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Valuation of digital currencies might seem straightforward, as the price is determined directly by supply and demand in the market. However, digital currencies lack any form of underlying fundamentals to guide the market-determined price. (...) Nevertheless, the potential development of new sovereign digital currencies, continuous evolution of the existing digital currencies, and the rapidly growing application of the blockchain technology in other areas, suggests that the use of cryptocurrencies will continue to expand.
Language:English
Score: 1132124.8 - https://www.un.org/development...november-2017-briefing-no-108/
Data Source: un
Learn more ​ From cryptocurrencies to CBDCs ​ Telecommunication Standardization Bureau Director Chaesub Lee explains the initiatives aiming to identify where technical standards may be needed for digital currencies. Learn more ​​​ Are networks ready for today's demand? ​ (...) Learn more ​​ News and views ​ ​ Bank of Jamaica CBDC rollout moves ahead​ e-krona: Sweden’s journey to a central bank digital currency​ ​​ Gearing up for DC3: Central bank digital currencies, stablecoins, and security​ ​ In depth​​​ ​ Brokering standards by consensus​​ ITU News Magazine: Digital youth​​​ ​​ ITU Journal: New special issues​​ ​ WTISD 2022 ​​​ ​​ ​​ ​The theme for next year's World Telecommunication and In​formation Society Day (WTISD) is "Digital technologies for Older Persons and Healthy Ageing". 
Language:English
Score: 1129877.4 - https://www.itu.int/en/Pages/default.aspx
Data Source: un
Slide 1 Enhancing MRV with Digital Innovations Tom Baumann | January 23, 2018 Examples of Existing Digital for MRV • Calculators (often MS Excel) • GHG inventory software and data management systems • LCA databases • Emission factor databases • Knowledge hubs • Remote sensing • Mobile sensors • CEMS (Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems) • Online reporting and registries Many Digital Innovations • Distributed Ledger Technology (Blockchain) • Billions of connected devices as the Internet of Things (IOT) • Big Data Analytics • Social networks (Web 2.0) • Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning • 3D printing, Industry 4.0, Robotics, Drones • Mobile economy • Sharing economy Digital Growth Source: Cisco • Approx 50 billion IoT devices • Data created in 2017 more than previous 5000 years • Mobile economy to connect ¾ global population by 2020 • Digital currency market over $400B today • Sharing economy over $350B by 2025 • Social networks over 3B users Smarter 2030 – Digital for Climate Actions • Decouple economic growth from GHG emissions with resource efficiency (reduce GHG intensity per unit of economic activity by 20% by 2030) DLT/Digital Innovations for Climate Climate Actions Mitigation, Adaptation, Finance Carbon Markets Registries for Permits and Credits Existing Markets Differentiated Low-carbon Products Supported by Digital MRV Systems linked to DLT What is DLT (Blockchain)? Ledger Spreadsheet Database Record Book Distributed Peer-to-Peer Shared so Everyone Gets a Copy (Level of Transparency Control) Technology Consensus Algorithm to Verify Agreement and Trust Cryptography for Security Internet Connected Meters and Smart Devices D a ta D a ta Bitcoin < Blockchain < DLT Examples of DLTs Explanation Bitcoin Blockchain as a Digital Currency, i.e. a financial application Ethereum Blockchain with Smart Contracts, more than digital currency applications, e.g. supply chains IOTA Not a blockchain, uses “Tangle” as a blockless distributed ledger; can link with other DLTs Hashgraph (not actually a DLT) “Swirlds” consensus algorithm not a DLT, but can be a front end for DLTs DLT Benefits to Enhance MRV Lower Costs and Faster Reporting MRV Data and Calculations using Software based on Smart Standards and Smart Contracts Data Integrity Data Trail Traceability, Reduce Data Duplication and Avoid Double Counting across MRV Systems Resilient and Scalable Distributed Computer Networks, Extensible for New Climate Actions and Links for Policy Coherence Mobilize Finance into Climate Actions IoT, Data, Smart Standards, Smart Contracts, Metrics and Instruments Facility Climate Action Green Power Supply Chain Carbon Markets Emission Trading Linked and Nested System of DLT Applications System Boundaries e.g. Carbon Budget Natural Capital NDC Registry Project Climate Action Sustain- able Cities Supporting Collaborative Governance System Online Expert Communities Consensus-based Mass Collaboration Interoperable Modular Rules Framework Rules for MRV, Technical, Legal, Accounting Examples of DLT Companies + Initiatives • Solar Coin Provenance • Climate Ledger Climate Chain Coalition • Xpansiv Power Ledger • CCEG Seratio Coins Blockchain for Impact • DAO IPCI Plastic Bank • Veridium Poseidon • Climate Coin Adaptation Ledger • Earth Token Earth Dollar • Fintech4Good Digital Green Finance DIG4Climate Project • Digital Innovation and Governance for Climate (DIG4Climate) • On behalf of Government of Canada (funder) and in collaboration with Pacific Alliance countries – Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru • Project funding = $1.6M | Project duration = 4 years to March 2021 (leverages additional $1.4M+ for MRV) • Links to related projects to pilot blockchain for MRV (expectation to link with more pilots) DIG4Climate Project Activities • Multi-stakeholder engagement process of workshops and events in each of the Pacific Alliance countries • Collaborase online collaboration platform and resources to support broader engagement and smart standards development • 2018/Q1 – Capacity building workshops • 2018/Q4 – 2019/Q1 – Practical design workshops • 2019 – 2020 – Pilot testing with DLT/blockchain applications • 2020/Q4 – 2021/Q1 – Recommendations and Roadmap DIG4Climate Project Process • Assess the current state of MRV and assess frameworks, taxonomies, processes within a “MRV Maturity Model” • Assess the current challenges with MRV systems and the opportunities/drivers to move towards digital MRV • Road-test some MRV Innovations with pilot projects • Develop a Roadmap to transition from current MRV system to digital MRV system Questions?
Language:English
Score: 1125593.75 - https://www.cepal.org/sites/de...resentations/tom_baumann_0.pdf
Data Source: un
In the following blogs posts, we explore organizations that are pioneering in these tech spaces: Mobile money services and digital currencies Sensor and wearable technology Learning and education Power logistics and transport Identity and personal data Let’s get started with #1… Did you know that two billion people around the world are unbanked? (...) With the increase of mobile money services and digital currencies, people now have the opportunity to access their money easier and faster. (...) BitPesa accepts Bitcoin (a digital currency) from nearly anywhere in the world and exchanges it to local currency.
Language:English
Score: 1124768.1 - https://www.unicef.org/innovat...ransforming-financial-services
Data Source: un
The CryptoFund is a prototype fund for UNICEF to explore the use of digital currencies, and what it means to operate in a digitally-financed future.  (...) Simply put: Transparency. Efficiency. Digital by Default. The CryptoFund is a way for UNICEF to learn about a new digital asset class, and in line with goals of the Office of Innovation, explore possible futures that UNICEF may operate in – whether it be cryptocurrencies, central bank digital currencies, or any other type of digital currencies, UNICEF will have a better understanding of what is required to operate in this new context. (...) In addition, over the past few years we’ve seen the increased desire for donors to contribute using cryptocurrency and to see their donation used as cryptocurrency (ie. not have it converted to local fiat currency). Why’s that? By keeping crypto in its native form, UNICEF, donors, recipients, and the public can track where the money is going and how it is being spent, providing an unprecedented level of transparency in the funding and NGO space. 
Language:English
Score: 1120953.6 - https://www.unicef.org/innovation/stories/unicef-cryptofund
Data Source: un
INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL SYSTEM AND DEVELOPMENT :REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL
Developments regarding digital assets and “stablecoins” have accelerated, as has work on central bank digital currencies. (...) At the end of 2020, 86 per cent of central banks were engaged in central bank digital currency work, up from 80 per cent in 2019 and 70 per cent in 2018, citing financial inclusion and domestic payment efficiency as their main motivations. 49 This was also the explicit goal of the first “live” retail central bank digital currency launched in the Bahamas in October 2020. However, recent studies on different aspects of financial inclusion (including access, efficiency and costs) have not shown a clear effect of central bank digital currencies.50 The implementation of
Language:English
Score: 1117725.1 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...sf/get?open&DS=A/76/230&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
Cross-border CBDC raise design & technical challenges Direct ownership Intermediation Retail AML / CFT Standards Market design Wholesale Market liquidity Info sharing Role of central banks Tech standards AML / CFT Market design Liquidity Data & information sharing Role of central banks … Macrofinancial challenges must also be addressed Larger gross flows more leverage & greater valuation changes Circumvention of capital flow management measures More widespread currency substitution Monetary policy and foreign exchange intervention effectiveness Lender of last resort Faster transmission of global financial conditions Loss of information / tax revenue Configuration of reserve currencies and backstops Payment system fragmentation Digital divide 63 38 26 27 77 30 25 17 0 20 40 60 80 100 [0, 10) % [10, 30) % [30, 50) % [50,100]% Foreign currency deposits' share of total bank deposits Foreign currency loans' share in total bank loans Chart A: Currency substitution around the world (number of countries in given ranges) Sources: Bannister et al. (2018), IMF SRF, and author calculations. (...) See also Levy Yeyati and Hélène Rey (2006) 0 20 40 60 80 100 Foreign currency deposits' share of total bank deposits Foreign currency loans' share in total bank loans Chart B: Currency substitution in selected countries (in percent) Sources: Bannister et al. (2018), IMF SRF, and author calculations. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Chart D: Currency substitution: adoption dynamics Line: Average foreign currency deposits in percent of total bank deposits. (...) Note: Includes 25 country cases of currency substitution since 1975, with starting year normalized to t.
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Score: 1114102.5 - https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/W...s/Tommaso_Mancini-Griffoli.pdf
Data Source: un
INVESTMENTS OF THE UNITED NATIONS JOINT STAFF PENSION FUND : REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL
b/ The fund's investments are exposed to these currencies through funds that are traded in other currencies. c_/ Includes various investment trusts, which trade in currencies other than the currencies of the investment. (...) Digitized by Dag Hammarskjöld Library
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Score: 1112820.1 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce.../get?open&DS=A/C.5/47/8&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
INVESTMENTS OF THE UNITED NATIONS JOINT STAFF PENSION FUND : REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL
Investments were held in 29 different currencies and 44 countries, 50 per cent of the assets was inve~ted n currencies other than the United States dollar, which is the Fund's unit of I • •• Digitized by Dag Hammarskjöld Library A/C.5/44/6 Engliflh l'age 4 account. (...) ~J 100.0 7 632 100.0 ----- .._--- ._--_._-- -_.- / ... Digitized by Dag Hammarskjöld Library Table a TOTAL FUNDs AREA OF INVESTMENT (MARKET VALUE) AI bl AS AT 31 MARCH 1989 (In millions of United States dollars) AlC.5/44/6 English Page 9 Investments In currencies other than Investments in United States United States dollars dollars Total ._--------_._----_.. (...) :.Q .Q. 3. 04 5. 57 - Digitized by Dag Hammarskjöld Library
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Score: 1112641.2 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce.../get?open&DS=A/C.5/44/6&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
PROPOSED PROGRAMME BUDGET FOR THE BIENNIUM 1988-1989. PART 4, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND HUMANITARIAN ACTIVITIES, SECTION 24, REGULAR PROGRAMME OF TECHNICAL CO-OPERATION
The estimate for inflation and currency exchange rates in 1988-1989 has been calculated as follows: for all the sectors under the programme component, Sectora1 advisory services, except for human rights, human settlements and international trade and development -5- Digitized by Dag Hammarskjöld Library finance, the inflation assumption for New York was used (3 per cent in 1988 and 1989), for human rights and international trade and development finance, the inflation (1.7 per cent in 1988 and 1989) and currency exchange rate assumptions for Geneva were usedJ for the human settlements sector, the inflation (9 per cent in 1988 and 1989) and currency exchange rate assumptions for Nairobi were used, for the programme component, Regional and subregional advisory services, the inflation (which averages out to 4.5 per cent in 1988 and 1989) and currency exchange rate assumptions for the locations of the four regional commissions concerned were used, finally, the inflation (1 per cent in 1988 and 1989) and currency exchange rate assumptions for Vienna were used for the activities for the advancement of women. -6- Digitized by Dag Hammarskjöld Library TA BL E 2 4 .4 . (...) Training (a) Resource requirements: regular budget (excluding non-convertible currencies): $126,300 (3 per cent of sector total).
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Score: 1110524 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...open&DS=A/42/6(SECT.24)&Lang=E
Data Source: ods