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Highlights of Industry Financial Measures* Form of measures Effect/Implication Constraint/Caution a) Cost control and management Cut down business expenses, e.g. discretionary spending, postpone projects with hefty costs, and optimize workforce. (...) Investment from foreign fund may be subject to ownership and control rules; investors may increase influence on the company. d) Debt financing and restructuring Raise new capital or alter existing contract to receive more favorable loan terms, reduce interest payments or reduce debt. Impact of the increased debt ratio and the new/altered debt conditions on future financial situation should be considered. e) Monetizing the value of frequent flyer programme (FFP) Raise cash through sale of miles to credit card partners or use of FFP to back new debt.
Language:English
Score: 1229396.7 - https://www.icao.int/sustainab...ndustry_Financial_Measures.pdf
Data Source: un
ISIN XS2066706735 Duration 15 Coupon Type Fixed Coupon Yield 1.17 Price 98.92 Issuance Amount $500,000,000 Currency EUR Bond Type EURO MTN Rank Senior Unsecured Bond Rating (S&P) BBB+ Sector Utilities Listing Date 10/17/19 Restrictive Covenant Y Negative Covenant Y Restriction of Activities Y Negative Pledge Y Change in Control N Nominal Spread (G-Spread) 241 bps Bond Indenture Provisions 9 | ECLAC Debt Pricing Technology Discussion Document Key Indenture Provisions Definitions Restrictive Covenant Umbrella categorization that restricts the issuer in an enforceable agreement. (...) For example, the negative covenant may restrict the ability of the firm to issue additional debt. Change of Control Allows bondholders to put (sell) their bonds back to the company at 101% of par value when a specified event has changed the ownership/control of the company. Fundamental Control In the case of a specified takeover-related event occurs, bondholders will either have the right to ‘put’ their bonds back to the company, or to have the interest rate on their bonds increased to reflect the additional risk associated with the takeover-related event Limit of Indebtedness Prohibits any additional debt that may be incurred by the issuer Cross Default Provision that puts a borrower in default if the borrower defaults on another obligation.
Language:English
Score: 1224596.4 - https://www.cepal.org/sites/de...f_-_bond_pricing_tool_demo.pdf
Data Source: un
 Page 41 - U4SSC Blockchain for smart sustainable cities           Basic HTML Version Table of Contents View Full Version Page 41 - U4SSC Blockchain for smart sustainable cities P. 41 Case 1. Facilitating Debt Relief in The Hague The Dutch Central Judicial Debt Collection Agency More generally, there is the problem of limited (CJIB) looked into solutions for better sharing control over personal digital information. and analysis of data about people in debt among Companies benefit from tracking and storing government agencies, without compromising information about individuals, often without the people’s privacy. (...) Ideally, where data cannot 57 this initiative. be aggregated and anonymized in particular, individuals should have control and ownership It is noted that there is a problem of widespread and spiraling household debt. Some 1.4 million of their personal digital individual data Dutch households have debt problems or are at (where possible). Moreover, some 1.1 billion risk of plunging into debt.
Language:English
Score: 1211892.4 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...s/files/basic-html/page41.html
Data Source: un
Therefore, in April, I called for a “Global Initiative on Debt Relief.” Pakistan subsequently initiated discussions on this matter at the UN and co-led the Discussion Group on Debt Vulnerability under your initiative. (...) First, extension of the G-20 Debt Service Suspension Initiative for at least one more year. The request for forbearance under this initiative should not affect the country’s credit rating, since this is due to force majeure, not mismanagement. 2 Second, the Multilateral Development Banks should participate in the Debt Suspension Initiative. Third, other short-term measures which could cover both official and private creditors include: debt swaps for health, climate and SDGs; debt buy-backs; re-profiling debt ; and regional resilience funds.
Language:English
Score: 1204636.9 - https://www.un.org/en/pdfs/FFD...2029%20SEPT/Pakistan%20(E).pdf
Data Source: un
International financial institutions have suggested creating fiscal rules to compensate for overzealous politician at the local level—centralizing the control by national treasury authorities. Yet, recently Blanchard (2019), evaluating high debt rates of counties like Japan (290%) the United States (over 100%) and various countries in Europe, has proposed new insightful research that suggests more debt is good for a country’s growth. (...) The question analyzed is whether centralizing the control of subnational debt issuances helps promote sustainable finances. (...) What we can see from our analysis here is that too much control and oversight can lead to more unsustainable debt practices by municipal governments.
Language:English
Score: 1199328.5 - https://www.cepal.org/sites/de...ts/files/jimenez_smith_1_0.pdf
Data Source: un
The linkage between internal and external debt and debt sustainability Mr. Akyuz focused on the fiscal considerations underpinning debt sustainability in middle-income countries. (...) In this respect, he also underpinned the need for a viable system of debt restructuring and workouts. Improved debt management practices to promote debt sustainability In order to understand further the linkages between internal and external debt and the value of debt management strategies Mr. (...) Hungary provides a useful illustration of pro- active debt management strategy to promote debt sustainability via a balance sheet approach to debt management.
Language:English
Score: 1194163.9 - https://www.un.org/esa/ffd/wp-...nd-7-March-workshop-Report.pdf
Data Source: un
Article 38 Time limit for payment of control stamp debt The control stamp debt is paid at the following time limits: 1. for control stamps acquired by the fifteenth day of the current month until the fifteen day of the next month. 2. for control stamps acquired by the sixteenth day of the current month until the last day of the next month. (...) On the original packages of cigars and cigarillos not wrapped in cellophane or other paper, the control stamp can be pasted directly on the packaging. (5) With the acquisition of the control mark the excise debt for control stamps arises in the amount of the excise value of the stamps. (6) The excise value of a control stamp is calculated from the excise for one cigarette, cigar, cigarillo or 1 kg of tobacco for smoking and the data about quantity stated on the control stamp. (7) Passengers carrying tobacco commodities from abroad, not included in Article 25 paragraph 1 item 5 of this Law, and citizens of the Republic of Macedonia and foreign citizens receiving tobacco commodities from abroad pursuant to the customs regulations, pay excise otherwise than by control stamps. (...) Article 45 Time limit for control stamp payment The control stamp debt is paid in the following time limits: 1. for the control stamps acquired by the fifteenth day of the current month until the fifteenth day of the next month 2. for control stamps acquired by the sixteenth day of the current month until the last day of the next month.
Language:English
Score: 1183865.4 - https://www.wto.org/english/th...c_e/mkd_e/WTACCMKD20_LEG_2.pdf
Data Source: un
Must certify that: n The signing officer has reviewed the report n The report contains no untrue statement or material omission n Report fairly presents all material respects of the financial condition and results of operation n Signing officers are responsible for maintaining internal controls 15 OFFICER CERTIFICATIONS n CEO and CFO must certify (continued): n Signing officers have evaluated the effectiveness of internal controls within 90 days of the report and presented conclusions about the effectiveness of their internal controls n They have disclosed to auditors and audit committee all significant deficiencies in internal controls and any fraud that involves internal controls n The report contains an indication of any changes in internal controls. 16 DEFINITION OF INTERNAL CONTROL n A process designed by, or under the supervision of, the company’s principal executive or principal financial officers, or persons performing similar functions, and effected by the company’s board of directors, management, or other personnel, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and include those policies and procedures that: 17 DEFINITION OF INTERNAL CONTROL n (Continued) n Pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company n Provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company, and n Provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements. 18 INTERNAL CONTROL n The independent auditor has to attest to, and report on, the assessment made by management regarding internal controls n Auditor has to evaluate management’s assessment process to be satisfied that management has an appropriate basis for its conclusion n Auditor has to test and evaluate both the design and operating effectiveness of the internal control to be satisfied that management’s conclusion is correct and fairly stated 19 BASIC DEFINITIONS n Earnings Per Share (EPS) n Net Income earned on each share of common stock n Net Income divided by Number of Shares of Common Stock n Dividend Payout Ratio n The amount of dividends relative to the company’s net income or earnings per share n Example: Cash Dividends divided by Net Income = Common Stock Dividend Payout Ratio 20 BASIC DEFINITIONS n Times Interest Earned Ratio n Can calculate on different incomes (operating income, net income) (Margin + Interest Expense on Long Term Debt) / Interest Expense on Long Term Debt n Debt Service Coverage (Net Margin + Interest Expense on Long Term Debt + Depreciation ) divided by (Interest Expense + Current Maturities of Long Term Debt) 21 BASIC DEFINITIONS n Commercial Paper n Short-term, unsecured promissory notes sold by large companies in order to raise cash n Beta n The relationship between an investment’s returns and the market returns. This is a measure of the investment’s nondiversifiable risk. 22 BASIC DEFINITIONS n Derivative n A financial contract whose value depends on a risk factor, including, but not limited to: n The price of a bond, commodity, currency, share n A yield or rate of interest n An index of prices or yields n Weather data, such as inches of rainfall or heating degree days 23 BASIC DEFINITIONS n Derivative (Continued) n Used in Various Ways n Risk Management n Hedge the risk due to uncertain commodity prices, interest rates, or foreign currency n Trading n Speculate based on a view of the future direction of the market n Balance Sheet Management n Change the nature of a liability (fixed to variable interest rate) n Benefit from an asset without buying it (capital lease) 24 BASIC DEFINITIONS n Hedge n To make a commitment in commodities for future delivery in order to avoid risk of price change to such commodity entering into the cost of goods already contracted for manufacture and sale 25 BASIC DEFINITIONS n Operating Ratio n Operating Expense divided by Operating Revenue n Debt to Equity Ratio n Proportion of the total capital provided by Debt compared to the proportion of total capital provided by equity n Example: Debt 2,000,000 or 40% of the total Equity 3,000,000 or 60% of the total Total Capitalization 5,000,000 Debt/Equity Ratio 40/60 26 BASIC DEFINITIONS n Preferred Stock n Stock which has a prior claim on dividends (or assets, in the case of the dissolution of the company) up to a certain definite amount before the common stock is entitled to anything n Book Value n The depreciated value of a company’s assets less the outstanding liabilities 27 BASIC DEFINITIONS n Price Earnings Ratio (P/E Ratio) n Market price divided by Current Annual Earnings Per Share n Example: n If stock is selling at $84 per share and earnings is $7 per share, the price earnings ratio is 12 to 1.
Language:English
Score: 1165405.1 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/fina...eminars/banjul-04/gambia-4.pdf
Data Source: un
Benefits of tobacco control for lower-income Cambodians | United Nations Development Programme Skip to main content Nav toggle Who we are What we do Our impact Get involved Global Search Who we are What we do Our impact Get involved Locations ENG KHM Home Benefits of tobacco control for lower-income Cambodians Benefits of tobacco control for lower-income Cambodians Download Benefits of tobacco control for lower-income Cambodians November 26, 2020 This Issue Brief examines the burden of tobacco use in Cambodia. (...) It presents key findings; linkage between tobacco use and poverty; and how the lower-income populations benefit the most from tobacco control. Key Findings: Tobacco control is pro-poor, bringing disproportionate benefits to the poor. (...) Read more Publications Avoiding ‘Too Little Too Late’ on International Debt Reli... This paper takes stock of the unfolding debt crisis across developing low- and middle-income countries and discusses how to break with the inertia in debt restr...
Language:English
Score: 1164012.4 - https://www.undp.org/publicati...ontrol-lower-income-cambodians
Data Source: un
The IMF Executive Board has approved a three year 1.3 billion US dollar program to support the government's reform efforts under this program to help bring public debt back under control, Zambia's government aims to cut wasteful spending or spending that doesn't help the poor, such as fuel subsidies. (...) However, Zambia also needs a deep debt restructuring. That's where the G20 initiative to restructure debt comes in. (...) The IMF Executive Board has approved a three year 1.3 billion US dollar program to support the government's reform efforts under this program to help bring public debt back under control, Zambia's government aims to cut wasteful spending or spending that doesn't help the poor, such as fuel subsidies.
Language:English
Score: 1163251.8 - https://www.unmultimedia.org/tv/unifeed/asset/2928/2928107/
Data Source: un