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. • In Malaysia, TM rolling out a high speed broadband network • In New Zealand, Chorus rolling out a FTTP network Network sharing/co‐investment as an option Another option is for government to encourage or  incentivise network sharing and co‐investment by multiple  operators and potentially other sources, including the  government itself, in building this new infrastructure • Commercially‐driven mobile network sharing has been  prevalent, particularly in those countries with very  competitive mobile markets • Still relatively rare for co‐investment to occur in the fixed  sector 3 Benefits of sharing from government’s perspective There are a number of advantages from successful sharing arrangements  from government’s perspective, including: • Particularly in the fixed sector, these arrangements enable or facilitate  investment into the industry from new sources (e.g., utilities, local  government, infrastructure funds)   • Co‐investment is a “big tent” approach, where industry players negotiate  and co‐operate in deployment and operation of the shared infrastructure ‐ in  the absence of anti‐trust concerns, a consensus‐based outcome is usually  superior to a regulated outcome • To the extent that the incumbent is a party to the co‐investment  arrangement, it can result in a lessening of market power ‐ with a  corresponding reduction in regulatory burden for the regulator and for  industry Source: ITU. (...) Why doesn’t sharing happen more often, or in other circumstances, and  why do a number of sharing deals not seem to last? • Loss of independence – a sharing operator will no longer have full  control over the direction that its network will take, its rollout  strategies and vendor choices  • Need to reach agreement on when/where to invest is time  consuming + a prime area for contentious disputes • Partner selection ‐ a compatible sharing partner will alleviate some of  these concerns – involves considerations of alignment on network  evolution and deployment + investment plans and strategies 4 Why doesn’t it happen more often, con’t • Difficulty in reaching agreement with a competitor ‐ due to the  healthy distrust that each management team has of the other • sharing deals often involve transfer of existing assets into a JV  structure ‐ disagreements over asset valuation are one of the main  reasons why non‐Greenfields sharing deals do not proceed • Incumbent reluctance ‐ In the fixed sector, where usually limited  infrastructure competition, incumbents can be reluctant to depart from  status quo and consider novel co‐investment options ‐ particularly  where they are likely to lose control Is sharing the solution? (...) Government co‐venturing ‐ Co‐venture with private sector operators to encourage  broadband deployment, particularly in Greenfields areas  ‐ governments have  valuable assets/infrastructure that, if available through sharing, would speed up +  potentially reduce the cost of, broadband deployment Use of spectrum licensing ‐ A lighter‐touch may be all that is required from  government to encourage mobile network sharing ‐ one of the most potent means  available to the government is through 4G spectrum licensing conditions, e.g. by  requiring widespread national coverage, creating a strong incentive to share; or  requiring a licensee to build in one rural province, entitling them to roam in other  provinces Regulatory certainty ‐ Provide high degrees of up‐front regulatory certainty for co‐ investing entities, to address the risk of regulatory intervention post sunk  investment – e.g., provide clarity that any access pricing will recognise the build  and demand risk at the time of investment or allow long‐term regulatory  commitments from sharing entities  Conclusion Incentivising sharing is one of the key options available to governments to  achieve “further and faster” broadband coverage • However, it is clearly a challenge for sharing operators to create,  implement and maintain a successful sharing arrangement ‐ given all the  benefits available to operators, it is somewhat surprising that sharing does  not occur more frequently • It is more difficult to achieve co‐investment in fixed networks, where there  is less infrastructure competition than in mobile This is an area where government incentives, including in‐kind contributions,  could bring about a breakthrough ‐ there is particular merit in governments  (including through utilities) co‐venturing with telecoms operators to facilitate  the rapid rollout of fixed broadband networks
Language:English
Score: 1033735.4 - https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/C...ations/GSR15_session3_Webb.pdf
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DSD :: Areas of Work :: Climate Change - Meetings & Workshops - Briefing, Aug 2009 Skip to main links | Skip to secondary links | Skip to content Links to UN bodies [an error occurred while processing this directive] Links to site map [an error occurred while processing this directive] UN Economic and Social Development Division for Sustainable Development Main Links [an error occurred while processing this directive] Areas of Work > Climate Change > Meetings & Workshops > Briefing (08-2009) Secondary Links Climate Change :: & Sustainable Development :: Adaptation :: COP15 CSD :: Learning Centre :: Partnerships Fair :: Side Events Meetings & Workshops Case Studies Database Speeches & Statements Press Releases Publications Documents Links Contact Us Climate Change: Briefing, New York, 26 August 2009 Briefing on the Scientific Basis for Climate Policy by Dr. (...) Rajendra Pachauri IPCC UNFCCC COP 15 Seal the Deal Campaign [an error occurred while processing this directive]
Language:English
Score: 1032899.3 - https://www.un.org/esa/dsd/dsd_aofw_cc/cc_briefing0809.shtml
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Then a propagation process is conducted to deal with many aspects of transmission of the reputation; and a propagation maintenance is used for the modifications in both reputation structure and content through the network and over time. Figure 3 – A reference model for reputation systems The reputation system should deal with some typical challenges such as bootstrap new services and feedback motivation and customers support. (...) The system also needs to deal with some post-processing phases such as matching, unfair feedbacks, risk remedies (unexpected events occur), self-adjustment, bias detection, reward and punishment. 6.2.5 Trust Establishment It is needed to develop a protocol that could establish a level of trust among interacting agents.
Language:English
Score: 1031673.7 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...7/files/basic-html/page50.html
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Let me take this opportunity to inform you that we have investigated competition problems occurring at this stage in two recent roundtables of the Committee on Competition Law and Policy of the OECD. (...) Cases and behaviours occurring at this stage should rather be a priority for competition authorities of developing countries. (...) Just a few remarks to conclude: 1. These problems can occur both in developed and in developing countries especially where the market situations are highly concentrated. 2.
Language:English
Score: 1028086.2 - https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/serv_e/souty.doc
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S6-P1-Zeddam-Abstract.PDF ITU-T Workshop “Opportunities and Challenges in Home Networking” Abstract Geneva, 13 – 14 October 2005 Speaker: Ahmed ZEDDAM, France Telecom, R&D Division Session: Session 6: Electromagnetic Interference in the Home Environment Title of Presentation: Protection and Safety in the Home Network The electromagnetic environment in the Home Network is one of the major dimensioning factors for protection and safety issues. The presentation deals with the characterisation of the electromagnetic environment in the customers' premises and focus on the practices for ensuring the protection of equipment and safety of people. (...) The presentation will focus on the need that these two kinds of ports have to be designed to withstand the energy surges that occur into building wiring, on external cables and due to earth potential rise. (...) The installation issues will be considered by analyzing the different ways of interconnection of equipment, as occurs in home networks, which may expose the equipment to overvoltage surges.
Language:English
Score: 1027908.8 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-T/work...orking/abstracts/s6-zeddam.pdf
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 Page 304 - Cloud computing: From paradigm to operation           Basic HTML Version Table of Contents View Full Version Page 304 - Cloud computing: From paradigm to operation P. 304 1 Framework and requirements for cloud computing 9.6 Cloud services switchover and switchback The cloud services switchover and switchback capability deals with the switchover of the CSC's end-user access to cloud services from the primary CSP to a peer CSP to which the services may be provided in order to cope with degradation in service performance or a serious problem. It also deals with the switchback to the primary CSP when it is able to provide the services again. (...) The CSC information exchange capability is recommended to: – be able to exchange CSC profiles and associated information among multiple CSPs according to a pre-determined protocol and format, with the condition that the CSC is informed of and agrees to the exchange. 9.9 Primary CSP role delegation The primary CSP role delegation capability deals with transferring the primary CSP role to one of the secondary CSPs, e.g., in the event of a serious problem caused by natural disasters or permanent service termination occurring at the current primary CSP.
Language:English
Score: 1025077 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page304.html
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DSD :: Areas of Work :: Indicators - National Activities - Czech Republic Skip to main links | Skip to secondary links | Skip to content Links to UN bodies [an error occurred while processing this directive] Links to site map [an error occurred while processing this directive] UN Economic and Social Development Division for Sustainable Development Main Links [an error occurred while processing this directive] Areas of Work > Indicators > National Activities > Czech Republic Secondary Links Indicators CSD Indicators Intergovernmental Decisions Technical Cooperation National Activities Meetings & Workshops Publications Documents Links National Focal Points Contact Us National Activities: Czech Republic Czech Republic Report Submitted by Czech Republic to the Fourth International Workshop on the CSD Indicators of Sustainable Development Hosted by the Government of the Czech Republic in Prague 19-21 January 1998 SUMMARY REPORT ABOUT THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INDICATORS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC The international process of testing the sustainability indicators is seen as a part of a broader process of building up a national comprehensive information system on sustainable development. (...) Bottlenecks The debate on the sustainability indicators has not reached other important sectors (transportation, industry, agriculture, etc.); there is no multisectoral body that would coordinate and make decisions at the top political level; The testing process has not made a great deal of progress yet - an evaluation of usefulness of the indicators, assessment of the aggregation and linkages between different aspects of sustainability, etc., are the most pressing topics to be done; Any effective work to involve as many stakeholders as possible in the process has not been done; The entire testing process is still driven more by the international commitments of the Czech Republic than by the real effort of the Czech citizens (both the politicians and the public) to measure and embark on the sustainable development path. (...) Tereza Votockova Czech Environmental Institute Vrsovicka 65, 100 10 Praha 10 Czech Republic Tel. no.: (42-02) 6712-2678 Fax no.: (42-02) 7173-7721 E-mail: tereza.votockova@ceu.cz [an error occurred while processing this directive]
Language:English
Score: 1022167.8 - https://www.un.org/esa/dsd/dsd...w_ind/ind_natiacti_czech.shtml
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DSD :: Areas of Work :: Climate Change - Meetings & Workshops - Briefing, Nov 2009 Skip to main links | Skip to secondary links | Skip to content Links to UN bodies [an error occurred while processing this directive] Links to site map [an error occurred while processing this directive] UN Economic and Social Development Division for Sustainable Development Main Links [an error occurred while processing this directive] Areas of Work > Climate Change > Meetings & Workshops > Briefing (11-2009 Secondary Links Climate Change :: & Sustainable Development :: Adaptation :: COP15 CSD :: Learning Centre :: Partnerships Fair :: Side Events Meetings & Workshops Case Studies Database Speeches & Statements Press Releases Publications Documents Links Contact Us Climate Change: Briefing, New York, 02 November 2009 Special Briefing on "Copenhagen 2009: The Fierce Urgency of Now" by Professor Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, Director of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research & Chair of the German government’s Advisory Council on Global Change 2 November 2009 New York, ECOSOC Chamber Spotlight Webcast: Archived Video - English 2 hours Webcast: Archived Video - Original Language 2 hours Presentations Briefing Summary Professor Schellnhuber will present on how only a small budget of carbon dioxide is left for humanity to emit, and without large-scale reductions in the near future, nonlinear changes in environmental conditions or "tipping points" will jeopardize the livelihoods of billions worldwide. (...) Schellnhuber's office Presentations Additional Information IPCC UNFCCC COP 15 Seal the Deal Campaign [an error occurred while processing this directive]
Language:English
Score: 1022167.8 - https://www.un.org/esa/dsd/dsd_aofw_cc/cc_briefing1109.shtml
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DSD :: Areas of Work :: Climate Change - COP15 Skip to main links | Skip to secondary links | Skip to content Links to UN bodies [an error occurred while processing this directive] Links to site map [an error occurred while processing this directive] UN Economic and Social Development Division for Sustainable Development Main Links [an error occurred while processing this directive] Areas of Work > Climate Change > COP15 Secondary Links Climate Change :: & Sustainable Development :: Adaptation :: COP15 CSD :: Learning Centre :: Partnerships Fair :: Side Events Meetings & Workshops Case Studies Database Speeches & Statements Press Releases Publications Documents Links Contact Us Climate Change COP 15 In the lead up to COP15, the DSD organized two key meetings where technology for adaptation was the focus. (...) Archive Technical Note: A Global Green New Deal for Climate, Energy, & Development Key Messages on Climate Change & Water for COP 15 The Road to Copenhagen Conference: Presentation by Tariq Banuri, Director of the DSD: "Changing Mindsets - Climate Change and Sustainable Development" Natural Resources Forum Special Issue on Climate Change "Bring Down the Cost of Renewable Energy" Climate Though by Mr. (...) Rajendra Pachauri [an error occurred while processing this directive]
Language:English
Score: 1022167.8 - https://www.un.org/esa/dsd/dsd_aofw_cc/cc_cop15.shtml
Data Source: un
The Prosecution argues in its Motion that the Report should be dismissed in its entirety on the basis, inter alia , that its content is irrelevant, in that (1) there is no "discernible connection" between the Report and the events relevant to the indictment; (2) that the Report sheds little light on the context "in which the crimes alleged in the indictments occurred or did not occur", and (3) the only possible connection between the Report and a possible case for the Accused is "a sort of historical tu quoque ". (...) The Amici Curiae filed their "Response to Prosecution’s Notice Pursuant to Rule 94 bis Filed 15 July 2004" ("Response"), in which they submit, inter alia , that the Report is relevant in that (1) it deals with a number of issues raised by the Prosecution during the presentation of its case (relating to "Greater Serbia", Serbia’s territorial ambitions, dissolution of the SFRY, and the role of leading individuals in that dissolution); (2) it presents the Chamber with background in relation to the historical, socio-economic and cultural history of the relationship between the Serbs and Croats and contextualises pre-conflict pretensions preceding the conflict. (...) The Report, while briefly touching upon the dissolution of the SFRY, proceeds merely to make conclusions that are properly findings which the Trial Chamber would have to make on the basis of evidence of what occurred. The Report could really only be of relevance were tu quoque a defence open to the Accused.
Language:English
Score: 1020417.4 - https://www.icty.org/x/cases/s...n_milosevic/tdec/en/051207.htm
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