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There was the concern about building a solid WTO valuation knowledge base, which is essential in the formulation of the transitioning strategy itself and the development of new policies relating to the customs valuation process. That knowledge base was important not only for the transitioning team, but also for the stakeholders of customs, and even for government policy makers (the Executive as well as Congress) whose support, in terms of legislation and the issuance of administrative regulations, was just as critical. (...) This provides the team with a sense of project ownership and ensures continuity and growth in knowledge base and policy development. 2. Top customs management must be identified to champion the reform package to ascertain continuous support for the project. 3.
Language:English
Score: 857125.2 - https://www.wto.org/english/tr...seminar_nov02_e/belmonte_e.doc
Data Source: un
Customs declaration 4 1. Customs declaration shall be made in the manner: paper base declaration, electronic declaration, self channelising declaration. (...) For export and import goods subject to technical expertise, the Customs offices shall base themselves on the expertise results to decide on Customs clearance thereof. (...) For goods owners who have good records of Customs Law compliance according to the Government stipulations, customs offices shall base themselves on the customs declaration forms and their particulars furnished by goods owners to approve the registration of customs declaration forms.
Language:English
Score: 856738.3 - https://www.wto.org/english/th...e/vnm_e/WTACCVNM37A1_LEG_2.pdf
Data Source: un
EREF_A8.DCT EREF_B8.DCT EREF_C8.DCT EREF_D8.DCT 8-bit Encoder reference test data (DCT-based processes). These files give the DCT coefficients for each 8-by-8 block from components A, B, C, D respectively, including blocks at the edges that were completed by extension. (...) DREF_A8.DCT DREF_B8.DCT DREF_C8.DCT DREF_D8.DCT 8-bit Decoder reference test data (DCT-based processes). Same format as the encoder reference test data described above. (...) Refer to Annex C of ITU-T T.83 | ISO/IEC 10918-2 for a more detailed specification of the compressed test data streams. ----- Compressed test data streams of ITU-T T.83 | ISO/IEC 10918-2 ---- DATA JPEG Precision Entropy Code Nf Inter- DRI STREAM mode (bits) Coder Tables leave ----------------------------------------------------------------------- A1 S(B) 8 Huff sample 4 yes yes B1 abbr. - Huff sample - - - B2 S(B) 8 Huff custom 255 no yes C1 S(E) 8 Huff custom 4 yes yes C2 S(E) 8 Huff custom 4 no yes D1 S(E) 8 arith custom 4 yes yes D2 S(E) 8 arith custom 4 no yes E1 S(E) 12 Huff custom 4 yes yes E2 S(E) 12 Huff custom 4 no yes F1 S(E) 12 arith custom 4 yes yes F2 S(E) 12 arith custom 4 no yes G1 P(SS) 8 Huff custom 4 yes yes H1 P(SS) 8 arith custom 4 yes yes J1 P(SS) 12 arith custom 4 yes yes K1 P(Full) 8 Huff custom 4 yes yes L1 P(Full) 8 arith custom 4 yes yes N1 P(Full) 12 arith custom 4 yes yes O1 LL 8 Huff sample 4 yes yes O2 LL 16 Huff sample 4 no yes P1 LL 8 arith default 4 yes yes P2 LL 16 arith custom 4 no yes Compressed test data streams I1, M1, Q1, Q2, R1, R2, S1, S2, T1, and T2 are not available at this time. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- This data was generated and validated by the participants of the ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG1 SG on JPEG.
Language:English
Score: 856687.4 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/Publ...SpeImage/T083v1_0/CONTENTS.TXT
Data Source: un
ITU Workshop on Licensing 3G Mobile Need for and positioning of MVNOs in the 3G Landscape Co-Presentation Presented by Detlef Stübe Sense Communications International ASA Geneva September 20, 2001 Agenda • Brief about Sense • Situation in mobile markets • MVNO aspects and assumptions • Operator aspects • Some facts and conclusions Brief about Sense Communications • Founded as Netsystem International in May 1997 • First company developing an MVNO concept • Insolvency in March 1999 • New investor group purchased non-tangible rights in Sense Communications and re-started the project in April 1999 • Change of focus: – SME market to private market phase 1 – Launch possible services as soon as possible – Generate customer base and revenue stream • Customer base to add value to • Revenues to contribute to operation – Controlled international expansion Successful launch • Jun 1999 Nadir Nalbant is hired in as CEO for Sense • Aug1999 Retail giant Elkjøp acquires a 22,5% stake in Sense • Aug 1999 Sense first in launching “free” Internet • Dec 1999 Agreement with Telenor and Telia for using their mobile network • Dec 1999 Private placement of MNOK 200 • Jan 2000 Sense launching mobile services in the Norwegian market • Apr 2000 Sense launching mobile services in the Swedish market • Jun 2000 Started sale of prepaid subscriptions via Statoil in Norway • Jun 2000 Distribution agreement with GEAB in Sweden • Aug 2000 Sense had more than 100.000 mobile subscribers and 140.000 Internet subscribers • Oct 2000 Sense launching 50 content services in the Swedish market • Oct/ Dec 2000 Share offering/Listing at Oslo Stock Exchange • Jun 2001 Acquisition of Site communications Mobile sub’s Internet users 80,000 22,000 105,000 70,000 140,000 160,000170,000 Situation in General • Regulatory pressure and openess increasing • Cost based vs Commercial terms & conditions • Operators more and more interested in new type of service operators with experience and well perceived brand • Operators intend to act as MSO abroad, where they don’t possess licenses • Operators intend to provide pan-European and global services • Operators are planning their 3G operation Situation in Nordic region • Nordic region had no service providers in early stage of mobile development • Opening for SP, ESP and MVNO • New type of service operators • Nordic operators intend to act as MSO abroad • Cost based vs Commercial terms & conditions • Regulatory pressure Operator Aspects • Operators might be threatened by loosing competitive advantage – Nearly impossible to offer similar services to whole customer base (exchange of SIM cards) – Don’t want to grant access to their own service platforms – Establishing price barriers • Revenue growth due to traffic increase • Conclusion by Telenor = Higher margins from MVNO customers than by own end users MVNO Aspects and Assumptions (1) • Customers not interested in fancy and complicated technical solutions • Customers interested in simplicity and personal services • Bundling of services for increased customer loyalty • Identify and establish new sources of income, others than GSM related traffic/ basic services • Advantage of “late birth” (new and cost efficient technical platforms) MVNO Aspects and Assumptions (2) • True MVNO means complete independence from operator platforms • Gaining revenues from incoming calls • Full control over planned marketing campaigns • Investing in own service platform • Economy of scale for international operations MVNO Aspects and Assumptions (3) • Need to educate customers while 2 and 2,5 G • Taking position and reaching competitive advantage • Commercial terms & conditions with operators require new sources of income = Service development • Operators might have difficulties in regard to service because of infrastructure and service history • Preparing convergence between mobile services and mobile Internet • MVNOs will open their operational platforms to recognized brands SP SP ESP MVNO ESP MVNO MNO Time Investments/ cost From Service Provider to Enhanced SP Sense’s position in mobile communications MSO New innovative products and services from Sense My servicesMy services FinanceFinance NewsNews WeatherWeather GamesGames Yellow p.Yellow p. (...) Matches: > Joker Lotto Viking Lotto Keno DD V75 Specify tel. no. incl. area code: > Horoscope Today TV now Humour Offers Tip Sense Update launched Oct. 11 2000 Content to most mobile telephones The mobile telecommunications industry is moving towards 3G with huge cost burdens (licenses, network roll-out, customer acquisition etc.) Brand owners understand a need for closer customer relation/ retention/ loyalty/ services MNOs understand the opportunity to decrease customer acquisition cost substantially and simultaneously filling the network with traffic Extended regulations and ambitions for increased competition by local authorities Two kind of MVNOs will appear in future: True MVNOs with international operation Strongly branded Mobile Service Providers based on commonly used operational platforms The Facts Both MVNOs and enabling platforms are beneficial to MNOs, as this will reduce The acquisition cost for the MNO substantially The implementation cost for several new, not experienced players Need for various support functions, like customer care/ back office, billing, cash collection etc. and increase The network utilization (especially in respect to later 3G, high capacity networks) Revenue stream due to new or highly used applications and new services and attract Clients that are small and not capable to integrate systems by their own, but have an interesting customer base Clients with international background and operation who want to achieve leverage The win-win It makes Sense!
Language:English
Score: 856620.9 - https://www.itu.int/osg/spu/ni...shop/presentations/stube_1.pdf
Data Source: un
Customs Value of Imported Goods 1. Calculation of customs duties that are levied for import of goods shall be done based on the customs value – the amount which is actually paid, is subject to payment or should be paid for acquisition of goods and its transportation as far as the customs border of the Republic of Armenia. 2. (...) Article 8. Customs Value of Exported Goods 1. Calculation of customs duties levied for export of the goods out of the customs territory of the Republic of Armenia shall be done based on the customs value, i.e. the amount, that is actually paid, is subject to payment or should be paid for acquisition of goods in the territory of the Republic of Armenia and for its transportation as far as the border of the customs border of the Republic of Armenia. 4 2. (...) Article 11. Imported goods customs value determination by customs authorities If the declarer (importer) obviously declared less or not real customs value of the goods and if it is found to be impossible to determine or to check the value based on presented documents, the customs value of the imported goods is to be determined by the customs authorities according to the procedures defined by Article 12 of the present Law.
Language:English
Score: 855817.6 - https://www.wto.org/english/th...c_e/arm_e/WTACCARM10_LEG_1.pdf
Data Source: un
More specifically, Colombia is alleged by Panama to require that importers of specific goods pay customs duties and other duties or charges and taxes based on the indicative prices, rather than on the valuation methods set out in Article VII of the GATT 1994 and the Agreement on Customs Valuation. Moreover, Panama alleges that the tax base for Colombia's sales tax on imported products is based on the indicative price whereas the tax base for the sales tax on the like domestic products is based on the transaction value. According to Panama, the difference in tax bases therefore results in the imposition of a sales tax burden on imported products higher than that borne by the domestic like products.
Language:English
Score: 855298.2 - https://www.wto.org/english/tr..._e/dispu_e/cases_e/ds366_e.htm
Data Source: un
Title of Presentation 1 TAG’s view on the new regulatory approach for EU Roaming Geneva, 22 March 2012 Competition is the right tool to bring roaming prices down 2 > Telekom Austria Group welcomes the Commission’s philosophy of introducing a structural solution to the Roaming Market > We are convinced that a new structure for competition will (better) solve ‘the EU Roaming issue’, especially as price cap regulation has proven to be unable to alleviate the problem of sticky retail prices > Separation of roaming from national services will solve this problem as customers would turn their attention on roaming prices giving operators an incentive to compete on roaming prices > However, for ‘roaming separation’ to successfully open markets for alternative roaming providers, policy makers have to provide the right framework conditions ‘Separation’ of EU – Roaming services - a short description 3 > ‘Separation’ means that a customer will be able to buy roaming services from a different provider than its national services: > Today all mobile services are offered in bundles: The customer has to buy national, international, and roaming services in a bundle from one operator. With ‘separation’, EU roaming services can be purchased individually, without all the other services > This will give all operators the opportunity to compete for customers on EU roaming services exclusively. As a positive effect the new roaming solution would increase competition between operators, minimize customer costs for mobile services, and even help building a common EU mobile market. > For customers nothing changes except that they have two contractual and billing relation instead of one: one with an operator providing roaming services and one with an operator providing national services > The roaming experience itself will remain the same as today: after going abroad customers switch on their mobiles and use it for any roaming service they want – voice, SMS and data and they will be able to make and receive calls under the same number as at home ‘separation’ and its effects on retail competition - overview 4 > Today, customers have to make a purchase decision on the complete bundle of mobile services > Customers take this decision based on the predominant ‘use case’ - in most cases domestic mobile usage > ‘separation of EU-roaming’ services will release the competitive forces and introduce price competition: > On national level: between existing national MNOs and MVNOs > On international level (‘transnational’ competition): entry into the market of ‘new players’ based on EU wide (wholesale) roaming coverage > Competition will try to attract all customer segments > Business customers : via targeted offers > Residential customers: mass market (above the line communication); availability at all points of sale > No differentiation between ‘frequent travelers' and other customers at marketing communication level to be expected > However, different products (for frequent travelers and others) to be expected (bundles, etc) ‘separation’ and its effects on retail competition – national dynamic 5 > With roaming prices in the focus of customers, operators would try to attract customers also via attractive roaming prices. > Especially from challengers on national markets, we expect competitive pressure to start: > As for the domestic mobile service market, challengers with own mobile infrastructure have to grow in order to become more profitable (‘investment in license & network is largely ‘sunk cost’) > This market logic will also apply for the new segment ‘EU roaming customers’: challengers will try to grow via the capture of ‘separated roaming customers’ > We estimate the total market revenue volume for EU roaming to be between 5-15% of the relevant market > This allows market players significant growth, even if due to price reduction (combined with under proportionate volume growth) the total EU roaming market in revenue terms will shrink. > Furthermore: the ‘roaming only’ relationship is a perfect starting base for a consecutive ‘full acquisition’ of the customer (billing relationship, trust, customer insight, etc) Retail competition could be even increased by the advent of transnational operators 6 > Operators from smaller member states can tab into the huge customer base/potential of large member states with very little incremental effort (growth potential) > Large operator groups are enabled to complete their footprints, use their international brands and their footprint network coverage advantages (cost advantages) as well as address large international account customers > As the costs for customer support are the same for frequent as for infrequent roamers, such transnational operators would not just focus on frequent roamers but increase the pressure on prices for all roaming customers > An example for such a transnational operator for data roaming services (dongle use only) is “abroadband” (www.abroadband.com) ‘separation’ can only be successful if two important preconditions are met 7 > Price caps have to provide operators with incentives to compete for roaming customers: > Retail safeguard caps are set in a way that allows market entry > Wholesale caps are not below costs > Implementation costs are reasonable - no duplication required > No ‘backdoor’ for a early re-opening of the Regulation as otherwise the initial investment will be too risky > The way the technical solution will be implemented has to be easy to use by customers: > No change of SIM card when choosing a new roaming provider > No change of telephone number > No need to use a separate PIN number when crossing boarders > Quick change of roaming provider > Choice of roaming provider possible at home or when abroad > Alternative Roaming offer includes all services (voice, data, SMS) Four technical solutions to implement ‘separation’ under discussion… 8 > European stakeholders are currently discussing the feasibility of several technical solutions such as “single IMSI”, “single IMSI+”,‘dual IMSI’ and “Data LBO” > ‘dual IMSI’: customer gets a new SIM card and roaming provider takes full control of customer and traffic management whilst roaming > ‘single IMSI’: a virtual roaming provider offers retail services whilst traffic is still managed by H-MNO > ‘single IMSI+’: enables direct commercial agreements between roaming providers and V-MNOs > Alternative roaming providers can enter directly into commercial negotiations with visited network operators > H-MNO can steer traffic on behalf of the alternative roaming provider > ‘Data LBO’: visited network provides data services whilst H-MNO provides voice/SMS …which have different properties and effects on competition 9 > dual IMSI: > Increased retail & wholesale competition as alternative roaming provider fully controls roaming call and can use his own wholesale deals/footprint > Competitive advantage for bigger operator groups > single IMSI: > Provision of better customer experience (no change of SIM card) increases the number of potential customers willing to switch to an alternative roaming provider, hence increased level of competition > Creates level playing field for smaller M(V)NOs and bigger operator groups > Single IMSI+ might combine advantages of single and double IMSI > combines the better customer experience of single IMSI with the greater autonomy of wholesale arrangements offered by dual IMSI > Lower market rates also for small operators instead of regulated caps > Competitive advantage for bigger operator groups > Data LBO seems not viable and is reducing effectiveness of the separation solution > Marketing, language and usage barriers Thank you 10
Language:English
Score: 855134.4 - https://www.wto.org/english/tr...resentation_telekomaustria.pdf
Data Source: un
Article 9-5 (customs value based on the transaction value of similar goods) 1. (...) Articles 9-6 (customs value based on the domestic wholesale price) 1. (...) Article 9-9 (notification of the method of determination of the customs value, etc.) If the duty payer so requests in writing, the customs collector shall inform him, in writing, of the customs value, the method of determination and the data on which it was based.
Language:English
Score: 854400.3 - https://www.wto.org/gatt_docs/English/SULPDF/91420142.pdf
Data Source: un
This leaves about 10 percent of trade transactions which require a more complex approach based on the application of the other methods. Because of the perceived risk to their customs revenue, a number of developing countries have been reluctant to apply the Agreement. (...) Verifications are selective, based on risk. Through effective risk management, customs will have the ability to detect the most significant violations including in the valuation area. (...) To be effective and to reduce the opportunities for corruption, such a system should be based on the following: A  one-step process: customs declaration should be lodged at the reception counter of the customs office and the paperwork processed by the administration with no further need for contact, until that processing has been completed.
Language:English
Score: 852270.5 - https://www.wto.org/english/tr.../seminar_nov02_e/corfmat_e.doc
Data Source: un
Some of these developments are based on the increased use of information technology, which makes it possible to exchange reliable information quickly between Customs, other governmental agencies and other parties involved in the international movements of goods. (...) This with the objectives of increasing efficiency, reducing congestion at airports and enhancing security; controlling abuses such as narcotics trafficking and travel document fraud; and supporting the growth of international trade and tourism. 1.4 For cargo formalities these new developments were based on the International Convention on the Simplification and Harmonization of Customs procedures (Kyoto Convention, 1973) of the World Customs Organization (WCO) for which a complete revision was concluded in 1999. (...) The control measures should be based on the required information provided in advance to Customs and by using risk assessment procedures. 4.9.2 Recommended Practice.– Contracting States should encourage the establishment of agreements / arrangements for the mutual recognition of their respective Authorised Economic Operator or equivalent programs with other countries. b) under B.
Language:English
Score: 851464.6 - https://www.icao.int/Meetings/...n%20of%20Air%20Cargo.FINAL.pdf
Data Source: un