REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON TORTURE AND OTHER CRUEL, INHUMAN OR DEGRADING TREATMENT OR PUNISHMENT, JUAN E. MENDEZ : ADDENDUM
these services are usually victims’ first point of contact with the justice system, they tend to
dismiss victims’ complaints as a ploy to have charges against the detainee dropped. (...) Examinations are usually carried out in the
presence of the police or ministerial police officers in charge of detention, making it
impossible for the detainee to give the doctor a confidential account of what happened and
for the doctor to check injuries properly and record them. Doctors tend to be members of
staff of the institutions where detainees are held, a situation that undermines their
independence and impartiality.
46. (...) A
majority of states have enacted laws on judicial oversight of enforcement of sentences, but
either the laws tend to be defective and restrictive with regard to the judge’s powers to
monitor conditions of detention or else the concept is inoperative.
PROMOTION AND PROTECTION OF ALL HUMAN RIGHTS, CIVIL, POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS, INCLUDING THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT : INFORMATION / PRESENTED BY THE EQUALITY AND HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION OF GREAT BRITAIN ; NOTE BY THE SECRETARIAT
Causes of trafficking including (i) abuse of the social vulnerability10 and poverty of victims;
(ii) demand for sexual exploitation and cheap labour11; (iii) profitability of trafficking12for
organised crime13 (iv) gender inequality14, and (v) migration15
8 Article 3(a) of the Trafficking Protocol and Article 4(a) of the CoE Convention both define
exploitation as but don’t limit it to the named purposes.
9 The Commission recommends ‘Indicators of Trafficking for Exploitation’, published in 2009 jointly
by the European Commission and the International Labour Organisation, which sets out a range of
control techniques employed in trafficking cross referencing them to the main means of exploitation,
namely coercion, deception and abuse of vulnerability.
10 This importance of the concept of vulnerability is reflected, amongst other things, by its centrality of
as a means of exploitation as reflected in the Trafficking Protocol, the CoE Convention, the UN
Principles, and in the European Commission’s proposals in 2009 and 2010 for a new European Union
11 Demand for the services, products and goods that foster all forms of exploitation leading to, amongst
other things, people trafficking, is cited in the main current and proposed international legal
instruments as perhaps the main cause of human trafficking itself.
12 The relatively high profits involved in human trafficking is increasingly being recognised itself as a
significant cause of the phenomenon as reflected in the European Commission in their proposals of
March 2009 and March 2010 for a new European Union Framework Decision against human
13 This relationship is recognised (i) at the global level in that the Trafficking Protocol is to the UN’s
Convention against Transnational Organised Crime, and through the International Labour
Organisation’s estimate published in 2008 that annual profits from trafficking in human beings may
be as high as $32 billion; (ii) at the regional level in being reflected in the European Union’s
Framework Decision on combating trafficking in human beings and in the CoE Convention, and (iii)
in Great Britain in the significant presence of organised crime in trafficking, evidenced in part by the
finding that at least ten organised crime groups were in human trafficking in Scotland from the
Scottish Serious Organised Crime Group’s mapping project in 2009.
14 Human trafficking is largely a gendered phenomenon in that women tend to be both especially
vulnerable to traffickers and then actually account for the bulk of victims particularly in respect of
trafficking for sexual exploitation;
15 It is well established that human trafficking involves movement of exploited persons not only within
borders but across borders. (...) Recognising this and considering and embedding them into strategy
obviates the weakness for States of overly focusing on action plans only that, because they lack
underlying strategy and narrative, tend to comprise disparate rather than complementary actions.
17 For the Commission a human rights approach to human trafficking has two basic elements.
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL ON THE ISSUE OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS AND OTHER BUSINESS ENTERPRISES : ADDENDUM
treaties do refer to business, they tend to mention particular sectors rather than generally
referring to private business. (...) General comments and recommendations in this context tend to mention specific
business sectors, such as the extractive industry or pharmaceutical companies. (...) Further, concluding observations from CESCR, CERD and CEDAW in particular tend to
express concern about major infrastructure development and extractives projects affecting
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON CONTEMPORARY FORMS OF SLAVERY, INCLUDING ITS CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES, GULNARA SHAHINIAN : ADDENDUM :
In the rural areas, the Andevo work the employer’s land
(someone from a higher caste)， tend livestock and sometimes act as guards.
12. (...) Children who work in mines generally come from poor rural families who do not
have land to cultivate and cannot send their children to school. Children tend to work
alongside their families； consequently, few children receive an income for their work. (...) In general, children work from five to ten hours a day, depending on their tasks and
what they are mining. They tend to work as part of a production chain； their specific task
depends on their age and sex.
VISIT TO BRAZIL :REPORT OF THE INDEPENDENT EXPERT ON THE ENJOYMENT OF HUMAN RIGHTS BY PERSONS WITH ALBINISM, IKPONWOSA ERO
Based on recent research, the prevalence of skin cancer in patients
enrolled in studies of the Pro-Albino Programme was 26 per cent, which is similar to that
found in persons with albinism by researchers in Tanzania (25 per cent) and South Africa (23
per cent).26 The same research indicated that persons with albinism in Brazil tend to face
similar prejudice and stigma to those experienced by their counterparts in African countries.
60. (...) The Independent Expert found that access to specialized doctors, such as
ophthalmologists, dermatologists, paediatricians, oncologists and psychologists, was
particularly challenging as they tend to be concentrated in city centres. Moreover, some of
them reportedly have a serious backlog of patients.
WRITTEN SUBMISSION BY THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA: THE NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION OF KOREA - NOTE BY THE SECRETARIAT
They face ageist attitude when using health
care service, tend to experience violence and abuse more often, have limited access to labor
market, and are exposed to hate speech on social media.
NOTE VERBALE DATED 1 OCTOBER 2015 FROM THE PERMANENT MISSION OF THE REPUBLIC OF SINGAPORE TO THE UNITED NATIONS OFFICE AT GENEVA AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS IN SWITZERLAND ADDRESSED TO THE SECRETARIAT OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL
Some arguments against the death penalty tend to one-sidedly focus on the rights of the
VISIT TO MOZAMBIQUE : REPORT OF THE INDEPENDENT EXPERT ON PROTECTION AGAINST VIOLENCE AND DISCRIMINATION BASED ON SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND GENDER IDENTITY
gender inequalities also have a negative impact on lesbian and bisexual women and tend to
render them invisible. A 2017 survey found that socially construed perceptions of
masculinity and femininity continue to prevail, leading to negative attitudes towards
persons who depart from these expectations.19 To protect their families and their
communities from shame or owing to fear of losing social privilege or access to leadership
positions, lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans persons tend to conceal their true identity. (...) People’s attitudes in cosmopolitan areas tend to be more liberal than in rural areas,
where conservative attitudes can be the norm. (...) These conceptions are so pervasive that they extend, astonishingly, to members of
the lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans communities, who tend to integrate the negative views
of wider society and internalize social prejudice, with consequences for their self-esteem
17 A 2016 Afrobarometer opinion poll found that 56 per cent of Mozambicans would welcome or not be
bothered about having a homosexual neighbour.
RIGHTS OF THE CHILD : REPORT : ADDENDUM / SUBMITTED BY THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE SALE OF CHILDREN, CHILD PROSTITUTION AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY, JUAN MIGUEL PETIT
They are in danger because they tend to
commit offences and live in very precarious conditions, marked by fear, hunger and
2. (...) Quantifying the incidence of sexual abuse is always problematic. Statistics tend to
identify the tip of the iceberg, as the phenomenon is largely underreported. (...) The staff of the shelters tend to say it is a vocational training centre for girls coming
from dysfunctional families.
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, ITS CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES, RASHIDA MANJOO :ADDENDUM
Women have an unemployment rate of 12.2 per cent, compared to 11
per cent for men. Women tend to be more dependent on others for their upkeep due to their
socioeconomic situations, and this usually results in fewer individual choices. (...) The first respondents (duty officers) tend to be generalist police officers in most
49. (...) The Special Rapporteur was
informed that CSWs tend to act as gatekeepers between victims and shelter,and even if they
have gone to the police, victims are required to register with the CSW to be placed in
publicly-run or -funded shelters.