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At higher levels of real income, a turning point will be passed, from where the higher levels of economic activity and real incomes will tend to be associated with falling levels of environmental pollution. In other words, more wealthy countries will tend to have a cleaner environment than poorer countries. (...) In the developed countries, notably in Europe, the challenge is to produce a more rational tax system for the use of fuels that would inter alia tend to reduce demand for coal. The area of transport gave some of the most interesting insights for policy makers concerned with sustainable development.
Language:English
Score: 696901.95 - https://unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/press/pr2003/03gen_n01e.htm
Data Source: un
Slide 1 Results of IFPRIResults of IFPRI--CONALGODON CONALGODON cotton projects in Colombiacotton projects in Colombia Patricia ZambranoPatricia Zambrano International Food Policy Research InstituteInternational Food Policy Research Institute Colombia Bt cotton study 2007Colombia Bt cotton study 2007--88  Bt cotton, Colombia Patricia Zambrano Luz Amparo Fonseca Iván Cardona Eduardo Magalhaes Jose Falck Zepeda Farm survey 364 farmers 2007-8 season 18 municipalities in Tolima, Córdoba and Sucre Bt cotton (Nuopal) in ColombiaBt cotton (Nuopal) in Colombia Main FindingsMain Findings  Higher yields but significant differences among Higher yields but significant differences among regionsregions  High number of insecticide applicationsHigh number of insecticide applications  Significant reduction in seed planted per hectare (25Significant reduction in seed planted per hectare (25-- 20 kg/ha of seed to 1020 kg/ha of seed to 10--12 kg/ha)12 kg/ha)  Lack of information about Bt seed and crop Lack of information about Bt seed and crop managementmanagement  Compliance with refugia isCompliance with refugia is less than optimalless than optimal  Cost of seed a limiting Cost of seed a limiting factor to reach poor farmersfactor to reach poor farmers  Access to credit and machinery Access to credit and machinery crucial factors in tech. adoptioncrucial factors in tech. adoption Gender and GM Cotton in Colombia Pilot qualitative study to explore gender roles in the Pilot qualitative study to explore gender roles in the adoption and impact of GM cottonadoption and impact of GM cotton Team members: Patricia Zambrano - IFPRI Jorge Higinio Maldonado - Universidad de Los Andes Sandra Mendoza - Universidad de Los Andes Luz Amparo Fonseca - CONALGODON Lorena Ruiz – CONALGODON Objectives Develop a qualitative methodology Identify research questions Generate testable hypothesis Page 4  Large body of literature on variety trait Large body of literature on variety trait preferences by gender and the preferences by gender and the implications for seed demandimplications for seed demand  Research shows that womenResearch shows that women’’s s preferences are different but are preferences are different but are dependant on their access to resources dependant on their access to resources and control over their incomeand control over their income  Very little research regarding gender Very little research regarding gender preferences and GM traits and varieties preferences and GM traits and varieties and itand it’’s implications on adoption and s implications on adoption and impactimpact Page 5 Qualitative methods usedQualitative methods used  Farmers (35)Farmers (35) •• Focus groupsFocus groups –– Map of cotton activities by genderMap of cotton activities by gender –– Agronomic preferences matrixAgronomic preferences matrix –– Priorities matrixPriorities matrix •• Interviews, farm map, short surveyInterviews, farm map, short survey  Technical Assistants (15)Technical Assistants (15) •• Focus group and interviews withFocus group and interviews with  Regional association directors (6)Regional association directors (6) •• interviewsinterviews Page 6 Colombia GM Cotton and GenderColombia GM Cotton and Gender  Issues identifiedIssues identified •• Women are involved in cotton production Women are involved in cotton production and their degree of involvement depend on and their degree of involvement depend on the control they have over the plotthe control they have over the plot •• GM varieties have introduced changes in GM varieties have introduced changes in farming practices farming practices (weeds, spraying)(weeds, spraying) •• GM cotton is seen as advantageous by GM cotton is seen as advantageous by women as it saves money in some critical women as it saves money in some critical activities that would otherwise require them activities that would otherwise require them to hire and supervise men, particularly for to hire and supervise men, particularly for the application of insecticides and other the application of insecticides and other chemicalschemicals Page 7 Colombia GM Cotton and GenderColombia GM Cotton and Gender •• Women have better Women have better creditcredit standing than men standing than men (and many times their husbands) and tend (and many times their husbands) and tend manage it in a more conservative waymanage it in a more conservative way •• Women and men save time with HT Women and men save time with HT technologies, but women will tend to use technologies, but women will tend to use their their freed time freed time in other productive activities, in other productive activities, while men will see it as a window for leisurewhile men will see it as a window for leisure •• Women have a very important role in cotton Women have a very important role in cotton administrationadministration and cash flow management and cash flow management Page 8 Qualitative study on Gender and GM Cotton in Colombia •• Women farmers see Women farmers see informationinformation as key to as key to handling GM varieties handling GM varieties –– have less access to information compared have less access to information compared to men, particularly among their peers as to men, particularly among their peers as their social networks and their their social networks and their ‘‘down time down time are quite limitedare quite limited –– but more willing to put additional effort to but more willing to put additional effort to follow directions about how to adjust follow directions about how to adjust their their farming practicesfarming practices Page 9 Colombia GM Cotton and GenderColombia GM Cotton and Gender  Seed Seed •• Both men and women perceive Both men and women perceive –– GM technology as beneficial but too GM technology as beneficial but too expensiveexpensive –– GM seed as more demanding weather GM seed as more demanding weather wise, and that conventional varieties are wise, and that conventional varieties are more resilient to weather variabilitymore resilient to weather variability –– Limited availability of Bt variety that Limited availability of Bt variety that farmers liked (Nuopal)farmers liked (Nuopal) –– That local varieties are not as easily That local varieties are not as easily available as in the pastavailable as in the past Page 10 Results of IFPRI-CONALGODON cotton projects in Colombia Colombia Bt cotton study 2007-8 Bt cotton (Nuopal) in ColombiaMain Findings Gender and GM Cotton in Colombia Slide Number 5 Qualitative methods used Colombia GM Cotton and Gender Colombia GM Cotton and Gender Qualitative study on Gender and GM Cotton in Colombia Colombia GM Cotton and Gender
Language:English
Score: 696901.95 - https://www.fao.org/fileadmin/...es/abdc/documents/zambrano.pdf
Data Source: un
Respondents living in lower human development countries and those living in conflict situations tended to express greater optimism about the future • Globally, many more respondents believed people will be better off (49%) in 2045 than today, compared with those who believe people will be worse off (32%). • Respondents in Sub-Saharan Africa were the most optimistic about the future (59%), followed by Central and Southern Asia (52%), and Eastern and South-eastern Asia (51%). (...) Other longer-term priorities vary according to income levels, but include rising concern with employment opportunities, respect for human rights and reducing conflict • While respondents in UNDP’s category of higher human development countries tended to give the highest priority to the environment and human rights, those in lower human development countries tended to accord the highest priority to less conflict and meeting basic needs, such as employment, healthcare and education. • ‘More respect for human rights’ ranked number three globally as a long-term priority. (...) Only 3% of respondents believe international cooperation is not important or not important at all. • The degree of importance of international cooperation varies across regions, with the highest percentage of respondents who viewed it favorably from Northern America. • Respondents in higher human development countries tend to perceive the need for international cooperation as greater than those in lower human development countries. • A majority of respondents globally say that COVID-19 has increased their view of the importance for greater cooperation between countries.
Language:English
Score: 696901.95 - https://www.un.org/sites/un2.u...etogether_executivesummary.pdf
Data Source: un
ADMINISTRATION OF THE TRUST TERRITORY OF WESTERN SAMOA : REPORT OF THE GOVERNMENT OF NEW ZEALAND FOR THE YEAR 1958 : NOTE / BY THE SECRETARY-GENERAL
Most Samoans live in some 400 foreshore villages where popula- tions range from 100 to 500, while Europeans and part-Europeans tend to congregate round the Apia area. · Except for the New Zealand Maoris the Samoans are the largest branch of the Polynesian race and speak a Polynesian dialect.
Language:English
Score: 696630.66 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc....nsf/get?open&DS=A/4200&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
Project: Support to Implementation of Forest Policy and Strategy in Kosovo GCP/KOS/005/FIN Training of foremen on implementation of public works in forestry in Northern municipalities of Kosovo 18 to 21 October 2016 Leposavic - Kosovo 17/10/2016 Monday – final preparation for the training, checking of training equipment & facilities, selecting and marking of trees for felling on the field etc 18/10/2016 Tuesday – Training on safe and efficient work with chain saw - day 1 09:00 Registration and opening of the workshop 09:30 Theory – safe work with chain saw 12:00 Lunch 13:00 Practical work – maintenance of chain saw 15:30 End of the day 19/10/2016 Wednesday – Field training on safe and efficient work with chain saw - day 2 09:00 Gathering of the participants and departure to the field 10:30 Practical demonstration of tree cutting performed by instructors 11:00 Practical work in the forest (each participant will cut one three under supervision of the instructors) 12:00 Lunch 13:00 Practical work in the forest- continuation 14:30 Recapitulation 15:30 End of the day 20/10/2016 Thursday – Field training on establishment and tending forest plantations- day 3 09:00 Gathering of the participants and departure to the field 10:00 Establishment of tree plantation 12:00 Lunch 13:00 Tending measures of young forest 14:00 Recapitulation 14:30 End of the day 21/10/2016 Friday – Field training on efficient use and maintenance of forest infrastructure -day 4 09:00 Gathering of the participants and departure to the field 09:30 Maintenance and use of forest roads 11:00 Maintenance and use of skid trails 12:30 Recapitulation 13:00 Lunch and closure of the training
Language:English
Score: 695365.5 - https://www.fao.org/fileadmin/...nts/Events2016/Prog_kosovo.pdf
Data Source: un
Measurement/Searching techniques/Experiment Customers suffer; noise creates audible and data problems, even to the extent that dialling out does not proceed. Railway noise tends to be different from normal power harmonic noise in that it tends to be at a low level when no trains are in the section and then varies dramatically when a train arrives.
Language:English
Score: 695365.5 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/Publ...tigation-part2-merged-E_27.pdf
Data Source: un
Measurement/Searching techniques/Experiment Customers suffer; noise creates audible and data problems, even to the extent that dialling out does not proceed. Railway noise tends to be different from normal power harmonic noise in that it tends to be at a low level when no trains are in the section and then varies dramatically when a train arrives.
Language:English
Score: 695365.5 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/Publ...gation/WebSearch/page0027.html
Data Source: un
Reported incidents such as these have occurred around the International Organization’s premises in the Place de Nations area, the Gare Cornavin train station, and Les Eaux Vives area where tourists tend to congregate. Street Trickery and/or Pickpockets; victims are approached by an individual/s asking for information, which is meant to distract the victim at which time the perpetrator/s will try to make physical contact or will have another accomplice assist in order to carry out the deed. Reported incidents such as these have occurred around the airport, the train station, and downtown area where tourists tend to congregate. Event participants should as soon as practicable notify and report these crimes to the Geneva Police at Telephone No. 117 and to the ITU Security who will prepare an incident report and assist the participant in filing an official report with the police.
Language:English
Score: 695365.5 - https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/S...ocuments/security-notice-E.pdf
Data Source: un
The United Nations Model Convention tends to be relied upon more by developing countries, while the OECD Model Convention tends to be relied upon more by developed countries though elements of the UN Model have influenced the OECD Model and OECD Member country practice. (...) In particular, the United Nations Model Convention tends to preserve greater taxing rights for the “source” country where profits arise, with the “residence” country of the person making the profits having to give a credit for taxes paid or an exemption from taxes on those profits.
Language:English
Score: 695067.72 - https://www.un.org/esa/ffd/tax-committee/ta-unmodel.html
Data Source: un