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Neil Dickson, Environment Officer Environment Branch, ICAO Air Transport Bureau • The ICAO Airport Air Quality Manual • Emissions Inventories • Pollution Concentrations and Dispersion Modelling • Summary © ICAO 2014 • ICAO has been involved with airport- related emissions for many years. • Guidance material on airport-related air quality was published in 2011: – Help States implement best practices to assess airport air quality; – ICAO Doc 9889. (...) Pollution Concentrations and Dispersion Modelling © ICAO 2014 • Atmospheric dispersion modelling is required to estimate the local ambient concentrations. • The results form the basis for LAQ impact studies – Used to demonstrate compliance with required regulations and standards. • Existing pollution concentrations can also be assessed by in-situ observation of ambient conditions – This assessment method can include contributions from other nearby and distant sources. • Modelling results and ambient observations can be used for evaluating existing or historical conditions. Pollution Concentrations and Dispersion Modelling © ICAO 2014 • Emissions inventory, concentrations and dispersion modelling, and ambient observation elements can be used individually or in combination. • The aim is to aid the process of understanding airport air quality, reporting, and compliance and/or mitigation planning. • Subsequent air quality mitigation can have beneficial results for the: – total emissions mass; – concentration model results; – measured pollutant concentrations.
Language:English
Score: 986825.6 - https://www.icao.int/WACAF/Doc...20LAQ%20GuidanceV3_c_notes.pdf
Data Source: un
Neil Dickson Environment Branch ICAO Air Transport Bureau • The ICAO Airport Air Quality Manual • Emissions Inventories • Pollution Concentrations and Dispersion Modelling • Summary © ICAO 2014 • ICAO has been involved with airport- related emissions for many years. • Guidance material on airport-related air quality was published in 2011: – Help States implement best practices to assess airport air quality; – ICAO Doc 9889. (...) Pollution Concentrations and Dispersion Modelling © ICAO 2014 • Atmospheric dispersion modelling is required to estimate the local ambient concentrations. • The results form the basis for LAQ impact studies – Used to demonstrate compliance with required regulations and standards. • Existing pollution concentrations can also be assessed by in-situ observation of ambient conditions – This assessment method can include contributions from other nearby and distant sources. • Modelling results and ambient observations can be used for evaluating existing or historical conditions. Pollution Concentrations and Dispersion Modelling © ICAO 2014 • Emissions inventory, concentrations and dispersion modelling, and ambient observation elements can be used individually or in combination. • The aim is to aid the process of understanding airport air quality, reporting, and compliance and/or mitigation planning. • Subsequent air quality mitigation can have beneficial results for the: – total emissions mass; – concentration model results; – measured pollutant concentrations.
Language:English
Score: 986825.6 - https://www.icao.int/Meetings/...AO_AirportAirQualityManual.pdf
Data Source: un
Neil Dickson, Environment Officer Environment Branch, ICAO Air Transport Bureau • The ICAO Airport Air Quality Manual • Emissions Inventories • Pollution Concentrations and Dispersion Modelling • Summary © ICAO 2014 • ICAO has been involved with airport- related emissions for many years. • Guidance material on airport-related air quality was published in 2011: – Help States implement best practices to assess airport air quality; – ICAO Doc 9889. (...) Pollution Concentrations and Dispersion Modelling © ICAO 2014 • Atmospheric dispersion modelling is required to estimate the local ambient concentrations. • The results form the basis for LAQ impact studies – Used to demonstrate compliance with required regulations and standards. • Existing pollution concentrations can also be assessed by in-situ observation of ambient conditions – This assessment method can include contributions from other nearby and distant sources. • Modelling results and ambient observations can be used for evaluating existing or historical conditions. Pollution Concentrations and Dispersion Modelling © ICAO 2014 • Emissions inventory, concentrations and dispersion modelling, and ambient observation elements can be used individually or in combination. • The aim is to aid the process of understanding airport air quality, reporting, and compliance and/or mitigation planning. • Subsequent air quality mitigation can have beneficial results for the: – total emissions mass; – concentration model results; – measured pollutant concentrations.
Language:English
Score: 986825.6 - https://www.icao.int/Meetings/...a/4-2_Airport-LAQ-Guidance.pdf
Data Source: un
Neil Dickson, Environment Officer Environment Branch, ICAO Air Transport Bureau • The ICAO Airport Air Quality Manual • Emissions Inventories • Pollution Concentrations and Dispersion Modelling • Summary © ICAO 2014 • ICAO has been involved with airport- related emissions for many years. • Guidance material on airport-related air quality was published in 2011: – Help States implement best practices to assess airport air quality; – ICAO Doc 9889. (...) Pollution Concentrations and Dispersion Modelling © ICAO 2014 • Atmospheric dispersion modelling is required to estimate the local ambient concentrations. • The results form the basis for LAQ impact studies – Used to demonstrate compliance with required regulations and standards. • Existing pollution concentrations can also be assessed by in-situ observation of ambient conditions – This assessment method can include contributions from other nearby and distant sources. • Modelling results and ambient observations can be used for evaluating existing or historical conditions. Pollution Concentrations and Dispersion Modelling © ICAO 2014 • Emissions inventory, concentrations and dispersion modelling, and ambient observation elements can be used individually or in combination. • The aim is to aid the process of understanding airport air quality, reporting, and compliance and/or mitigation planning. • Subsequent air quality mitigation can have beneficial results for the: – total emissions mass; – concentration model results; – measured pollutant concentrations.
Language:English
Score: 986825.6 - https://www.icao.int/Meetings/...Airport-LAQ-Guidance-notes.pdf
Data Source: un
Principle Elements - Air Quality Assessment © ICAO 2015 • An emissions inventory gives the total mass of emissions released into the environment. • Provides a basis for reporting, compliance, and mitigation planning. • Emissions inventory objectives can include: – Collecting information on emissions; – Benchmarking emissions against legal requirements; – Creating input data for dispersion models; – Establishing mitigation programme baselines. (...) Pollution Concentrations and Dispersion Modelling © ICAO 2015 • Atmospheric dispersion modelling is required to estimate the local ambient concentrations. • The results form the basis for LAQ impact studies – Used to demonstrate compliance with required regulations and standards. • Existing pollution concentrations can also be assessed by in-situ observation of ambient conditions – This assessment method can include contributions from other nearby and distant sources. • Modelling results and ambient observations can be used for evaluating existing or historical conditions. Pollution Concentrations and Dispersion Modelling © ICAO 2015 • Emissions inventory, concentrations and dispersion modelling, and ambient observation elements can be used individually or in combination. • The aim is to aid the process of understanding airport air quality, reporting, and compliance and/or mitigation planning. • Subsequent air quality mitigation can have beneficial results for the: – total emissions mass; – concentration model results; – measured pollutant concentrations.
Language:English
Score: 986825.6 - https://www.icao.int/Meetings/...Airport-LAQ-Guidance_notes.pdf
Data Source: un
Neil Dickson, Environment Officer Environment Branch, ICAO Air Transport Bureau • The ICAO Airport Air Quality Manual • Emissions Inventories • Pollution Concentrations and Dispersion Modelling • Summary © ICAO 2014 • ICAO has been involved with airport- related emissions for many years. • Guidance material on airport-related air quality was published in 2011: – Help States implement best practices to assess airport air quality; – ICAO Doc 9889. (...) Pollution Concentrations and Dispersion Modelling © ICAO 2014 • Atmospheric dispersion modelling is required to estimate the local ambient concentrations. • The results form the basis for LAQ impact studies – Used to demonstrate compliance with required regulations and standards. • Existing pollution concentrations can also be assessed by in-situ observation of ambient conditions – This assessment method can include contributions from other nearby and distant sources. • Modelling results and ambient observations can be used for evaluating existing or historical conditions. Pollution Concentrations and Dispersion Modelling © ICAO 2014 • Emissions inventory, concentrations and dispersion modelling, and ambient observation elements can be used individually or in combination. • The aim is to aid the process of understanding airport air quality, reporting, and compliance and/or mitigation planning. • Subsequent air quality mitigation can have beneficial results for the: – total emissions mass; – concentration model results; – measured pollutant concentrations.
Language:English
Score: 986825.6 - https://www.icao.int/Meetings/...Airport-LAQ-Guidance_notes.pdf
Data Source: un
Principle Elements - Air Quality Assessment © ICAO 2015 • An emissions inventory gives the total mass of emissions released into the environment. • Provides a basis for reporting, compliance, and mitigation planning. • Emissions inventory objectives can include: – Collecting information on emissions; – Benchmarking emissions against legal requirements; – Creating input data for dispersion models; – Establishing mitigation programme baselines. (...) Pollution Concentrations and Dispersion Modelling © ICAO 2015 • Atmospheric dispersion modelling is required to estimate the local ambient concentrations. • The results form the basis for LAQ impact studies – Used to demonstrate compliance with required regulations and standards. • Existing pollution concentrations can also be assessed by in-situ observation of ambient conditions – This assessment method can include contributions from other nearby and distant sources. • Modelling results and ambient observations can be used for evaluating existing or historical conditions. Pollution Concentrations and Dispersion Modelling © ICAO 2015 • Emissions inventory, concentrations and dispersion modelling, and ambient observation elements can be used individually or in combination. • The aim is to aid the process of understanding airport air quality, reporting, and compliance and/or mitigation planning. • Subsequent air quality mitigation can have beneficial results for the: – total emissions mass; – concentration model results; – measured pollutant concentrations.
Language:English
Score: 986825.6 - https://www.icao.int/Meetings/...Airport-Air-Quality-Manual.pdf
Data Source: un
2019 2020 2021 2022 Amodiaquine/ Artesunate 135mg/50mg tablet, PAC-3x25 4.80$ 4.80$ 4.80$ 4.80$ Amodiaquine/ Artesunate 270mg/100mg tablet, PAC-3x25 8.60$ 8.60$ 8.60$ 8.60$ Amodiaquine/ Artesunate 270mg/100mg tablet, PAC-6x25 16.15$ 16.15$ 16.15$ 16.15$ Amodiaquine/ Artesunate 67.5mg/25mg tablet, PAC-3x25 3.55$ 3.55$ 3.55$ 3.55$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 20/120mg dispersible tablet, PAC-12x30 15.20$ 15.20$ 15.20$ 15.20$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 20/120mg dispersible tablet, PAC-6x30 8.90$ 8.90$ 8.90$ 8.90$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 20/120mg tablet, PAC-18x30 13.20$ 13.20$ 13.20$ 13.20$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 20/120mg tablet, PAC-24x30 17.20$ 17.20$ 17.20$ 17.20$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 40/240mg tablet, PAC-6x30 9.95$ 9.95$ 9.95$ 9.95$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 60/360mg tablet, PAC-6x30 15.05$ 15.05$ 15.05$ 15.05$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 80/480mg tablet, PAC-6x30 18.05$ 18.05$ 18.05$ 18.05$ Dihydroartemisinin/Piperaquine 20mg/160mg tablet, PAC-3x1 0.70€ 0.70€ 0.70€ 0.70€ Dihydroartemisinin/Piperaquine 40mg/320mg tablet, PAC-12x1 1.91€ 1.91€ 1.91€ 1.91€ Dihydroartemisinin/Piperaquine 40mg/320mg tablet, PAC-3x1 0.70€ 0.70€ 0.70€ 0.70€ Dihydroartemisinin/Piperaquine 40mg/320mg tablet, PAC-6x1 1.10€ 1.10€ 1.10€ 1.10€ Dihydroartemisinin/Piperaquine 40mg/320mg tablet, PAC-9x1 1.50€ 1.50€ 1.50€ 1.50€ Artemether/Lumefantrine 20/120mg dispersible tablet, PAC-12x30 13.50$ 13.50$ 13.50$ 13.50$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 20/120mg dispersible tablet, PAC-6x30 9.00$ 9.00$ 9.00$ 9.00$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 20/120mg tablet, PAC-18x30 15.60$ 15.60$ 15.60$ 15.60$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 20/120mg tablet, PAC-24x30 18.00$ 18.00$ 18.00$ 18.00$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 40/240mg tablet, PAC-6x1 0.45$ 0.45$ 0.45$ 0.45$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 60/360mg tablet, PAC-6x1 0.55$ 0.55$ 0.55$ 0.55$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 80/480mg tablet, PAC-6x1 0.65$ 0.65$ 0.65$ 0.65$ Artesunate/Mefloquine 100mg/200mg tablet, PAC-3x1 1.90$ 1.90$ 1.90$ 1.90$ Artesunate/Mefloquine 100mg/200mg tablet, PAC-3x2 3.00$ 3.00$ 3.00$ 3.00$ Artesunate/Mefloquine 25mg/50mg tablet, PAC-3x1 1.22$ 1.22$ 1.22$ 1.22$ Artesunate/Mefloquine 25mg/50mg tablet, PAC-3x2 1.45$ 1.45$ 1.45$ 1.45$ Amodiaquine/ Artesunate 135mg/50mg tablet, PAC-3x25 5.30$ 5.30$ 5.30$ 5.30$ Amodiaquine/ Artesunate 270mg/100mg tablet, PAC-3x25 8.75$ 8.75$ 8.75$ 8.75$ Amodiaquine/ Artesunate 270mg/100mg tablet, PAC-6x25 15.06$ 15.06$ 15.06$ 15.06$ Amodiaquine/ Artesunate 67.5mg/25mg tablet, PAC-3x25 4.00$ 4.00$ 4.00$ 4.00$ Artesunate+Pyrimethamine/Suphadoxine 50mg+25mg/500mg tablets, PAC-(3+1)x25 13.20$ 13.20$ 13.20$ 13.20$ Artesunate+Pyrimethamine/Suphadoxine 50mg+25mg/500mg tablets, PAC-(6+2)x25 22.10$ 22.10$ 22.10$ 22.10$ Artesunate+Pyrimethamine/Suphadoxine 50mg+25mg/500mg tablets, PAC-(6+3)x25 38.10$ 38.10$ 38.10$ 38.10$ Dihydroartemisinin/Piperaquine 40mg/320mg tablet, PAC-9x25 47.50$ 47.50$ 47.50$ 47.50$ Dihydroartemisinin/Piperaquine 80mg/640mg tablet, PAC-6x25 60.00$ 60.00$ 60.00$ 60.00$ Amodiaquine/ Artesunate 135mg/50mg tablet, PAC-3x25 6.27$ 6.27$ 6.27$ 6.27$ Amodiaquine/ Artesunate 270mg/100mg tablet, PAC-3x25 8.77$ 8.77$ 8.77$ 8.77$ Amodiaquine/ Artesunate 270mg/100mg tablet, PAC-6x25 16.52$ 16.52$ 16.52$ 16.52$ Amodiaquine/ Artesunate 67.5mg/25mg tablet, PAC-3x25 4.01$ 4.01$ 4.01$ 4.01$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 20/120mg dispersible tablet, PAC-6x30 7.20$ 7.20$ 7.20$ 7.20$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 20/120mg dispersible tablet, PAC-12x30 12.60$ 12.60$ 12.60$ 12.60$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 20/120mg tablet, PAC-18x30 13.50$ 13.50$ 13.50$ 13.50$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 20/120mg tablet, PAC-24x30 16.50$ 16.50$ 16.50$ 16.50$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 20/120mg tablet, PAC-18x30 15.00$ 15.00$ 16.50$ 16.50$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 20/120mg tablet, PAC-24x30 18.00$ 18.00$ 18.00$ 18.00$ Amodiaquine/ Artesunate 135mg/50mg tablet, PAC-3x25 3.43$ 3.43$ 3.43$ 3.43$ Amodiaquine/ Artesunate 270mg/100mg tablet, PAC-3x25 5.80$ 5.80$ 5.80$ 5.80$ Amodiaquine/ Artesunate 270mg/100mg tablet, PAC-6x25 11.26$ 11.26$ 11.26$ 11.26$ Mylan Laboratories Artemether/Lumefantrine 40/240mg tablet, PAC-6x30 21.90$ 21.90$ 21.90$ 21.90$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 20/120mg dispersible tablet, PAC-6x30 9.60$ 8.10$ 8.10$ 8.10$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 20/120mg dispersible tablet, PAC-12x30 17.70$ 14.40$ 14.40$ 14.40$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 20/120mg tablet, PAC-18x30 25.50$ 16.50$ 16.50$ 16.50$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 20/120mg tablet, PAC-24x30 31.50$ 20.40$ 20.40$ 20.40$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 80/480mg tablet, PAC-6x1 1.00$ 0.65$ 0.65$ 0.65$ Amodiaquine/ Artesunate 135mg/50mg tablet, PAC-3x25 5.89€ 5.89€ 5.89€ 5.89€ Amodiaquine/ Artesunate 270mg/100mg tablet, PAC-3x25 9.82€ 9.82€ 9.82€ 9.82€ Amodiaquine/ Artesunate 270mg/100mg tablet, PAC-6x25 16.90€ 16.90€ 16.90€ 16.90€ Amodiaquine/ Artesunate 67.5mg/25mg tablet, PAC-3x25 4.23€ 4.23€ 4.23€ 4.23€ Artesunate/Pyronaridine (phosphate) 60mg/180mg tablet, PAC-9x10 22.76$ 22.76$ 22.76$ 22.76$ Artesunate/Pyronaridine (phosphate) gran. for oral susp., 20mg/60mg sachet,PAC-3x30 13.62$ 13.62$ 13.62$ 13.62$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 20/120mg dispersible tablet, PAC-12x30 14.40$ 14.40$ 14.40$ 14.40$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 20/120mg dispersible tablet, PAC-6x30 8.40$ 8.40$ 8.40$ 8.40$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 20/120mg tablet, PAC-18x30 15.60$ 15.60$ 15.60$ 15.60$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 20/120mg tablet, PAC-24x30 18.30$ 18.30$ 18.30$ 18.30$ Artemether/Lumefantrine 80/480mg tablet, PAC-6x1 0.65$ 0.65$ 0.65$ 0.65$ Pyrimethamine/Sulfadoxine 25mg/500mg tablet, PAC-100 11.25$ 11.25$ 11.25$ 11.25$ Pyrimethamine/Sulfadoxine 25mg/500mg tablet, PAC-1000 96.90$ 96.90$ 96.90$ 96.90$ Pyrimethamine/Sulfadoxine 25mg/500mg tablet, PAC-3x1 0.46$ 0.46$ 0.46$ 0.46$ Pyrimethamine/Sulfadoxine 25mg/500mg tablet, PAC-3x10 3.55$ 3.55$ 3.55$ 3.55$ Pyrimethamine/Sulfadoxine 25mg/500mg tablet, PAC-3x100 34.00$ 34.00$ 34.00$ 34.00$ Pyrimethamine/Sulfadoxine 25mg/500mg tablet, PAC-3x50 17.75$ 17.75$ 17.75$ 17.75$ Pyrimethamine/Sulfadoxine 25mg/500mg tablet, PAC-100 8.10$ 8.10$ 8.10$ 8.10$ Pyrimethamine/Sulfadoxine 25mg/500mg tablet, PAC-1000 76.50$ 76.50$ 76.50$ 76.50$ Pyrimethamine/Sulfadoxine 25mg/500mg tablet, PAC-10x10 7.12$ 7.12$ 7.12$ 7.12$ Pyrimethamine/Sulfadoxine 25mg/500mg tablet, PAC-3x10 3.08$ 3.08$ 3.08$ 3.08$ Purna Pharmaceuticals Chloroquine 50mg/5ml syrup, BOT-60ml 0.54€ 0.54€ 0.54€ 0.54€ Chloroquine 250mg as phosphate (155mg as base) tablet, PAC-100 3.80$ 7.19$ 7.19$ 7.19$ Chloroquine 250mg as phosphate (155mg as base) tablet, PAC-10x10 3.70$ 7.00$ 7.00$ 7.00$ Primaquine base 7.5mg tablet, PAC-10 x10 3.80$ 3.80$ 3.80$ 3.80$ Primaquine base 7.5mg tablet, PAC-100 2.29$ 2.29$ 2.29$ 2.29$ Primaquine base 7.5mg tablet, PAC-1000 30.20$ 30.20$ 30.20$ 30.20$ Quinine sulfate 300mg tablet, PAC-100 7.40$ 7.40$ 7.40$ 7.40$ Quinine sulfate 300mg tablet, PAC-10x10 7.29$ 7.29$ 7.29$ 7.29$ Amodiaquine+Pyrimethamine/Suphadoxine 153mg+25mg/500mg dispersible tablets, PAC-(3+1)x50 15.00$ 15.00$ 15.00$ Amodiaquine+Pyrimethamine/Suphadoxine 75mg+12.5mg/250mg dispersible tablets, PAC-(3+1)x50 12.50$ 12.50$ 12.50$ Amodiaquine+Pyrimethamine/Suphadoxine 150mg+25mg/500mg dispersible tablets, PAC-(3+1)x50 14.85$ 14.85$ 14.85$ 14.85$ Amodiaquine+Pyrimethamine/Suphadoxine 76.5mg+12.5mg/250mg dispersible tablets, PAC-(3+1)x50 13.35$ 13.35$ 13.35$ 13.35$ Cipla Artesunate 100mg rectal capsule, PAC-2 0.63$ 0.63$ 0.63$ 0.63$ Artesunate 120mg powder for solution for injection 1 via, with solvent+diluent 2.85$ 2.85$ 2.85$ 2.85$ Artesunate 60mg powder for solution for injection 1 vial with solvent+diluent 1.70$ 1.50$ 1.50$ 1.50$ Artesunate 30mg powder for solution for injection 1 vial with solvent+diluent 1.70$ 1.70$ 1.70$ 1.70$ Intas Pharmaceuticals Quinine dihydrochloride injection, 300mg/ml 2ml ampoule PAC-10 3.23$ 3.23$ 3.37$ 3.37$ Ipca Laboratories Artesunate 60mg powder for solution for injection 1 vial with solvent+diluent 1.25$ 1.25$ 1.25$ 1.25$ Laboratoire Renaudin Quinine dihydrochloride injection, 300mg/ml, 2ml ampoule PAC-10 4.55€ 4.55€ Strides Pharma Global Artesunate 100mg rectal capsule, PAC-2 0.65$ 0.65$ 0.65$ 0.65$ Ipca Laboratories Other Antimalarials ProductSupplier NamePresentation Micro Labs Sanofi Winthrop Industrie Shin Poong Pharmaceutical Strides Pharma Global Fosun Pharmaceutical/ Tridem Pharma Fosun Pharmaceutical/ Tridem Pharma Severe Malaria Medicines Ajanta Pharma Alfasigma SpA Cipla Ltd Fosun Pharmaceutical/ Tridem Pharma Macleods Pharmaceuticals Last updated: February 2021.
Language:English
Score: 975850 - https://www.unicef.org/supply/...rials-prices-2019-2022.pdf.pdf
Data Source: un
Handbook – Optical fibres, cables and systems Foreword PREFACE TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 – OPTICAL FIBRES CHARACTERISTICS Introduction 1 Single-mode and multimode optical fibres 2 Fibre design issues 3 Fibre manufacturing methods 4 Specification of the optical fibres characteristics 5 Fibre attributes 5.1 Core characteristics 5.2 Mode field characteristics 5.3 Effective area (Aeff ) 5.4 Cladding characteristics 5.5 Cut-off wavelength 5.6 Numerical aperture 5.7 Macrobending loss 5.8 Fibre and protective materials 5.9 Proof-stress level 5.10 Refractive index profile 5.11 Modal bandwidth 5.12 Chromatic dispersion 5.12.1 Chromatic dispersion definitions 5.12.2 Chromatic dispersion coefficient 5.12.3 Longitudinal uniformity of chromatic dispersion 6 Cables attributes 6.1 Attenuation 6.2 Polarization mode dispersion 7 Link attributes 7.1 Attenuation 7.1.1 Attenuation of a link 7.1.2 Wavelength dependence of attenuation 7.2 Chromatic dispersion 7.2.1 Chromatic dispersion of a link 7.2.2 Wavelength dependence of chromatic dispersion 7.3 Differential group delay 7.4 Non-linear coefficient 8 Test methods of single-mode optical fibres and cables 9 Optical fibre types specified by ITU-T 9.1 Multimode optical fibres 9.1.1 A 50/125 ?m multimode graded index optical fibre cable 9.2 Single-mode optical fibres 9.2.1 The ITU-T first single-mode optical fibre and cable 9.2.2 A dispersion-shifted single-mode optical fibre and cable 9.2.3 A cut-off shifted single-mode optical fibre and cable 9.2.4 A non-zero dispersion-shifted single-mode optical fibre and cable 9.2.5 A fibre and cable with non-zero dispersion for wideband optical transport 9.2.6 A bending loss insensitive single mode optical fibre and cable for the access network CHAPTER 2 – GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF OPTICAL CABLES Introduction 1 External factors impacting optical cables 2 Mechanical and environmental effects on the optical fibres 2.1 Residual fibre strain 2.1.1 Causes 2.1.2 Effects 2.1.3 Constructional considerations 2.2 Impulsive fibre strain 2.2.1 Causes 2.2.2 Effects 2.2.3 Constructional considerations 2.3 Fibre macrobending 2.3.1 Causes 2.3.2 Effects 2.3.3 Constructional considerations 2.4 Fibre microbending 2.4.1 Causes 2.4.2 Effects 2.4.3 Constructional considerations 2.5 Water and moisture 2.5.1 Causes 2.5.2 Effects 2.5.3 Constructional considerations 2.6 Hydrogen 2.6.1 Causes 2.6.2 Effects 2.6.3 Constructional considerations 2.7 Lightning 2.7.1 Causes 2.7.2 Effects 2.7.3 Constructional considerations 2.8 Nuclear radiation 2.8.1 Causes 2.8.2 Effects 2.8.3 Constructional considerations 2.9 Induced voltage 2.9.1 Causes 2.9.2 Effects 2.9.3 Constructional considerations 2.10 Biological attack 3 General structure of optical fibre cables 3.1 Coated optical fibres 3.1.1 Primary coating of fibres 3.1.2 Secondary protection of fibres 3.1.3 Fibre identification 3.1.4 Optical fibre unit 3.2 Optical cable core structures 3.2.1 Single unit cables 3.2.2 Multiple unit cables 3.2.3 Protection against moisture 3.3 Strength members 3.4 Cable sheath and armour 3.4.1 Cable sheath types 3.4.2 Metal/plastic sheath with metallic tapes or metallic layer 3.4.3 Plastic sheath only 3.4.4 Plastic sheath with strength members 3.4.5 Plastic sheath with embedded strength members with a metallic tape 3.4.6 Cable sheath with armour 3.4.7 Sheath with identification 4 Structure of optical fibre cables for specific installations 4.1 Optical fibre cables for aerial applications 4.1.1 Environmental conditions 4.1.2 Cable construction 4.2 Marinized terrestrial cables 4.2.1 Mechanical and environmental characteristics 4.2.2 Cable structure 4.3 Submarine cables 4.3.1 Mechanical and environmental characteristics 4.3.2 Cable structure 4.4 Optical fibre cables for sewer duct applications 4.4.1 Environmental conditions 4.4.2 Cable structure 4.5 Optical fibre cables for multidwelling FTTH indoor applications: riser cable 4.5.1 Environmental conditions 4.5.2 Cable structure 5 Cable tests CHAPTER 3 – OPTICAL CABLE INSTALLATION Introduction 1 Cable installation methods 1.1 Installation of cables in underground ducts 1.1.1 Route considerations 1.1.2 Cable installation tension prediction for cables pulled into ducts 1.1.3 Cable overload protection methods 1.1.4 Winching equipment and ropes 1.1.5 Guiding systems and cable bending 1.1.6 Cable friction and lubrication 1.1.7 Cable handling methods to maximize installed lengths by pulling 1.1.8 Air-assisted cable installation 1.1.9 Water pumping system 1.1.10 Jointing length allowance 1.2 Installation of optical cables with the trenchless technique 1.2.1 Trenchless techniques and their applications 1.3 Installation of optical cables with the mini-trench technique 1.3.1 Traditional mini-trench (10 ? 30 cm) 1.3.2 The enhanced mini-trench 1.4 Installation of optical cables with the micro-trench technique 1.4.1 Micro-trench preparation and duct/cable laying 1.5 Installation of aerial cables 1.5.1 Installation methods 1.5.2 Cable protection methods 1.5.3 Winching and guiding systems 1.5.4 Methods to maximize lengths 1.5.5 Jointing length allowance 1.5.6 In-service considerations 1.6 Installation of buried cables 1.6.1 Installation methods 1.6.2 Cable guiding and protection 1.6.3 Methods to maximize lengths 1.6.4 Jointing length allowance 1.7 Installation of cables in tunnels and on bridges 1.8 Installation of optical fibre ground wire (OPGW) cable 1.9 Installation of optical cables along railways 1.9.1 Duct installation 1.9.2 Directly buried cable installation 1.9.3 Aerial installation 1.9.4 Cable installation along existing railway poles 1.9.5 Particular cases 1.9.6 Splice points along railways 1.10 Installation of cables in sewer ducts 1.10.1 Sewer assessment 1.10.2 Installation in non-man-accessible sewers 1.10.3 Installation in man-accessible sewers 1.10.4 Installation of special armoured optical cables into the sewer ducts 1.10.5 Guidelines for the selection of the most appropriate installation method 1.10.6 Pressure washing and finishing brush 1.10.7 Safety 1.11 Installation of marinized and submarine optical cables 1.11.1 Survey and route planning 1.11.2 Characteristics of vessels 1.11.3 Installation 1.11.4 Controls after the laying 1.12 Installation of indoor cables 2 Safety, in-service protection and location 2.1 Safety 2.2 In-service protection 2.3 Location CHAPTER 4 – OPTICAL SPLICES, CONNECTORS AND PASSIVE NODES Introduction 1 Optical fibre splices 1.1 Splice losses 1.2 Fusion splices 1.3 Mechanical splices 1.4 Splicing procedure steps 1.4.1 Fibre preparation 1.4.2 Splicing 2 Optical connectors 2.1 Types and configurations 2.1.1 Fibre types 2.1.2 Cable types 2.1.3 Fibre alignment system 2.1.4 Fibre end face finish 2.1.5 Coupling mechanism 2.1.6 Number of jointed fibres 2.2 Connector performance parameters 3 Passive node elements for fibre optical networks 3.1 General requirements for passive node elements 3.2 Fibre reconfiguration 3.3 Application environments 4 Optical distribution frames 4.1 General characteristics 4.2 Applications 4.3 Design consideration 4.3.1 Cable fibre and jumper management 4.3.2 Connectors management 4.4 Climatic considerations 4.5 Mechanical considerations 5 Fibre closures and fibre organizers 5.1 Optical closures 5.1.1 Design characteristics of optical closures 5.2 Fibre organizers 5.2.1 Design of the organizer system 5.2.2 Characteristics of fibre organizers 5.2.3 Configurations of optical fibre organizers 6 Passive node elements for marinized and submarine optical cables 6.1 Marinized cables 6.1.1 Fibre splices 6.1.2 Fibre organizers 6.1.3 Closures 6.1.4 Beach closures 6.2 Submarine cables 6.2.1 The submarine repeater housing 6.2.2 The branching unit CHAPTER 5 – ACTIVE AND PASSIVE COMPONENTS / SUBSYSTEMS Introduction 1 Optical Transmitters 1.1 Light-emitting diodes 1.2 Semiconductor Lasers 1.2.1 Types of lasers 1.3 Optical sources reliability 1.4 Optical modulators 2 Optical receivers 3 Optical amplifiers 3.1 Application of optical amplifiers 3.1.1 Booster amplifier 3.1.2 Pre-amplifier 3.1.3 Line amplifier 3.1.4 Optically amplified transmitter 3.1.5 Optically amplified receiver 3.2 Types of optical amplifiers 3.2.1 EDFA-type amplifiers 3.2.2 SOA type amplifiers 3.2.3 Raman amplifiers 4 Adaptive chromatic dispersion compensators 4.1 ADC applications 4.2 ADCs reference configurations 5 PMD compensators 6 OADMs and ROADMs 7 Photonic Cross-Connects 8 Optical wavelength MUX/DMUX 9 Regenerators and transponders 9.1 3R regenerators 9.2 Transponders 10 Optical attenuators 11 Optical branching devices including PON splitters CHAPTER 6 – OPTICAL SYSTEMS: ITU-T CRITERIA FOR SPECIFICATIONS Introduction 1 Classification of the optical systems 1.1 Operating wavelength range 1.2 Single-channel and multichannel system interfaces 1.3 Channel spacing in WDM systems 1.4 Categories of WDM systems 1.5 Number of channels in WDM systems 1.5.1 Number of channels in DWDM systems 1.5.2 Number of channels in CWDM systems 1.6 Bit rates and client classes 1.7 Unidirectional and bidirectional systems 1.8 Linear and ring configurations 1.9 Fibre type 1.10 Line coding 1.11 Bit Error Ratio 1.12 The Q-factor 1.13 Forward Error Correction 1.13.1 In-band FEC in SDH systems 1.13.2 Out-of-band FEC in optical transport networks (OTNs) 1.13.3 Coding gain and net coding gain 1.13.4 Theoretical NCG bounds for some non-standard out-of-band FECs 2 Objectives for standardizing optical systems 2.1 Transversely compatible and longitudinally compatible optical interfaces 2.2 Joint engineering 2.3 Specification method: black-box and black-link 2.4 Application codes 3 Parameters for the specification of the optical interfaces 3.1 Interface at point MPI-S and MPI-SM 3.1.1 Output power 3.1.2 Source type 3.1.3 Transmitter minimum (channel) extinction ratio 3.1.4 Eye diagram and eye mask 3.2 Optical path (single span MPI-S to MPI-R or MPI-SM to MPI-RM) 3.2.1 Attenuation 3.2.2 Maximum chromatic dispersion at upper and lower wavelength limit 3.2.3 Reflections 3.2.4 Maximum differential group delay 3.3 Interface at point MPI-RM and MPI-R 3.3.1 Input power 3.3.2 Minimum receiver sensitivity 3.3.3 Minimum equivalent sensitivity 3.3.4 Maximum optical path penalty 4 Example of an optical interface specification CHAPTER 7 – OPTICAL SYSTEMS DESIGN Introduction 1 “Worst case” design for systems without line amplifiers 1.1 Relevant parameters for power budget 1.2 Chromatic dispersion penalty 1.2.1 Relation between maximum chromatic dispersion and power penalty 1.2.2 Relation between chromatic dispersion coefficient and link length 1.2.3 Relation between maximum chromatic dispersion and line code 1.3 DGD power penalty 1.3.1 The statistical distribution of PMD 1.3.2 The path penalty due to PMD 1.4 Penalty due to reflections 1.4.1 Minimum optical return loss at MPI-S 1.4.2 Maximum discrete reflectance between MPI-S and MPI-R 2 “Worst case” design for system with optical line amplifiers 2.1 Relevant parameters for Optical Power Budget 2.2 Limit to the transmission distance due to optical signal to noise ratio 2.3 Limit to the transmission distance due to maximum differential group delay 2.4 Penalty due to residual chromatic dispersion after accommodation 2.5 Optical crosstalk penalty 2.5.1 Definition of terms 2.5.2 Inter-channel crosstalk penalty 2.5.3 Interferometric crosstalk penalty 2.6 Penalty due to reflections 2.7 Penalty due to fibre non linearities 2.7.1 Stimulated Brillouin Scattering 2.7.2 Stimulated Raman scattering 2.7.3 Self phase modulation 2.7.4 Cross phase modulation 2.7.5 Four-wave mixing 2.7.6 Examples of maximum power threshold due to non-linear effects 3 Forward error correction impact on optical system design 3.1 Relaxation of transmitter and/or receiver characteristics 3.2 Reduction of output power levels to save pump power 3.3 Reduction in power levels to avoid non-linearity 3.4 Increase in maximum span attenuation 3.5 Increase in maximum number of spans for a long-haul system 3.6 Increase in channel count for high-capacity systems 4 Reliability consideration (for submarine optical systems) 4.1 Reliability requirement 4.2 Internal fault 4.2.1 Failure rate analysis 4.2.2 Submerged section reliability 4.3 External fault Annex A – Statistical design for systems with line amplifiers A.1 Generic methodology for the statistical design A.2 System outage probability A.3 Probability threshold for system acceptance A.4 Design flow chart A.5 Statistical design of loss A.6 Statistical design of chromatic dispersion A.7 Statistical design of DGD Annex B – Example of design considerations for DWDM systems B.1 Enabling technologies and their limits B.1.1 ASE noise B.1.2 PMD B.2 Other effects that limit transmission distance B.2.1 Accumulated gain ripples from EDFA cascading and tilt due to stimulated Raman effects B.2.2 Non-uniform span length B.2.3 Optical non-linearity B.2.4 Residual dispersion and dispersion tolerance B.2.5 Accumulated PDL effects B.3 Techniques used to mitigate impairments B.3.1 Dynamic gain equalization B.3.2 Modulation format B.3.3 Number of optical channels and their spacing B.3.4 Fibre types B.3.5 Mixing different types of fibre within one span B.4 Practical example Annex C – Example of margin calculation for the submarine systems C.1 Systems margins C.1.1 Impairments due to repair operations C.1.2 Impairments due to equipments ageing C.1.3 Impairments due to the foreseen faults of some components C.1.4 Unallocated margin CHAPTER 8 – OPTICAL SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS Introduction 1 The Optical transport network 2 Optical network topologies 2.1 Point-to-point links 2.2 Bus structures 2.3 Point-to-multipoint links 3 Classification of optical systems applications 4 Intra-office systems 5 Metro access optical networks 5.1 CWDM optical systems 5.2 DWDM optical systems 5.2.1 Single-channel and DWDM optical systems (black-box approach) 5.2.2 DWDM optical systems (black-link approach) 6 Metro core / regional optical networks 7 Backbone / long haul networks 8 Repeaterless and repeatered optical fibre submarine systems 8.1 Submarine systems topology 8.1.1 Point to point 8.1.2 Star 8.1.3 Branched star 8.1.4 Trunk and Branch 8.1.5 Festoon 8.1.6 Ring 8.1.7 Branched Ring 8.2 Repeatered optical submarine systems 8.2.1 System configuration 8.3 Repeaterless optical submarine systems 8.4 System reliability 8.5 System upgradability 8.6 Optical Power Budget 9 Wavelength switched optical networks (WSON) / all optical networks (AON) 9.1 Impact of cascaded ONEs on line system OSNR 9.2 Example of calculation of the impact of cascaded ONEs on line system OSNR CHAPTER 9 – OPTICAL SYSTEM APPLICATIONS IN PASSIVE OPTICAL NETWORKS Introduction 1 Local access network architecture 1.1 FTTC and FTTCab scenarios 1.2 FTTB scenario 1.3 FTTH scenario 2 ODN Architectures 2.1 Point-to-point ODN architecture 2.2 Point-to-multipoint ODN architecture 3 Physical ODN configuration 3.1 Optical branching component in the central office 3.2 Optical branching component in outside plant 3.3 Optical branching component in the customer's building 4 Evolutionary steps of ODNs 4.1 Initial stage 4.2 Growth stage 4.3 Mature stage 4.4 Final stage 5 Upgrading a PON 6 Passive optical components used in an ODN 6.1 Optical fibre cable 6.2 Optical fibre joints 6.3 Optical branching components 6.3.1 Optical branching components without wavelength multiplexer and demultiplexer 6.3.2 Optical branching components with wavelength multiplexer and demultiplexer 6.3.3 Other characteristics of the optical branching components 6.4 Other passive optical components 7 ODN model loss calculations 8 General characteristics of G-PON systems 9 Characteristics of the ODN physical layer 10 G-PON systems: physical media dependent (PMD) layer specifications 11 G-PON systems specification 11.1 2488 Gbit/s downstream, 1244 Gbit/s upstream G-PON 11.2 Attenuation class B+ for the 2488 Gbit/s downstream, 1244 Gbit/s upstream G-PON 11.3 Attenuation class C+ for the 2488 Gbit/s downstream, 1244 Gbit/s upstream G-PON 12 Example of a G-PON system power budget 13 Operating wavelengths 13.1 Basic band 13.2 Enhanced wavelength allocation plan 13.3 G-PON reference diagrams with enhanced bands 14 Wavelength for maintenance 15 Reach extension of the G-PON 15.1 Optical extension schemes and architectures 15.2 Specifications for mid-span extenders CHAPTER 10 – MAINTENANCE, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS Introduction 1 Maintenance aspects 1.1 Maintenance aspects of optical fibres 1.1.1 Fundamental requirements for a maintenance support system 1.1.2 Testing and maintaining principle 1.1.3 Wavelengths for maintenance 1.1.4 In-service fibre line testing 1.1.5 General support system architecture 1.1.6 Main features of the support system 1.1.7 Optical fibre cable maintenance system for optical fibre cable carrying high total optical power 1.2 Optical fibre and cable restoration 1.2.1 Restoration methods 1.2.2 Restoration procedures 1.3 Maintenance of underground plastic ducts 1.4 Maintenance of cable tunnels 1.4.1 Inspection 1.4.2 Inspection technologies 1.5 Optical monitoring of optical DWDM systems 1.5.1 Signal monitoring 1.5.2 Optical monitoring parameters 1.5.3 Applications 1.6 Maintenance aspects of submarine optical systems 1.6.1 Routine maintenance 1.6.2 Fault localization 1.6.3 Fault repair 2 Safety and environmental aspects 2.1 Safety aspects for optical power 2.1.1 Safe working conditions on optical interfaces 2.1.2 Best practices for optical power safety 2.2 Fire hazards 2.2.1 Fire protection 2.2.2 Fire detection and alarm systems, detector and sounder devices 2.2.3 Equipment and installation for fire extinction 2.3 Environmental aspects 2.3.1 Life-cycle analysis ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
Language:English
Score: 971096.6 - https://www.itu.int/dms_pub/it...DB-OUT.10-2009-1-TOC-HTM-E.htm
Data Source: un
For high-bandwidth signals such as those considered in this work, group velocity dispersion caused by atmospheric gases distorts the modulated waveform, which may produce bit errors. (...) At the same time, high-order modulation schemes are more spectrally efficient, which reduces the bandwidth required to maintain a given data rate, and thus reduces the total group velocity dispersion in the link, resulting in less distortion and better performance. (...) Keywords: Atmospheric modeling, bit error rate, chromatic dispersion, millimeter wave communications, quadrature amplitude modulation, terahertz communications Rights: © International Telecommunication Union, available under the CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 IGO license.
Language:English
Score: 969364 - https://www.itu.int/pub/S-JNL-VOL2.ISSUE7-2021-A02
Data Source: un