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The transform coefficients obtained by the ABT are scanned either in progressive (which is extension of zig-zag direction according to different block size) or in interlaced (which is extension of the alternate scan direction according to different block sizes) scan direction. (...) The actual statistics of the generated symbols depends on a specific scan direction. The zig-zag scan direction in Figure 1 (a) cover the horizontal and vertical directions equally without any preference to either one. (...) Additionally, we think further investigation is worthwhile to study other scan directions such as alternate-horizontal direction can make any difference.
Language:English
Score: 422473.97 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...07_Klagenfurt/JVT-D073r1-L.doc
Data Source: un
UN DESA | DPAD | UN System Task Team on the Post-2015 Development Agenda Skip to main navigation Skip to content Skip to resources [an error occurred while processing this directive] [an error occurred while processing this directive] [an error occurred while processing this directive] Report of the UN System Task Team on the Post-2015 UN Development Agenda A renewed global partnership for development In its second report, "A renewed global partnership for development," the UN System Task Team on the Post-2015 UN Development looks at the possible features for the global partnership for development in the post-2015 era. (...) Read full report Executive Summary Key recommendations Frequently asked questions [an error occurred while processing this directive] [an error occurred while processing this directive] [an error occurred while processing this directive] [an error occurred while processing this directive] [an error occurred while processing this directive] [an error occurred while processing this directive] [an error occurred while processing this directive]
Language:English
Score: 422423.34 - https://www.un.org/en/developm.../untaskteam_undf/report2.shtml
Data Source: un
Rep. of Congo ATS Direct Speech Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Rec. 9/9 Bukavu TWR Circuit Bukavu/Kigali 1996 Not implemented DR Congo, Rwanda A ATS Direct Speech Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Rec. 9/9 Kinshasa Circuit Brazzaville/Kinshasa unserviceable Interconnection between AFISNET and SADC/2 DRC ASECNA End of year 2010 A ATS Direct Speech Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Rec. 9/9 Gbadolite TWR Circuit Gbadolite/Bangui 2002 Not implemented Could be implemented by interconnection between Bangu AFISNET and G’Badolite RVA domestic VSATs. DR Congo, ASECNA End of year 2010 A ATS Direct Speech Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Rec. 9/9 Goma APP Circuit Goma/Bujumbura 1998 Not implemented DR Congo, Burundi A ATS Direct Speech Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Rec. 9/9 Goma APP Circuit Goma/Kigali 1998 Not implemented DR Congo, Rwanda A Eritrea ATS Direct Speech Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Rec. 9/9 Asmara ACC Circuit Asmara/ Addis Ababa 1998 The circuit has been disconnected To be restored. (...) NAFISAT Ethiopia, Eritrea U Ghana ATS Direct Speech Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Rec. 9/9 Accra ACC Circuit Accra/Kano 2009 Unserviceable To be restored AFISNET Ghana Nigeria A Congo ATS Direct Speech Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Rec. 9/9 Brazzaville ACC Circuit Accra/Brazzaville Unserviceable To be restored AFISNET GHANA ASECNA End of year 2010 A Rwanda ATS Direct Speech Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Rec. 9/9 Kigali ACC Kigali/Kinshasa Unserviceable To be restored SADC//2 Rwanda, DR Congo A Somalia ATS Direct Speech Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Rec. 9/9 Hargeisa APP Circuit Hargeisa/Djibouti 1998 Not implemented Implement LTF circuit Somalia, Djibouti A ----------
Language:English
Score: 422385.9 - https://www.icao.int/WACAF/Doc...S_SG4/docs/wp04_05_appb_en.pdf
Data Source: un
The Telenor proposal based on 4x4 blocks has used 4 directional modes – horizontal, vertical and two diagonal modes. The Nokia model uses 11 directional modes (actually 8 different directions but some directions may be predicted from different neighboring pixels). (...) Based on this it is proposed that the two new prediction directions are included in the test model.
Language:English
Score: 421826.95 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...video-site/0005_Osa/q15j26.doc
Data Source: un
The administrative decision will be quashed if the Registrar has failed to comply with the legal requirements of the Directive. This issue may in the particular case involve a consideration of the proper interpretation of the Directive. (...) Milan Milutinovic, Dragoljub Ojdanic, Nikola Sainovic , Case No.: IT-99-37-PT73.2, Decision on Interlocutory Appeal on Motion for Additional Funds, 13 November 2003, para. 19. 4 - Article 8 (B) of the Directive provides: “In order to determine whether the suspect or accused is unable to remunerate counsel, there shall be taken into account means of all kinds of which he has direct or indirect enjoyment or freely disposes, including but not limited to direct income, bank accounts, real or personal property, pensions, and stocks, bonds, or other assets held, but excluding any family or social benefits to which he may be entitled. In assessing such means account shall also be taken of the means of the spouse of a suspect or accused, as well as those of persons with whom he habitually resides.” 5 - Article 8 (A) of the Directive; The Prosecutor v. Miroslav Kvocka, Mlado Radic, Zorna Zigic & Dragoljub Prcac , Case No. : IT-98-30/1-A, Decision on Review of Registrar’s Decision to Withdraw Legal Aid from Zoran Zigic, 7 February 2003, para. 14 (Zigic Appeals Decision). 6 - Zigic Appeals Decision, para. 13. 7 - Registrar’s Decision, p.1. 8 - See Article 7 of the Directive. 9 - See Article 10 of the Directive. 10 - Article 8 (B) of the Directive provides: “In order to determine whether the suspect or accused is unable to remunerate counsel, there shall be taken into account means of all kinds of which he has direct or indirect enjoyment or freely disposes, including but not limited to direct income, bank accounts, real or personal property, pensions, and stocks, bonds, or other assets held, but excluding any family or social benefits to which he may be entitled.
Language:English
Score: 421812.4 - https://www.icty.org/x/cases/mrksic/tdec/en/040309.htm
Data Source: un
APIRG/14 WP/13 Appendix B B -2 ATS Direct Speech Ouagadougou APP Circuit 2002 Not implemented VSAT planned by ASECNA, Togo, B Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Ouagadougou/Niamt Ghana CAA at Ghana Rec. 9/9 ougou Niamtougou Burundi ATS Direct Speech Bujumbura APP Circuit 1998 Not implemented VSAT being Burundi, Tanzania 2003 U Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Bujumbura/Dar es implemented at Rec. 9/9 Salaam Bujumbura ATS Direct Speech Bujumbura APP Circuit 1998 Not implemented Burundi, DR Congo U Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Bujumbura/Goma Rec. 9/9 ATS Direct Speech Bujumbura APP Circuit 2002 Not implemented VSAT under Burundi, Rwanda U Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Bujumbura/Kigali consideratiion Rec. 9/9 ATS Direct Speech Bujumbura APP Circuit 1998 Not implemented VSAT being Burundi, DR Congo 2003 U Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Bujumbura/Kinshasa implemented at Rec. 9/9 Bujumbura Cameroon ATS Direct Speech Douala APP Circuit Douala/Bata 1998 Not implemented VSAT planned at ASECNA A Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Bata Rec. 9/9 Central African Republic ATS Direct Speech Bangui APP Circuit 1998 Not implemented Could be ASECNA, DR Congo A Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Bangui/Gbadolite implemented via Rec. 9/9 Brazzaville if a circuit Kinshasa/Gbadolite Chad ATS Direct Speech N'Djamena APP/FIC Circuit 1998 Not implemented PSTN proposed by ASECNA, Sudan U Circuits Plan, AFI/7 N'Djamena/Khartoum ASECNA. (...) Equatorial Guinea ATS Direct Speech Bata & Malabo APP Circuit Bata/Malabo 2002 Not implemented VSAT planned ASECNA U Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Rec. 9/9 ATS Direct Speech Bata APP Circuit Bata/Douala 1996 Not implemented VSAT planned ASECNA A Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Rec. 9/9 ATS Direct Speech Bata APP Circuit Bata/Libreville 1996 Not implemented VSAT planned ASECNA U Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Rec. 9/9 Eritrea ATS Direct Speech Asmara ACC Circuit 1998 This circuit has been To be restored Eritrea, Ethiopia U Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Asmara/AddisAbaba disconnected Rec. 9/9 Ethiopia ATS Direct Speech Addis Ababa Circuit Addis 1998 This circuit has been To be restored Ethiopia, Eritrea U Circuits Plan, AFI/7 ACC/FIC Ababa/Asmara disconnected Rec. 9/9 ATS Direct Speech Dire Dawa TWR Circuit Dire 1996 Not implemented Implement LTF circuit Ethiopia, Djibouti U Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Dawa/Djibouti Rec. 9/9 Gabon ATS Direct Speech Libreville ACC Circuit Libreville/Bata 1996 Not implemented VSAT planned at ASECNA U Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Bata Rec. 9/9 ATS Direct Speech Libreville ACC Circuit Libreville/Sao 1996 Not implemented VSAT to be installed ASECNA, Sao Tome 2003 U Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Tome by Ghana CAA at & Principe, Ghana Rec. 9/9 Sao Tome Gambia ATS Direct Speech Banjul APP Circuit Banjul/Bissau 1996 Not implemented VSAT being Gambia/Guinea U Circuits Plan, AFI/7 considered Bissau Rec. 9/9 APIRG/14 WP/13 Appendix B B -5 StateName Requirements Facilities or Description of Date Comments on Description of Executing Body Target Priority Services Deficiency first Deficiency Corrective action date for reported implement Ghana ATS Direct Speech Accra APP/FIC Circuit Accra/Bobo 1998 PSTN in use VSAT planned at Ghana, ASECNA A Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Dioulasso Bobo Dioulasso Rec. 9/9 ATS Direct Speech Accra APP/FIC Circuit Accra/Lome 2002 VSAT planned Ghana, ASECNA 2003 U Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Rec. 9/9 ATS Direct Speech Accra APP/FIC Circuit Acrra/Luanda 1998 Inmarsat phone used VSAT under Ghana, Angola U Circuits Plan, AFI/7 fromLuanda. consideration Rec. 9/9 Inmarsat also available in Accra ATS Direct Speech Accra APP/FIC Circuit 2002 Not implemented VSAT planned at Ghana, Togo B Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Accra/Niamtougou Niamtougou by Rec. 9/9 Ghana CAA ATS Direct Speech Accra APP/FIC Circuit 1998 PSTN in use Implement LTF circuit Ghana, ASECNA 2003 A Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Accra/Ougadougou using existing Rec. 9/9 VSATs in Accra and Ouagadougou ATS Direct Speech Accra APP/FIC Circuit Accra/Sao 1996 Not implemented VSAT planned at Ghana, Sao Tome & 2003 U Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Tome Sao Tome by Ghana Principe Rec. 9/9 CAA Guinea ATS Direct Speech Conakry APP Circuit 1996 Not implemented Implement LTF circuit Guinea, Guinea U Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Conakry/Bissau Bissau Rec. 9/9 Guinea Bissau ATS Direct Speech Bissau APP Circuit Bissau/Banjul 1996 Not implemented VSAT being Gambia, Guinea U Circuits Plan, AFI/7 considered Bissau Rec. 9/9 ATS Direct Speech Bissau APP Circuit 1996 Not implemented Implement LTF circuit Guinea, Guinea U Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Bissau/Conakry Bissau Rec. 9/9 APIRG/14 WP/13 Appendix B B -6 StateName Requirements Facilities or Description of Date Comments on Description of Executing Body Target Priority Services Deficiency first Deficiency Corrective action date for reported implement ATS Direct Speech Bissau APP Circuit Bissau/Dakar 1996 Not implemented VSAT being ASECNA, Guinea U Circuits Plan, AFI/7 considered Bissau Rec. 9/9 Kenya ATS Direct Speech Mombasa APP Circuit Mombasa/Dar 1996 Unreliable Improve the circuit Kenya, Tanzania U Circuits Plan, AFI/7 es Salaam Rec. 9/9 ATS Direct Speech Mombasa APP Circuit 1996 Not implemented Implement LTF circuit Kenya, Tanzania U Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Mombasa/Kilimanjaro Rec. 9/9 Libya ATS Direct Speech Tripoli ACC/FIC Circuit Tripoli/Algiers 1998 Not implemented Implement LTF Libya, Algeria U Circuits Plan, AFI/7 circuit. (...) Circuit to be switched through Sudan ATS Direct Speech Khartoum FIC Circuit 1996 Not implemented VSAT AFISNET Sudan, ASECNA U Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Khartoum/Brazzaville proposed by Rec. 9/9 ASECNA ATS Direct Speech Khartoum FIC Circuit 1996 Not implemented LTF circuit via PTTs Egypt, Sudan 2003 U Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Khartoum/Cairo proposed by Egypt Rec. 9/9 until implememtat ion of VSAT NAFISAT ATS Direct Speech Khartoum FIC Circuit 1996 Not implemented LTF circuit planned Sudan, Saudi Arabia 2003 U Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Khartoum/Jeddah Rec. 9/9 ATS Direct Speech Khartoum FIC Circuit 1996 Not implemented VSAT NAFISAT in Sudan, DR Congo U Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Khartoum/Kinshasa project Rec. 9/9 ATS Direct Speech Khartoum FIC Circuit 1996 Not implemented VSAT NAFISAT in Sudan, ASECNA U Circuits Plan, AFI/7 Khartoum/N'djamena project.
Language:English
Score: 421631.3 - https://www.icao.int/WACAF/Doc...nts/APIRG/Apirg14/wp13_eng.pdf
Data Source: un
In B109, several sub-directions are set around the derived direction (main direction), and intra prediction modes corresponding to the main and sub directions are added to the original intra prediction modes. (...) Other ‘edge:x’ corresponds to the sub-direction defined arround the main direction. It is understandable that the ratio of the main direction is high. It should be noted that the ratio of ‘edge:4’ or ‘edge:-4’ are also high. Since these directions are most appart from the main direction, it can be assumed that more number of sub-directions introduces further benefit.
Language:English
Score: 421421 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a..._10_C_Guangzhou/JCTVC-C176.doc
Data Source: un
Field direct mode, proposed in [2], is based on the same idea as frame direct mode. (...) Direct mode MB saves bits by not sending any motion information. (...) Hence, the collocated MB in field 1 of the past reference is used in calculating the MVs and determining the references for direct mode. F MV of direct mode MB is derived by doubling the field-based MV of the collocated MB in field 1 of the past reference in vertical direction.
Language:English
Score: 421113.57 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...002_07_Klagenfurt/JVT-D046.doc
Data Source: un
Second Preparatory Conference to the Fourteenth OSCE Economic Forum “Enhancing Transportation Security in the OSCE area” Baku, Azerbaijan, 16-17 March 2006 1 Expert Group on Inland Transport SecurityExpert Group on Inland Transport Security Geneva, 24Geneva, 24--25 May 200725 May 2007 Robert Nowak United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Transport Division Geneva The economic costs of terrorism 2 CostsCosts • Terrorism raises transactions costs in the economy and shifts resources toward security activities • Estimated to be significant but not very large relative to GDP 3 BenefitsBenefits • Security-related outlays aim at reducing the risk of incident and consequences should it occur • The costs of anti-terror measures may be viewed as an investment • Need to balance both benefits and costs 4 Some statisticsSome statistics • The total number of international terrorist attacks is falling; the peak of > 650 in 1988 to > 200 in 2004 • Suicide attacks proliferating, three incidents in 1980; in the 1990’s on average 10 per year; since 2000 - 25 attacks per year • Suicide terrorism is 3 per cent of all acts, but it accounts for one-half of deaths 5 ShortShort--term, direct coststerm, direct costs Loss of human and non-human capital • The loss of life and loss of productive capacity of those killed • The destruction of capital (buildings, equipment, infrastructure) • Rescue, clean up/repair costs 6 ShortShort--term, direct coststerm, direct costs September 11, 2001 • Direct costs estimated at $20 – $60 billion or 0.2 – 0.6 per cent GDP • Rescue and clean up costs about $11 billion 7 ShortShort--term, direct coststerm, direct costs Increased uncertainty • Negative impacts on consumption and investment • Stock market decline reduces consumption (through the wealth effect) and investment (a higher cost of capital) 8 ShortShort--term, direct coststerm, direct costs September 11, 2001 • Stock market loss of 17 per cent of GDP (temporary due to rapid and offsetting policy responses) 9 ShortShort--term, direct coststerm, direct costs Additional costs incurred by certain industries/locations •Some locations/industries suffer disproportionate economic and job losses 10 ShortShort--term, direct coststerm, direct costs September 11, 2001 •The insurance industry “lost” roughly $50 billion 11 LongLong--term coststerm costs • Terrorist acts are intended to produce effects beyond the immediate physical damage • Aim at inflicting long-term psychological consequences 12 LongLong--term coststerm costs Higher transaction costs •Travel delays, higher construction and insurance costs, additional informational requirements, more regulation, higher levels of inventories, tighter immigration restrictions 13 LongLong--term coststerm costs Stress, anxiety, restrictions on individual freedoms • Individuals willing to pay 50 and 70 per cent more for an airplane ticket if the risk of a terrorist attack reduced by 25 and 100 per cent (Viscusi and Zeckhauser, 2003) • A resident of Northern Ireland would pay about 40 per cent of his income for a reduction in terrorist activities to the level of Ireland/Great Britain (Frey 2004) 14 LongLong--term coststerm costs Higher government security spending • The costs of diverting resources to security/military related activities • A “negative” peace dividend that crowds out more productive activities • Adverse effects on the private capital stock – lower productivity and reduced long run potential growth rate 15 Estimates : USEstimates : US • Becker and Murphy (2001): reduced GDP by 0.2 per cent because of lower investment • The Council of Economic Advisers (2002): the level of output reduced by 0.6 per cent after five years 16 SectoralSectoral estimates: international tradeestimates: international trade •A doubling of incidents (1968-79) decreases bilateral trade between targeted economies by 6 per cent (Nitsch and Schumacher, 2002) •A month long disruption of U.S. (...) 20 Some policy considerations: nationalSome policy considerations: national • Governments responsible for preventing terrorist attacks • Private sector has the duty to take reasonable precautions 21 Some policy considerations: nationalSome policy considerations: national Challenge: How to establish a co-op link between the public and private sectors • Definition of “reasonable” standards, how to measure compliance, how to encourage information sharing (confidentiality), how to encourage private sector’s participation, how to introduce market mechanisms to reward good behaviour Expert Group on Inland Transport Security Geneva, 24-25 May 2007 Costs Benefits Some statistics Short-term, direct costs Short-term, direct costs Short-term, direct costs Short-term, direct costs Short-term, direct costs Short-term, direct costs Long-term costs Long-term costs Long-term costs Long-term costs Estimates : US Sectoral estimates: international trade Sectoral estimates: tourism Some policy considerations: international co-operation Some policy considerations: international co-operation Some policy considerations: national Some policy considerations: national
Language:English
Score: 421093.55 - https://unece.org/DAM/trans/doc/2007/ac11/1st_ppt01e.pdf
Data Source: un
European Union Reference Material | UNECE Skip to main content English Advanced Search   Main navigation About UNECE Executive Secretary Mission Organizational structure Secretariat Executive Committee Commission Legal instruments Work with us Our work Economic Cooperation & Integration Environmental Policy Forests Housing & Land Population Sustainable Energy Statistics Trade Transport Themes High-impact Areas Circular Economy Gender SPECA Technical cooperation THE PEP UN SG's Special Envoy for Road Safety UN Road Safety Fund UN cooperation in the UNECE region Regional Forum on Sustainable Development SDGs Open UNECE Events Meetings & Events Information for Delegates Coronavirus Advisory Publications Media Executive Secretary's Blog News Press Releases Covid-19 Press Releases Speeches Stories UNECE Weekly Videos More options TER TER About Us About Objectives Results Programme of Work Maps National Coordinators TER Standards Trust Fund Agreement European Union Reference Material TEM and TER Master Plan Meeting Documents before 2021 (ARCHIVE) Steering Committees TEM and TER Publications Contact us European Union Reference Material TER - European Union Transport Policy - Official Journal of the European Union L 164 - 30.04.2004 REGULATION (EC) No 881/2004 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 29 April 2004 establishing a European Railway Agency (Agency Regulation) DIRECTIVE 2004/49/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 29 April 2004 on safety on the Community's railways and amending Council Directive 95/18/EC on the licensing of railway undertakings and Directive 2001/14/EC on the allocation of railway infrastructure capacity and the levying of charges for the use of railway infrastructure and safety certification (Railway Safety Directive) DIRECTIVE 2004/50/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 29 April 2004 amending Council Directive 96/48/EC on the interoperability of the trans-European high-speed rail system and Directive 2001/16/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the interoperability of the trans-European conventional rail system DIRECTIVE 2004/51/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 29 April 2004 amending Council Directive 91/440/EEC on the development of the Community's railways PDF - Proposal of the Council Regulation on the establishment of a regime of local border traffic at the external land borders of the member states   PDF - Proposal for a decision of the European Parliament and the Council amending Decision No 1692/96/EC on Community guidelines for the development of the trans-European transport network - COM (2003) 564 final, 1 October 2003   PDF - Directive 2001/16/EC on interoperability PDF - Amending Directive 2001/14/EC PDF - EC Communication Towards an Integrated European Railway Area PDF - European Parliament Report on the Commission White Paper (A5-0444/2002 Final, 9 December 2002) PDF - EC proposal for amendment of Council Regulation No 2236/95 laying down general rules for the granting of Community financial aid in the field of trans-European networks PDF - EC Proposal for amendment of Decision No 1692/96/EC on Community guidelines for the development of the trans-European transport network PDF - EC Document on Transport and Energy infrastructure in South East Europe PDF - European Commission White Paper - European Transport Policy for 2010: Time to decide - COM(2001) 370 Brussels, 12/9/2001 PDF - European Commission Consultation Paper - The Marco Polo Programme: A new Promotion Concept for Alternatives to Road Transport- June 2001 PDF - Directive 2001/12/EC of 26 February 2001, amending Council Directive 91/440/EC on the development of the Community's railways- Official Journal of the European Communities L 75/1 - 15.3.2001 PDF - Directive 2001/13/EC of 26 February 2001, amending Council Directive 95/18/EC on the licensing of railway undertakings - Official Journal of the European Communities L 75/26 - 15.3.2001 PDF - Directive 2001/14/EC of 26 February 2001, on the allocation of railway infrastructure capacity and levying for the use of railway infrastructure and safety certification - Official Journal of the European Communities L 75/29 - 15.3.2001 PDF ABOUT UNECE Mission Executive Secretary Organizational Structure OPPORTUNITIES Vacancies Internship Programme RESOURCES Statistical Database Evaluations Follow UNECE Facebook Twitter Contact us Flickr Rss Youtube Instagram © United Nations Economic Commission for Europe | Terms and Conditions of Use | Privacy Notice Contact us
Language:English
Score: 421083.84 - https://unece.org/zh-hans/node/5802
Data Source: un