times the current level of ODA for  education Indeed, overall ODA has fallen way below target with the DAC  delivering 56% of the pledged amount; its share of GNI in 2010  was at 0.31%, also way below the UN target of 0.7% of GNI   Scaling‐up IFFIm Hence, innovative ways of financing development are  required But is scaling‐up IFFIm the answer?   Probably not because IFFIm’s success is owed to many of  its unique features which will be difficult, if not impossible,  to replicate for other development goals in areas like  education and climate change Scaling‐up IFFIm IFFIm receives support from: GAVI Alliance, a highly regarded public‐private partnership,  provides funds to purchase and deliver vaccines and also  helps disburse IFFIm funds to eligible low‐income countries World Bank executes IFFIm’s borrowing program and  manages proceeds to ensure  that sufficient liquidity is  available to meet funding commitments IFFIm also benefited from pro‐bono legal and investment  banking services  Scaling‐up IFFIm While some of this institutional support can be recreated for  IFFs to fund other development goals, securing credible donor  commitments could prove difficult Rating agencies consider IFFIm commitments credible because : • V&I programs are known to save lives and reduce debilitating   disabilities • Science supporting V&I programs is incontrovertible; V&I is  recognized to be one of the most cost effective interventions Rating agencies’ belief about credibility of IFFIm commitments  was validated when the UK government not only maintained  but raised its commitment despite its budgetary problems Scaling‐up IFFIm Unlike V&I programs, however, many development  initiatives do not have universal appeal While universal primary education and elimination of  gender gap recognized as highly desirable goals, controversy  surrounds on how best to achieve them Even goals are controversial when it comes to climate  change  Hence, risk of donors not paying their pledges in full and on  time would rise in out years when grants are used to service  debt Scaling‐up IFFIm Front‐loading via IFFIm is desirable because it permits low‐ income countries to clear up back‐log of children who missed  out on vaccinations, thereby saving millions of lives for V&I  programs Once the back‐log is cleared to benefit from the “herd  immunity” effect – disease eradication is the most extreme  form of this benefit – the recurrent costs of V&I programs  can be expected to decline Even when IFFIm was conceived, aid commitments were  expected to rise over time to provide funds to low‐income  countries to run permanent but smaller V&I programs Scaling‐up IFFIm While front‐loading in education would help build schools,  the recurrent costs of providing education will be  substantial  Inability of donor countries to raise funding commitments to  education in future may then act as a constraint on  furthering the cause of education in the long run if low‐ income countries are unable to raise resources to cover  recurrent costs Similar issues could come up in the context of other  development initiatives  Scaling‐up IFFIm Some macro issues of relevance: • AAA credit ratings of many developed countries are under  stress since S and P downgraded US • Any slippage in AAA credit ratings of Italy, France and the  UK could result in rating agencies downgrading IFFIm given  that their shares in total IFFIm pledges stand at 10.8%, 28.7%  and 46.2%, respectively • If two rating agencies were to rate IFFIm below AAA, IFFIm  would not be able to fund new V&I programs • In general, as more and more aid flows are pledged for  scaling‐up of IFFIm to  promote other development goals,  the credibility of all commitments is expected to decline,  thereby adversely affecting the IFF ratings and borrowing  costs Scaling‐up IFFIm Yet another hurdle in scaling up IFFIm comes from the fact  that many countries can not make off‐budget multi‐year aid  commitments In US context, Congress must provide appropriation  covering full commitment amount before federal  government can enter into legally binding contractual  obligations  Indeed, all multi‐year US development initiatives, including  the much publicized USD15 b five‐year Bush plan for  HIV/AIDS relief, are contingent upon Congressional  appropriations over time   Scaling‐up IFFIm While lack of consensus on scientific merits of climate change  can create an obstacle to IFF for the purpose, a facility to  reduce global (as opposed to local) pollution may hold a  special appeal to donor nations Benefits from reducing global pollution accrue to citizens of  the world, including those living in donor countries Donor countries may then find IFF for reducing global  pollution the most cost effective method of achieving certain  global climate change outcomes Scaling‐up IFFIm As ODA from emerging donor countries ‐‐ China, Brazil, India,  South Africa and others – has increased from about 5% of total  ODA to nearly twice that level at present, opportunities for their  involvement in IFFs has gone up South Africa and Brazil have pledged USD20 m each to IFFIm But given emerging donors interest in securing access to raw  materials and markets in low‐income countries, IFFs directed at  infrastructure may prove more attractive to them Alternatives to IFFIm Advanced Market Commitment (AMC) is another mechanism  for creating sufficient market certainty to incentivize  production capacity and/or R&D Example:  In 2007, five donor governments (Canada, Italy,  Norway, Russia, and the United Kingdom) and Bill & Melinda  Gates Foundation committed USD1.5 b to accelerate  development of commercially viable new pneumococcal  vaccine for developing countries This mechanism promotes financing predictability, but leads  to no front loading Rating issues don’t arise, but future commitments can raise  budget scoring problems  Alternatives to IFFIm Cash on Delivery (COD) is yet another alternative in which  donors commit to pay for example USD100 for each additional  child who completes primary school and takes a standardized  competency test Since donor disbursements would occur following  independent certification of outcomes, COD assures aid  effectiveness Since COD utilizes developing countries’ existing budget and  procurement systems, it aids growth in local capacity but at a  potential risk of corruption COD provides neither predictable nor up‐front funding but  improves aid effectiveness Wrap‐up While IFFIm has been quite successful, scaling it up raises many questions: • Will donor commitments be as credible as those for V&I  programs? (...) • Will replicating IFFIm for other initiatives dilute donor  commitments? • Will budget scoring issues limit number of donors? South‐South aid securitization for infrastructure projects and  alternative mechanisms like AMC and COD programs could be  used 
Language:English
Score: 1002838.9 - https://www.un.org/development...resentation_ketkar_17oct11.pdf
Data Source: un