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Secondary wholesale markets tend to be located in districts or regional cities and take the bulk of their produce from local capture fisheries or aquaculture producers. (...) Product may also be assembled for export. The traders tend to be well-organized and a commodity exchange may exist for forward trading. (...) At other wholesale markets, products may be stored in bulk in chill, cold stores or appropriate dried fish storage areas for periods of time. Product tends to be bought from wholesalers in bulk for subsequent retail sale.
Language:English
Score: 697637.9 - https://www.fao.org/flw-in-fis...chainsvalue-chainwholesale/es/
Data Source: un
Secondary wholesale markets tend to be located in districts or regional cities and take the bulk of their produce from local capture fisheries or aquaculture producers. (...) Product may also be assembled for export. The traders tend to be well-organized and a commodity exchange may exist for forward trading. (...) At other wholesale markets, products may be stored in bulk in chill, cold stores or appropriate dried fish storage areas for periods of time. Product tends to be bought from wholesalers in bulk for subsequent retail sale.
Language:English
Score: 697637.9 - https://www.fao.org/flw-in-fis...chainsvalue-chainwholesale/fr/
Data Source: un
., coffee, tea, sugar). These value chains tend to be more complex. For example, the value chain for Indonesia palm oil involves multiple input suppliers, post-harvest processing, and private sector and government roles. Figure 4 – Tight value chain Actors within tight value chains tend to have strategic goals in mind, such as improving their bargaining power or ensuring a reliable crop supply.
Language:English
Score: 696510.45 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page233.html
Data Source: un
Social Protection for older persons: the current condition 10/27/2021 @smadioetomo/ILO_income secuirty older persons 2 SOCIAL, HEALTH AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF INDONESIAN OLDER PERSONS, 2020 10/27/2021 @smadioetomo/ILO_income secuirty older persons 3 10.9 13.7 16.9 20.3 23.8 27.0 29.7 12.1 15.0 18.6 22.5 26.6 30.3 33.6 23.0 28.7 35.4 42.8 50.4 57.3 63.3 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 Increasing trend in number of older persons (m) 2015-2045 Male 60+ Female 60+ Total 60+ Source: Population Projection 2015-2045 9.0 10.7 12.5 14.6 16.6 18.3 19.9 12 10 8 7 6 5 5 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 Increasing share of older persons but decreasing potential support ratios 2015-2045 % shareof older persons to total population Number of productive population potential to support one older persons Increasing size of older persons but decreasing potential support by productive age workers Older females outnumber older males Declining support ratio from 10 in 2020 to only 5 in 2045 410/27/2021 @smadioetomo/ILO_income secuirty older persons 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 Male Female urban rural 60-69 70-79 80+ 47.7 52.3 53.0 47.1 64.3 27.2 8.5 MORE FEMALE, MORE IN URBAN AREAS, DOMINATED BY THE YOUNG OLDS (THE YOLDS) , 2020 Source: Copied from BPS: Statistics of Older Persons 2020 Yogyakarta, Bali, East and Central Java, West Sumatra and North Sulawesi are already ageing (>10%) 510/27/2021 @smadioetomo/ILO_income secuirty older persons 90.1 68.7 90.4 82.0 75.0 83.4 72.6 78.2 4.8 10.9 3.9 6.8 9.1 6.8 9.4 8.0 3.2 13.5 3.5 7.0 10.1 6.1 11.6 8.7 1.9 7.9 2.1 4.2 5.9 3.8 6.5 5.1 0 20 40 60 80 100 Rural Urban 80+ 70-79 60-69 Female Male Older persons R es id en ce A ge g ro u p G en d er To ta l (%) Up to primary Junior secondary High school Tertiary education Low education, but the future elderly will have better education. 610/27/2021 @smadioetomo/ILO_income secuirty older persons 0.9 81.8 1.6 15.7 1.2 42.0 2.8 54.0 1.1 61.0 2.2 35.7 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 single married divorced widow/widower Marital status male female total 5.1 25.5 32.9 34.8 1.7 14.1 15.9 23.2 43.0 3.7 9.8 20.5 27.9 39.1 2.7 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 alone with spouse with family with children and grandchildren with other Living arrangement and potential caregivers male female total • Older men tend to be married • Older women remained widowed • 14.1% older women live alone • 43.0% live with children and grandchildren • 25.5% older men live with spouse • 32.9% older men live with family • 34.8% older men live with children and grandchildren Marital status and living arrangement, availability of caregivers and support? (...) 10/27/2021 @smadioetomo/ILO_income secuirty older persons 10 OLDER PERSONS TEND TO BE POOR THAN THE YOUNGER AND THE NATIONAL RATE 10/27/2021 @smadioetomo/ILO_income secuirty older persons 11 10.9 11.2 9.8 9.4 12.3 14.1 12.3 11.1 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 National Elderly Non elderly Poverty Rates (%) Susenas 2014-2019 Source: Susenas, Author’s calculation Older Persons have a higher tendency to be poor than non-older persons and all population 1210/27/2021 @smadioetomo/ILO_income secuirty older persons The impact of COVID- 19 tend to increase poverty rate among the older persons 9.9 10.9 8.2 14.4 16.8 14.4 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Older Rural tend to be Poor than Older Urban Age 60 Urban Age 60 Rural 11.6 12.9 11.6 10.3 12.9 15.1 12.9 11.8 4.0 9.0 14.0 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Older Women tend to be Poor than Older Men Age 60 Male Age 60 Female Poverty Rates %, Susenas 2014-2019 Poverty Rates %, Susenas 2014-2019 Source: author’s calculations 10.7 12.0 11.1 10.8 10.5 9.4 14.5 16.6 15.5 15.7 14.7 13.0 15.9 20.4 18.7 18.1 17.7 17.6 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 22.0 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 The Oldest Old tend to be Poor Age <60 Age 60-69 Age 70-79 Age 80+ Poverty Rates (%) Susenas 2014-2019 1310/27/2021 @smadioetomo/ILO_income secuirty older persons The older-old, older women and older persons live in rural areas tend to be poorer 10.3 11.8 8.2 14.4 11.2 20.3 22.0 18.0 24.8 21.28 30.6 33.8 26.5 39.9 32.3 0 10 20 30 40 50 Male Female Urban Rural Total P ro p o rt io n ( % ) Percentage of poor and vulnerable older persons by gender and place of residence, 2019 Poverty 60+ Vulnerables 60+ Total 60+ 1261.1 1585.4 1103.0 1743.5 2846.52476.7 2943.8 2432.4 2988.1 5420.5 3737.8 4529.2 3535.4 4731.6 8267.0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 Male Female Urban Rural Total N u m b er ( in 1 ,0 0 0 ) Estimated numbers of older people living under Poverty Line and the vulnerable older people, 2019 (in 1000) Poverty 60+ Vulnerables 60+ Total The vulnerable older persons tend to be plunged back into poverty due to Covid-19 Source: Susenas 2019, author’s calculation 1410/27/2021 @smadioetomo/ILO_income secuirty older persons Need to expand and prolong Bansos Feminization of ageing • More elderly women than elderly men • Women live longer but their health adjusted life expectancy (HALE) is shorter than men’s • Older women are unmarried and tend to live alone than older men • Older women tend to be poor than older men • Older women tend to suffer from disability than older men 1510/27/2021 @smadioetomo/ILO_income secuirty older persons WORK TILL THEY DROP Employment situations of older persons, Susenas 2020 10/27/2021 @smadioetomo/ILO_income secuirty older persons 16 Half of older persons , even those age 80+, 18% are still working. (...) Work is for survival not preference 20 Source: BPS, Statistik Penduduk Lanjut Usia 2018, 2020 10/27/2021 @smadioetomo/ILO_income secuirty older persons About one third of them, work in service sector, usually long hours 21 Source: BPS, Statistik Penduduk Lanjut Usia 2018, 2020 10/27/2021 @smadioetomo/ILO_income secuirty older persons 14% work as unpaid family member and 10.66 % are free lancers 10/27/2021 @smadioetomo/ILO_income secuirty older persons 22 Summary of the Indonesian elderly profile, 2020 • Mostly low educated • Older women live longer, unhealthy, tend to live alone, poor. • Poverty rate is higher than the national rate • The oldest old; older women; and rural older person tend to be poorer. • Prevalence of older persons with NCD and comorbidity are high.
Language:English
Score: 695698.54 - https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/gro...eetingdocument/wcms_824812.pdf
Data Source: un
The impact of outcomes tends to be more severe in the poorest quintiles of the population.  Previous crises in Asia and LAC show the negative impact that crises can have on health and nutrition outcomes - may have been the result of sharp reductions of utilization of essential health services.  Faced with reduced income, households may increase demand for publically financed (and in many countries provided) health services. However: • Total public expenditures in social sectors in many crises countries (those facing high external and internal imbalances) tend to be pro-cyclical. • Government Health Expenditures (GHE) per capita in real terms declined in all countries reviewed immediately after a crisis. (...) However: • Total public expenditures in social sectors in many crises countries (those facing high external and internal imbalances) tend to be pro-cyclical. • Government Health Expenditures (GHE) per capita in real terms declined in all countries reviewed immediately after a crisis.
Language:English
Score: 694446.83 - https://www.who.int/pmnch/events/2009/financial_crisis.pdf
Data Source: un
ADMINISTRATION OF THE TRUST TERRITORY OF WESTERN SAMOA : REPORT OF THE GOVERNMENT OF NEW ZEALAND FOR THE YEAR 1958 : NOTE / BY THE SECRETARY-GENERAL
Most Samoans live in some 400 foreshore villages where popula- tions range from 100 to 500, while Europeans and part-Europeans tend to congregate round the Apia area. · Except for the New Zealand Maoris the Samoans are the largest branch of the Polynesian race and speak a Polynesian dialect.
Language:English
Score: 694421.6 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc....nsf/get?open&DS=A/4200&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
Respondents living in lower human development countries and those living in conflict situations tended to express greater optimism about the future • Globally, many more respondents believed people will be better off (49%) in 2045 than today, compared with those who believe people will be worse off (32%). • Respondents in Sub-Saharan Africa were the most optimistic about the future (59%), followed by Central and Southern Asia (52%), and Eastern and South-eastern Asia (51%). (...) Other longer-term priorities vary according to income levels, but include rising concern with employment opportunities, respect for human rights and reducing conflict • While respondents in UNDP’s category of higher human development countries tended to give the highest priority to the environment and human rights, those in lower human development countries tended to accord the highest priority to less conflict and meeting basic needs, such as employment, healthcare and education. • ‘More respect for human rights’ ranked number three globally as a long-term priority. (...) Only 3% of respondents believe international cooperation is not important or not important at all. • The degree of importance of international cooperation varies across regions, with the highest percentage of respondents who viewed it favorably from Northern America. • Respondents in higher human development countries tend to perceive the need for international cooperation as greater than those in lower human development countries. • A majority of respondents globally say that COVID-19 has increased their view of the importance for greater cooperation between countries.
Language:English
Score: 694230.37 - https://www.un.org/sites/un2.u...etogether_executivesummary.pdf
Data Source: un
Slide 1 Results of IFPRIResults of IFPRI--CONALGODON CONALGODON cotton projects in Colombiacotton projects in Colombia Patricia ZambranoPatricia Zambrano International Food Policy Research InstituteInternational Food Policy Research Institute Colombia Bt cotton study 2007Colombia Bt cotton study 2007--88  Bt cotton, Colombia Patricia Zambrano Luz Amparo Fonseca Iván Cardona Eduardo Magalhaes Jose Falck Zepeda Farm survey 364 farmers 2007-8 season 18 municipalities in Tolima, Córdoba and Sucre Bt cotton (Nuopal) in ColombiaBt cotton (Nuopal) in Colombia Main FindingsMain Findings  Higher yields but significant differences among Higher yields but significant differences among regionsregions  High number of insecticide applicationsHigh number of insecticide applications  Significant reduction in seed planted per hectare (25Significant reduction in seed planted per hectare (25-- 20 kg/ha of seed to 1020 kg/ha of seed to 10--12 kg/ha)12 kg/ha)  Lack of information about Bt seed and crop Lack of information about Bt seed and crop managementmanagement  Compliance with refugia isCompliance with refugia is less than optimalless than optimal  Cost of seed a limiting Cost of seed a limiting factor to reach poor farmersfactor to reach poor farmers  Access to credit and machinery Access to credit and machinery crucial factors in tech. adoptioncrucial factors in tech. adoption Gender and GM Cotton in Colombia Pilot qualitative study to explore gender roles in the Pilot qualitative study to explore gender roles in the adoption and impact of GM cottonadoption and impact of GM cotton Team members: Patricia Zambrano - IFPRI Jorge Higinio Maldonado - Universidad de Los Andes Sandra Mendoza - Universidad de Los Andes Luz Amparo Fonseca - CONALGODON Lorena Ruiz – CONALGODON Objectives Develop a qualitative methodology Identify research questions Generate testable hypothesis Page 4  Large body of literature on variety trait Large body of literature on variety trait preferences by gender and the preferences by gender and the implications for seed demandimplications for seed demand  Research shows that womenResearch shows that women’’s s preferences are different but are preferences are different but are dependant on their access to resources dependant on their access to resources and control over their incomeand control over their income  Very little research regarding gender Very little research regarding gender preferences and GM traits and varieties preferences and GM traits and varieties and itand it’’s implications on adoption and s implications on adoption and impactimpact Page 5 Qualitative methods usedQualitative methods used  Farmers (35)Farmers (35) •• Focus groupsFocus groups –– Map of cotton activities by genderMap of cotton activities by gender –– Agronomic preferences matrixAgronomic preferences matrix –– Priorities matrixPriorities matrix •• Interviews, farm map, short surveyInterviews, farm map, short survey  Technical Assistants (15)Technical Assistants (15) •• Focus group and interviews withFocus group and interviews with  Regional association directors (6)Regional association directors (6) •• interviewsinterviews Page 6 Colombia GM Cotton and GenderColombia GM Cotton and Gender  Issues identifiedIssues identified •• Women are involved in cotton production Women are involved in cotton production and their degree of involvement depend on and their degree of involvement depend on the control they have over the plotthe control they have over the plot •• GM varieties have introduced changes in GM varieties have introduced changes in farming practices farming practices (weeds, spraying)(weeds, spraying) •• GM cotton is seen as advantageous by GM cotton is seen as advantageous by women as it saves money in some critical women as it saves money in some critical activities that would otherwise require them activities that would otherwise require them to hire and supervise men, particularly for to hire and supervise men, particularly for the application of insecticides and other the application of insecticides and other chemicalschemicals Page 7 Colombia GM Cotton and GenderColombia GM Cotton and Gender •• Women have better Women have better creditcredit standing than men standing than men (and many times their husbands) and tend (and many times their husbands) and tend manage it in a more conservative waymanage it in a more conservative way •• Women and men save time with HT Women and men save time with HT technologies, but women will tend to use technologies, but women will tend to use their their freed time freed time in other productive activities, in other productive activities, while men will see it as a window for leisurewhile men will see it as a window for leisure •• Women have a very important role in cotton Women have a very important role in cotton administrationadministration and cash flow management and cash flow management Page 8 Qualitative study on Gender and GM Cotton in Colombia •• Women farmers see Women farmers see informationinformation as key to as key to handling GM varieties handling GM varieties –– have less access to information compared have less access to information compared to men, particularly among their peers as to men, particularly among their peers as their social networks and their their social networks and their ‘‘down time down time are quite limitedare quite limited –– but more willing to put additional effort to but more willing to put additional effort to follow directions about how to adjust follow directions about how to adjust their their farming practicesfarming practices Page 9 Colombia GM Cotton and GenderColombia GM Cotton and Gender  Seed Seed •• Both men and women perceive Both men and women perceive –– GM technology as beneficial but too GM technology as beneficial but too expensiveexpensive –– GM seed as more demanding weather GM seed as more demanding weather wise, and that conventional varieties are wise, and that conventional varieties are more resilient to weather variabilitymore resilient to weather variability –– Limited availability of Bt variety that Limited availability of Bt variety that farmers liked (Nuopal)farmers liked (Nuopal) –– That local varieties are not as easily That local varieties are not as easily available as in the pastavailable as in the past Page 10 Results of IFPRI-CONALGODON cotton projects in Colombia Colombia Bt cotton study 2007-8 Bt cotton (Nuopal) in ColombiaMain Findings Gender and GM Cotton in Colombia Slide Number 5 Qualitative methods used Colombia GM Cotton and Gender Colombia GM Cotton and Gender Qualitative study on Gender and GM Cotton in Colombia Colombia GM Cotton and Gender
Language:English
Score: 694230.37 - https://www.fao.org/fileadmin/...es/abdc/documents/zambrano.pdf
Data Source: un
Respondents living in lower human development countries and those living in conflict situations tended to express greater optimism about the future • Globally, many more respondents believed people will be better off (49%) in 2045 than today, compared with those who believe people will be worse off (32%). • Respondents in Sub-Saharan Africa were the most optimistic about the future (59%), followed by Central and Southern Asia (52%), and Eastern and South-eastern Asia (51%). (...) Other longer-term priorities vary according to income levels, but include rising concern with employment opportunities, respect for human rights and reducing conflict • While respondents in UNDP’s category of higher human development countries tended to give the highest priority to the environment and human rights, those in lower human development countries tended to accord the highest priority to less conflict and meeting basic needs, such as employment, healthcare and education. • ‘More respect for human rights’ ranked number three globally as a long-term priority. (...) Only 3% of respondents believe international cooperation is not important or not important at all. • The degree of importance of international cooperation varies across regions, with the highest percentage of respondents who viewed it favorably from Northern America. • Respondents in higher human development countries tend to perceive the need for international cooperation as greater than those in lower human development countries. • A majority of respondents globally say that COVID-19 has increased their view of the importance for greater cooperation between countries.
Language:English
Score: 694230.37 - https://www.un.org/sites/un2.u...etogether_executivesummary.pdf
Data Source: un
Empirical testing shows that exports of mineral and metal products do tend to depend on endowments of minerals. They also depend on a scarcity of capital and a lack of professional and technical workers. As such, resource-rich developing countries tend to be mineral exporters, and resource-poor developed countries tend to be mineral importers. (...) Another possibility is that different mineral ore concentrates at different stages of processing may be simultaneously exported and imported between two countries in order to be processed at specialized smelting facilities located in both countries. Firms tend not to smelt other firms’ concentrates. Each firm may then export all of its worldwide concentrates to its own smelter locations.
Language:English
Score: 694230.37 - https://www.wto.org/french/res...tr10_forum_f/wtr10_davis_f.htm
Data Source: un