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NARROW DEFINITION: implies that a relatively limited number of animals will be tested/investigated; all tested animals have a high probability to be infected; Low number of negative test; Reduced costs; BUT reduced probability to (early) detect the infection 11 DETECTION OF ASF IN WILD BOAR USING TWO DIFFERENT SUSPECT CASE DEFINITIONS A) All individuals found dead => broad suspect case definition B) All individuals shot showing clinical sign of the diseases => narrow suspect case definition Expected number of cases? (...) Low risk areas => narrow case definition (possibly undetected positive cases) High risk areas => broad case definition (many negative animals investigated but high probability to early detect the virus) PASSIVE SURVEILLANCE: CRITICAL POINTS II Communication chain: passive surveillance is based on reporting, hence a person willing to report must know to whom to report and how (green lines, mobile of a responsible person, avoid reporting to “Veterinary Service”) To whom it should be reported the finding of a dead wild boar in the forest? (...) ASF SURVEILLANCE IN WILD BOAR FIELD EXAMPLE Aim: a) Early detection b) evolution of the infection 20 11 SUSPECT CASE DEFINITION AND ASF DETECTION BROADER CASE DEFINITION: ALL FOUND DEAD ANIMALS: N. 227 178 DETECTED CASES (78,4%) 49 NEGATIVE INVESTIGATIONS FIRST CASE DETECTED 25/07/2014 NARROW CASE DEFINITION: ANIMALS SHOT WHILE SHOWING CLINICAL SIGNS: N. 1 1 DETECTED CASE (100%) NO NEGATIVE INVESTIGATIONS LOST 178 CASES CASE DETECTED 20/08/2014 21 22 LATVIA: Summary of wild boar data (June-December, 2014) within the infected areas (Part II and Part III) Number of tested animals Number of positive results WB found dead 227 178 WB hunted 2733 39 Early detection of ASF in wild boars Passive surveillance vs. active surveillance 12 Wild boar population size Passive surveillance: day of first detection (Ag detection) Passive surveillance: last detection day (Ag detection) Passive surveillance: average detection period (days) Active surveillance: day of first detection (Ag detection) Active surveillance: last day detection (Ag detection) Active surveillance: average detection Period (days) 100 30 335 60,7 Never - - 400 8 335 14,6 167 - - 1000 4 363 5,7 53 226 91 3000 1 364 1,9 17 347 33,1 From a simulation model EFFICENCY OF PASSIVE VS ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE: FIELD DATA VIRUS DETECTION IN DEAD ANIMALS: 178/227 = 0,78 VIRUS DETECTION IN SHOT ANIMALS: 39/2733 = 0,014 DETECTION IN DEAD/DETECTION IN SHOT 0,78/0,014 = 55,7 THE PROBABILITY TO DETECTED A VIRUS IN DEAD ANIMALS IS 55 TIMES HIGHER THAN IN SHOT ANIMALS (55/(55+1)*100 = 98% 98 OUT OF 100 VIRUSES ARE LIKELY TO BE DETECTED IN DEAD WILD BOARS 24 13 FOUND DEAD ANIMALS = 78% SHOT ANIMALS = 1,4% ASF prevalence estimation Which is the true period prevalence?
Language:English
Score: 1606221.7 - https://www.fao.org/fileadmin/...events2017/ASF_Kaunas/8_en.pdf
Data Source: un
Finding dead wild boar carcasses ($$$$); 6. Sampling dead wild boar carcass and documentation ($$) 6. (...) Mandatory notification of wild boar found dead; 3. Finding dead wild boar ($$$$); 4. Sampling dead wild boar carcass and documentation ($$) 6. (...) Mandatory notification of wild boar found dead; 3. Finding dead wild boar ($$); 4. Sampling dead wild boar carcass ($) and documentation ($) 5.
Language:English
Score: 1577522.9 - https://www.fao.org/fileadmin/...s/events2019/ASFBalkans/19.pdf
Data Source: un
Promoting safer poultry disposal in Egypt: Better for business and better for public health | FAO | Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; FAO.org 中文 english français Español 抵御能力 背景 工作领域 区域方法 Global Network 新闻与活动 多媒体 资源 News From the field Highlights Promoting safer poultry disposal in Egypt: Better for business and better for public health Tags : EGYPT , NORTHERN AFRICA , ECTAD , POULTRY , ANIMAL DISEASE , ANIMAL DISEASE , LIVESTOCK , RESOURCE PARTNERS , UNITED STATES , 07/02/2022 An experimental initiative to reduce hazardous dumping of poultry in Egypt aims to show farmers the business advantages of disposing safely of dead birds. (...) Do they advise farmers on proper methods of dead bird disposal? Do farmers eventually properly dispose of their dead birds? (...) Second, there will be a reduction in microbial threats from animals, as fewer dead birds are thrown into the Nile River and its canals.
Language:English
Score: 1553506.8 - https://www.fao.org/resilience...ws-events/detail/zh/c/1471338/
Data Source: un
Promoting safer poultry disposal in Egypt: Better for business and better for public health | FAO | Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; FAO.org english français Español Resilience Background Areas of work Regional approach Global Network News & Events Multimedia Resources News From the field Highlights Promoting safer poultry disposal in Egypt: Better for business and better for public health Tags : EGYPT , NORTHERN AFRICA , ECTAD , POULTRY , ANIMAL DISEASE , ANIMAL DISEASE , LIVESTOCK , RESOURCE PARTNERS , UNITED STATES , 07/02/2022 An experimental initiative to reduce hazardous dumping of poultry in Egypt aims to show farmers the business advantages of disposing safely of dead birds. (...) Do they advise farmers on proper methods of dead bird disposal? Do farmers eventually properly dispose of their dead birds? (...) Second, there will be a reduction in microbial threats from animals, as fewer dead birds are thrown into the Nile River and its canals.
Language:English
Score: 1543009.2 - https://www.fao.org/resilience...ws-events/detail/en/c/1471338/
Data Source: un
2 I Risk assessment II Early detection III Control & eradication Risk Assessment Germany • Assessment for import risk through – Legal import of pigs and products – Contaminated vehicles and clothes – Wild boar • Qualitative not quantitative – Negligible / low / medium / likely / high • With confidence level – Low, medium, high Carola Sauter-Louis 3 Risk areas: „urban “ WB; high WB density; resting areas on highways, etc… Introduction/release Contact/ primary infection Secondary infection/perpetuation Endemicity/spread Risk assessment on local level (district) FMD Prevalence: 100% Mortality: 2% Lethality: 2% Contagiousity: +++ CSF P: 50% M: 25% L: 50% Contagiousity: ++ ASF P: 10% M: 9% L: 90% Contagiousity: + 100 infected; 2 dead 50 infected; 25 dead10 infected; 9 dead Infected dead ASF - CSF - FMD 4 Farm mortality/morbidity threshold High Risk Period (HRP) Low contagiousity => low (initial) mortality ASF remains undetected in large pig farms (below the normal mortality threshold) FMD CSF ASF Time HRP -> farm size • back yard: rather short • large farm: rather long Surveillance can be: • to prove freedom of disease • to detect new cases • to determine the prevalence • to monitor the evolution of the disease • to calm down trade partners and neighbours • to show activity…. Surveillance 5 Surveillance can be based: …on books and legislation, telling you how many animals you have to test/examine in the case of a particular disease during a particular period of time …on knowledge about • Biology of the disease • Laboratory diagnosis • Epidemiology • Socio-economical factors • Human resources • Political constrains Never perfect compromise Surveillance Surveillance: • on farm level (backyard  commercial) • in the village (epidemiological unit???) (...) (Prevalence of 2% -> 78 WB have to be sampled (1% … 96 WB…) 5/95-Concept Targeted diagnosis, > 4 weeks (PCR +) 1 2 3 4 5 of 100 infected (5%) 100 WB 7 Early detection of ASF in wild boar Passive surveillance vs. active surveillance Passive / Active: 72.24 / 1.45 = 49,82 The probability to detect an ASF positive animal is 50 times higher in dead animals than in hunted animals 81 out of 100 positive cases are likely to be detected in dead wild boar (177 / 217 x 100 = 81) tested positive % positive Passive (found dead) 245 177 72.24 Active (hunted) 2765 40 1.45 217 Increased mortality threshold SANTE/7113/2015 – Rev 6; WORKIMG DOCUMENT ASF Strategy for Eastern Part of the EU 8 ASF outbreaks in Latvia in 2014 28 primary 4 secondary 16 swill 12 WB 4 humans 32 31 passiv 1 activ 20 dead 12 sick 32 Field observations (Oļševskis et al., 2015) 12 % 69 / 585 = 0,12 (12%) Experimental studies (Pietschmann et al., 2015) 8 % 2 / 24 = 0,08 (8%)
Language:English
Score: 1539040 - https://www.fao.org/fileadmin/...ts/events2019/ASFBalkans/7.pdf
Data Source: un
Virological surveillance (PCR, Ag) Serosurveillance (Ab) Testing dead wild boar The forestry inspectors in case of damaged and dead wild boars inform the regional veterinary service which takes the samples and sends to the FSVI for laboratory diagnositcs. (...) Wild boar surveillance Testing dead wild boar The forestry inspectors in case of damaged and dead wild boars inform the regional veterinary service which takes the samples and sends to the FSVI for laboratory diagnositcs. (...) Testing hunted wild boar Not applied(Memor antium) Testing dead wild boar in traffic incidents The wild boars grow up far away from the inhabited people areas.
Language:English
Score: 1533030 - https://www.fao.org/fileadmin/...ts/events2019/ASFBalkans/8.pdf
Data Source: un
Promoting safer poultry disposal in Egypt: Better for business and better for public health | FAO | Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; FAO.org english français Español La résilience Contexte Domaines de travail Approche régionale Réseau mondial Actualités et événements Multimédia Ressources Actualités Du terrain Points saillants Promoting safer poultry disposal in Egypt: Better for business and better for public health Tags : EGYPT , NORTHERN AFRICA , ECTAD , POULTRY , ANIMAL DISEASE , ANIMAL DISEASE , LIVESTOCK , RESOURCE PARTNERS , UNITED STATES , 07/02/2022 An experimental initiative to reduce hazardous dumping of poultry in Egypt aims to show farmers the business advantages of disposing safely of dead birds. (...) Do they advise farmers on proper methods of dead bird disposal? Do farmers eventually properly dispose of their dead birds? (...) Second, there will be a reduction in microbial threats from animals, as fewer dead birds are thrown into the Nile River and its canals.
Language:English
Score: 1532657 - https://www.fao.org/resilience.../histoire-detail/fr/c/1471338/
Data Source: un
Promoting safer poultry disposal in Egypt: Better for business and better for public health | FAO | Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; FAO.org english français Español La resiliencia Contexto Áreas de trabajo Enfoque regional Red mundial Noticias y eventos Multimedia Recursos Noticias Desde el campo Destacados Promoting safer poultry disposal in Egypt: Better for business and better for public health Tags : EGYPT , NORTHERN AFRICA , ECTAD , POULTRY , ANIMAL DISEASE , ANIMAL DISEASE , LIVESTOCK , RESOURCE PARTNERS , UNITED STATES , 07/02/2022 An experimental initiative to reduce hazardous dumping of poultry in Egypt aims to show farmers the business advantages of disposing safely of dead birds. (...) Do they advise farmers on proper methods of dead bird disposal? Do farmers eventually properly dispose of their dead birds? (...) Second, there will be a reduction in microbial threats from animals, as fewer dead birds are thrown into the Nile River and its canals.
Language:English
Score: 1532657 - https://www.fao.org/resilience...historia-detalle/es/c/1471338/
Data Source: un
While existing waste management and agricultural laws prohibit dumping hazardous waste into waterbodies, including animal carcasses, they are poorly enforced. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)’s Africa Sustainable Livestock 2050  (ASL2050) initiative, supported by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), has facilitated a year-long participatory process in the two governorates of Menouifa and Qalyubia – two of the country’s major poultry areas – to identify actionable options to enhance proper disposal of dead birds, and ensure compliance with the existing legislative framework. (...) Do they advise farmers on proper methods of dead bird disposal? Do farmers eventually properly dispose of their dead birds? (...) Second, there will be a reduction in microbial threats from animals, as fewer dead birds are thrown into the Nile River and its canals.
Language:English
Score: 1516437.1 - https://www.fao.org/emergencie...r-poultry-disposal-in-egypt/en
Data Source: un
No specific prescriptions on which animals have to be sampled are in place, however sick or dead animals should be targeted. Along the two ASF samples, it is recommended that at least 10% of dead animals should be sampled. CF are reporting daily by phone to the local veterinary service the number of death and sick animals. (...) Surveillance in domestic pigs should be focused on ASF early detection and thus considering sick/dead animals avoiding planning in advance the number of animals to be tested.
Language:English
Score: 1511833 - https://www.fao.org/fileadmin/...s/events2019/ASFBalkans/17.pdf
Data Source: un