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REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, ITS CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES, YAKIN ERTÜRK :ADDENDUM
Differences remain, however, with regard to the types of employment women and men have. Women tend to work in professions that are less well paid and they are six times more likely than men to work part-time.5 A large part of the women in part-time work are actually underemployed, as they lack longer work-hour options. (...) Whereas perpetrators of many other forms of gender-based violence prevalent in Sweden tend to act alone to avoid social opprobrium, honour-related violence, in its most distinct form, distinguishes itself by the involvement of several family members (often condoned by other community members) who collude to enforce social norms shared by the group.
语言:中文
得分: 657049.9 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...pen&DS=A/HRC/4/34/ADD.3&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, ITS CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES, YAKIN ERTÜRK :ADDENDUM
Although the customary system recognizes certain female authorities and grants them a limited degree of authority, virtually all chiefs in Ghana are men.4 Deriving their legitimacy from a claim to tradition, traditional authorities tend to be socially conservative, putting respect for local custom before gender equality. 9. (...) It is not surprising that the country’s poorest districts in northern Ghana tend to have the lowest school enrolment and retention rates.
语言:中文
得分: 657049.9 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...open&DS=A/HRC/7/6/ADD.3&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, ITS CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES, YAKIN ERTÜRK :ADDENDUM
Prevailing power blocks tend to legitimize much of the transgression of women’s rights, by referring to the sharia. (...) Other factors also contribute to the dire health situation of Afghan women - girls tend to become pregnant at an age at which their body is not fully developed; child spacing is unknown or ignored because of the societal pressure to generate sons; and women are simply denied health care because there is no one to accompany them to health-care centres or no money to cover the costs.
语言:中文
得分: 657049.9 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...DS=E/CN.4/2006/61/ADD.5&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
VISIT TO KYRGYZSTAN :REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON MINORITY ISSUES, FERNAND DE VARENNES
Unfortunately, sign language is not consistently used as a medium of instruction or even generally taught in these schools. Instead, students tend to be trained in lip-reading and articulation. 62.
语言:中文
得分: 657049.9 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...en&DS=A/HRC/46/57/ADD.1&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
EXTRAJUDICIAL, SUMMARY OR ARBITRARY EXECUTIONS : REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR, ASMA JAHANGIR : ADDENDUM
Deaths due to excessive use of force 乏lnd extrajudicial killings attributed to law一enforcement officials 34_ Throughout her ViSit, the Special Rapporteur heard numerous accounts of killings by Inembers of 迂le Police in Situations alleging excessive use of force of extrajudicial executions_ These rePOr[S, ga迂lered from a Variety of S0urceS, have been compiled by the Special Rapporteur and Summarized in an appendix to this report_ Al迂lough 迂le use of deadly Police Violence against civilians in Brazil is rife, there is Ilo uP一t0一date, comprehensive official disaggregated data on Police lethality_ II1 general, 迂le figures Provided to the Special Rapporteur from Various Sources (including the States and the federal Government) did Ilot Inatch each Other but indicated an alarmingly high rate of Police killings_ According to Official and NGO S0urceS, [here are approximately 4S,000 to S0,000 homicides perpetrated every year in Brazil_ For tl〕e years 2000 and Z00l, 迂le Special Secretariat for Human RightS, Which Was able to gather information from Six StateS, namely P肛垣, Ba.hia, the Federal DiStrict, Rio de _Taneir0, S亘O Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul, reported a total of 3,0l7 civilians killed by 迂le military and civil Police On and off duty_ Among theSe, l,lZ6 Persons Were killed by on一duty military Police (often explained away as killing during encounters and armed c0nfr0ntati0n), While 186 Were killed by the civilian police_ Off一duty military and civil Police Were allegedly responsible for the remaining l,70S killings_ 3S_ The figures Provided by the National Human Rights Movement (MNDH, a nationwide Brazilian NGO) are Well belOW the official figures as 迂le information collected is limited only to the killings reported in Inain neWSPaPerS, thereby leaving Out the Inajority of cases of Police homicides Which never get Inedia attention_ NeVertheleSS, 迂ley give an indication of 迂le extent of 迂le Problem of dea由S due to excessive use of force of extrajudicial killings_ During 2000 and Z00l, MNDH reported a total of ZS,S4Z homicides in Brazil_ of 迂1eSe, 770 dea山S Were E/CN_4/2004/7/Add_3 page 12 imputed [O On一duty Police fOrceS, While 834 cases Were allegedly caused by death Squads of Off duty Police_ OVefall, MNDH indicates 山at the fate of police le由al Violence is Particularly high in 迂le largest urban centres of 迂le Sou迂leastern regions of Brazil, Which generally Suffer from an extreme level of urban criminality_ 36_ The Special Rapporteur is aWare that Police Violence is by Ilo Ineans limited to these areas and t壬1乏廿1t it also affects other States 迂lroughout the country_ II1 different regiOnS, the targets of 迂lese killings Inay Vary二 landless Peasants of indigenous leaders in rural areas in 迂le context of land c0I1flict, youngsters from disadvantaged homes caught in Police anti一drug Operations of in reprisal for killing of Police 0fficerS, human rights activists Who are Silenced_ OVerall, Victims usually tend to be young Afro一Brazilian Inales between IS and 19 years of age, Sometimes involved in criminal gangs and dWelling in 迂le Poorest communities_ The Special Rapporteur Was aPPalled, after ta压ing Wi迂1 relatives and representatives of 迂lose Who died, by the overall Situation of the Population living in 迂le 仄"况VEZ况S3 Where innocent citizens are trapped in a cycle of Violence fostered by heavily armed drug gangs of indiscriminate repressive Police 0PeratiOnS, Wi由 feW reS0rtS, if any, to Seek Protection_ This acute Situation can Only result in record numbers of dea由S at Police hands_ TTIC Special Rapporteur noted a dangerous recent UPWB_rd Spiral in the number of civilians killed by 迂le State,S military Police in bo由 Rio de _Taneiro and S亘O Paulo_ Police homicides often take Place in 迂le course of Inassive raids int0仄"况VEZ况S Inainly designed to apprehend criminal Suspects of carry out Preventive SWeePS_ II1 the course of these raidS, the P0lice, Who often lack 迂le training and the Ineans to Properly carry out 迂lese 0PeratiOnS, have repeatedly engaged in unjustified fatal Shootings of criminal Suspects of local inhabitants_ There are also a number of reports Where Police have Simply used Violence and killed young People living in 厉况VEZ况S Wi迂lout any Provocation_ 37_ The Special Rapporteur Was informed 由at in March ZO0Z, 100 Inembers of a Special intelligence unit Within 迂le S亘O Paulo military P0lice, kn0Wn as GRADI, originally created to investigate hate criIneS, killed 12 Suspected criminal gang Inembers travelling in a bus On the Castelinho highWay, in an alleged Shoot一out during a Police Operation_ The Special Rapporteur received allegations that independent forensic examinations of the Victims Suggested that Inany had been extrajudicially executed_ 38_ While Visiting tl〕e community of B0rel, in tl〕e north of Rio de _Taneir0, the Special Rapporteur heard testimonies indicating that in April Z003, four young Inen Were Shot dead in an alleged anti一drug operation carried out by military Police_ TTIC initial Police Version of events claimed 迂lat the four Inen Were d工ug traffickers killed in a Shoot一out_ This Version Was reportedly Soon discredited by official autopsies Which demonstrated Ilo evidence t壬1乏廿1t there had been an exchange of fire_ 39_ According to figures Supplied by the State Secretariat for Public Security, SZI civilians Were reportedly killed in confrontations With the Police in greater Rio de Ianeiro alone during the first five Inonths of Z003, in comparison With a total of 900 in 迂le Whole Rio State throughout 2002_ During 迂lese five InonthS, 22 police Were killed While on duty in 迂le city of Rio de Ianeiro_ Similarly, the Police Ombudsman of S亘O Paulo reported that betWeen Ianuary and May Z003, the Police Were responsible for 迂le death of 464 Persons While 迂lere Were a total of S74 homicides by Police forces in 2002_ During the Same Period in Z003, S7 Police Officers Were l〈illed, 43 being Off duty While 14 Were in Service_ E/CN_4/2004/7/Add_3 page 13 40_ A closer analysis reveals that Police killings are often Poorly disguised extrajudicial executions_ According to a Police ombudsman and NGOS Inet by 迂le Special RaPP0rteur, Police reports Often State that 迂le Victim has been killed in an exchange of fire a.fter resisting arrest_ InVariably, the Police use a Standardized 4石resisting一arrest f0rIn,, (况眈Z口 丕ZE 厂ESZSZE刀CZ况) Which Presents accounts of laWful Police response to the unlaWful use of deadly force by 迂le VictiInS, 迂lereby Shifting responsibility from 迂le Police to the deceased_ NeVertheleSS, forensic reports and Witness accounts generally ShOW t壬1乏廿1t the le迂lal Shots had been fired from behind and at close range, in circumstances Suggesting 迂lat the Person Was a Victim of an extrajudicial execution_ The Special Rapporteur Was also able to identify o迂ler types of cases of Police Violence_ She heard accounts Suggesting that Police resorted to extremely excessive force [O respond to Potentially criIninal, 迂lough Ilot in life一threatening Situations_ She also ga迂lered testimonies indicating 迂lat Police kill While off duty, either to resolve personal Vendettas of in response to Some Ininor Provocation of inconvenience_ Finally, She also heard Worrisome reports of Victims disappearing after being kidnapped by tl〕e police_ 41_ A further cause of concern for the Special Rapporteur is the fact t壬1乏廿1t this increase in Police le迂lality Seems to be condoned by a Section of Public opinion and taken over by State authorities Which considers it as being a necessary and unavoidable Product of crime control_ The Special Rapporteur also deplores that a legacy of Violence inhefited from the Brazilian Inilitary dictatorship continues to Shape 迂le prevailing ethos of certain divisions of the military Police_ She regrets that Some Inembers of the Police exploit 迂le overall climate of Violence in order to deliver rough and easy justice to those t壬1乏廿1t 迂ley consider Socially 4石undeSirable,,_ B. Death Squads 42_ Witnesses Inet by 迂le Special Rapporteur gave horrifying accounts of groups of armed Inen in civilian cl0迂1eS, Operating under h00dS, using Sophisticated rifles and carrying Out random killings of innocent civilians_ Dead bodies are found Inutilated, Wi迂1 heads SeVered, ears and Organs cut Off While corpses are left to rot_ A number of Such killings are attributed to groups of people described as dea迂1 Squads_ With few eXcePti0nS, Inany high一ranking Officials Inet by 迂le Special Rapporteur acknowledged 迂le fact 迂lat Inany dea迂1 Squads had ties Wi迂1 State Police_ By their criminal actiVitieS, Which benefit from 迂le collusion of active Participation of laW enforcement agencieS, 迂ley contribute to creating a Pervasive climate of insecurity characterized by a Very high level of homicides_ While Visiting Santo Antonio de Iesus (in Ba_hia), and Itambe (in PernaInbucO), 迂le Special Rapporteur Was able to feel the terror generated by these extermination groups among 迂le p0pulati0n, Inembers of the State legislative aSSeInbly, as Well as among Pr0SecutOrS, human rights defenders of Inembers of 迂le judiciary_ 43_ Dea迂1 Squads are Said to be a legacy of tl〕e Brazilian military dictatorship Where 由eir Primary functions Were to Silence opponents to 迂le military regime_ Information received by 迂le Special Rapporteur indicate [ha[, t0day, 迂ley are Inade up of Well Organized and heavily armed criminal gangS, composed of Ordinary criminals as Well as Off一duty of former Police Officers_ They Inainly tend to operate in areas Wi迂1 little State presence and Specialize in d工ug trafficking of Various criminal actiVitieS, for eXamPle, extortion_ Some groups Inay have little in common With Organized crimes and Inay be Inade up of Off一duty Police Officefs Willing [O make extra Inoney Working as Security guards for Small businessmen afraid of robberies WhO, in 迂le absence of a reliable State P0lice, have taken upon themselves to ensure 迂leir 0Wn Protection_ E/CN_4/2004/7/Add_3 page 14 44_ The Inotives of Such killings by death Squads are Ilot alWayS clear but 迂le Special Rapporteur Was able to identify Some Patterns_ II1 Santo Antonio de IeSuS, She heard numerous reports of killings and disappearances of youngsters Perpetrated by a military Police nicknamed 4石P0mPOnet,, WhO, With the alleged Support of innuential reSidentS, took it upon himself to 4石socially cleanSe,, 迂le area_ II1 Maraba, in 迂le State of P肛垣, 迂le Special Rapporteur received information according [O Which a Police inspectof nicknamed 4石R0bOcOP,, Was heading a dea迂1 Squad Whose objective Was to Shoot on Sight any burglar_ II1 San Geraldo do Araguaia in the State of P肛垣, a land0Wner Who failed to obtain an eviction order from a judge, hired Seven Police Officers to evict a landless group of rural Workers Who had invaded his Property_ One Person Was killed as a result of 迂lis Operation_ 4S_ The Situation in 迂le coastal State of Espirito Santo is a Particularly Striking example of Penetration of death Squad activities into the highest levels of the legiSlatiVe, judicial and executive branches of a State_ II1 l964, SCM丕ZE厂ZE DEZEZZVE LE C口C绥 (4石Shield of Detective le C0cq,,, of SDLC), Was founded in honour of a Inurdered detective_ By early l990S tl〕e organization had Inore than 3,800 IneInberS, composed Inainly of Inembers of the civil and military Police_ It Was kn0Wn to operate freely, engaging in death一Squad activity as Well as Organized crime and carrying Out a terror campaign affecting all Segments of Society_ The Special Rapporteur is aware 迂lat Over the last 10 years Several investigations of these dea迂1 Squads have been carried 0ut, notably by a Special commission Inade of Public Pr0SecutOrS, civil and military P0lice, Which concluded 山at in addition to police 0fficefS, SDLC included P0liticianS, buSineSSInen, Various Government 0fficialS, laWyerS, judgeS, Inembers of the Public Pr0Secut0r,S Office and hired gunmen_ 46_ InVariably, Inembers of 迂lis investigative commission have been Subject to Serious dea迂1 threats_ One of 迂1em, Francisco BadeneS, 迂le head of the civil Police at t壬1乏廿1t tiIne, had to be relocated_ Tragically, human rights laWyer Ioaquim Marcelo Denadai Was killed on IS April 2002 after he openly accused SDLC of being responsible for Several killings_ The Special Rapporteur takes note 由at this Inurder has [riggered in 2002 迂le creation by 迂le federal Government of a joint federal and State Police task force to investigate human rights Violations Perpetrated by SDLC_ NeVer迂1eleSS, On ZS March Z003, Iudge AleXand工e Martins de Castro Filho Who Was Presiding over Inany cases against Inembers of SDLC, Was brutally Inurdered after having received repeated death 迂lreats in 迂le Past_ 47_ The Special Rapporteur Was also Inade aWare of numerous death threats against human rights defenders by Inembers of the Prominent organization F口厂冽阴 RE况gE ES歹艺厂艺Z口 S况邝Z口_ Finally, 迂le Special Rapporteur Was informed t壬1乏廿1t despite the intervention in 1996 of the federal Office of the Public Prosecutor to file a Suit in the Federal District Court in Espirito Santo to dissolve SDLC, a final court decision has SO far Ilot been reached on this Inatter_ ThuS, it remains a legally constituted 0rganizati0n, With an identified add工ess_ C.
语言:中文
得分: 650628.96 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...&DS=E/CN.4/2004/7/ADD.3&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
VISIT TO THE NETHERLANDS : REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON FREEDOM OF RELIGION OR BELIEF
The expansion of these communities, whose manifestation of beliefs tend be more public than those of more established communities, alongside international and national events that have perpetuated harmful stereotypes and conspiracies about them, are reportedly generating unease among wider Dutch society. (...) The terms of these relationships tend to avoid encroaching on the independence of participating parties. 22.
语言:中文
得分: 634062.45 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...en&DS=A/HRC/43/48/ADD.1&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE RIGHT OF EVERYONE TO THE ENJOYMENT OF THE HIGHEST ATTAINABLE STANDARD OF PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH, PAUL HUNT :ADDENDUM
A/HRC/4/28/Add.2 page 6 An overview of health status in Sweden and introduction to the issues covered by this report 8. Swedes tend to enjoy a standard of living, life expectancy and health status that is among the best in the world. (...) Like the Swedish population as a whole, the Sami tend to enjoy a standard of living, life expectancy and health status that are among the best in the world.
语言:中文
得分: 634062.45 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...pen&DS=A/HRC/4/28/ADD.2&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
RACISM, RACIAL DISCRIMINATION, XENOPHOBIA AND ALL FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION :REPORT : ADDENDUM / BY DOUDOU DIÈNE, SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON CONTEMPORARY FORMS OF RACISM, RACIAL DISCRIMINATION, XENOPHOBIA AND RELATED INTOLERANCE
Reports and testimonies received by the Special Rapporteur revealed that members of racialized groups tend to be discriminated on the employment market and are overrepresented in low-paying occupations, unemployment and other poverty indicators.
语言:中文
得分: 634062.45 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...DS=E/CN.4/2004/18/ADD.2&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, ITS CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES, YAKIN ERTÜRK :ADDENDUM
As concerns the labour market, according to a UNHCR report of 2003, 68 per cent of the registered unemployed were women. Women, more than men tend to be laid off when employers reduce the workforce.5 Although they tend to be more educated, women also E/CN.4/2006/61/Add.2 page 6 generally earn less than men - with reports indicating that women’s average salaries can be as much as 70 per cent below men’s average salaries for work of equal value.6 The gender wage gap has been attributed partially to the fact that women are concentrated in low-paid sectors of the economy.
语言:中文
得分: 634062.45 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...DS=E/CN.4/2006/61/ADD.2&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
NOTE VERBALE DATED 2011/03/02 FROM THE PERMANENT MISSION OF JAMAICA ADDRESSED TO THE OFFICE OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS
While the CAT may hold that there was evidence of torture in a particular submission, one cannot say what specific act amounted to torture given that CAT does not tend to single out a specific act from the large number of acts complained of by the petitioner.
语言:中文
得分: 630020.46 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...et?open&DS=A/HRC/16/G/3&Lang=C
数据资源: ods