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LETTER DATED 29 DECEMBER 2020 FROM THE PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVE OF SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES TO THE UNITED NATIONS ADDRESSED TO THE SECRETARY-GENERAL
Many Member States cited climate change and environmental degradation as major drivers of global insecurity. In several regions of the world, environmental degradation had caused significant instability. (...) Some delegations emphasized that marginalization and exclusion, of women, young people and minorities in particular, were drivers of violence that could destabilize entire regions. (...) The violation of human rights has been cited by many as one of the main drivers of conflict. The Security Council needs to strengthen synergy with the Human Rights Council.
语言:中文
得分: 1197799.8 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...sf/get?open&DS=A/75/708&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
ASSESSMENT OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CONVENTION: SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND KNOWLEDGE
Revision of the national action programme and inclusion of a knowledge-based identification of drivers of desertification, land degradation and drought and their interaction (Global) ................... 21 13. (...) Table 15 Self-assessment of aligned national action programmes (Asia) Subregion Knowledge-based identification and analysis of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers of DLDD Knowledge-based identification and analysis of the interaction between DLDD and climate change and biodiversity Assessmen t of the barriers to SLMa Recommend ations for removing the barriers to SLMa included Data for the indicators available Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species Trend in carbon stocks above and below ground Central Asia n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. (...) Table 17 Self-assessment of aligned national action programmes (Northern Mediterranean) Region Knowledge-based identification and analysis of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers of DLDD Knowledge-based identification and analysis of the interaction between DLDD and climate change and biodiversity Assessment of the barriers to SLMa Recommenda tions for removing the barriers to SLMa included Data for the indicators available Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species Trend in carbon stocks above and below ground Northern Mediterranean (total) 5 5 5 5 5 5 a Sustainable land management.
语言:中文
得分: 1135352.9 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...open&DS=ICCD/CRIC(13)/4&Lang=C
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WRITTEN SUBMISSION BY THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND: EQUALITY AND HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION (EHRC) - NOTE BY THE SECRETARIAT
A/HRC/48/NI/9 GE.21-13463 5 implementation of this technology despite evidence that it is more difficult for some people to use it based on the colour of their skin.”27 Concerns have been raised by private hire taxi drivers and couriers that have been publicised in media reporting.28 Many Uber drivers are required to take a real-time photograph of themselves for verification via facial recognition software before accessing the app. The photo is then checked against the driver’s account. Drivers from ethnic minority backgrounds have failed the facial recognition check, and been unable to work as a result. (...) Those most frequently referred to the triage system include Albania, India, Pakistan and 27 New Scientist (2019), UK launched passport photo checker it knew would fail with dark skin. 28 Wired (2021), Couriers say Uber’s ‘racist’ facial identification tech got them fired. 29 ITV (2021), Uber drivers claim they were fired after company's identification software failed to recognise their faces. 30 Joint Council for the Welfare of immigrants (2020), We won!
语言:中文
得分: 1132878.5 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...t?open&DS=A/HRC/48/NI/9&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
PROMOTION AND PROTECTION OF ALL HUMAN RIGHTS, CIVIL, POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS, INCLUDING THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT : WRITTEN SUBMISSION BY THE COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS OF THE PHILIPPINES : NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
In a recent Systematic Literature Review on Drivers of Violence affecting Children in the Philippines (2015), migration has been identified as one of the drivers of physical, sexual and emotional violence against children. 3. (...) A/HRC/34/NI/9 3 Alcohol Use is a Primary Driver of Violence in the Home 4. “There are existing laws that prohibit the sale of alcohol without a permit issued by the local government. (...) However, this program needs to be enhanced with prevention of VAC since the Systematic Literature Review on Drivers of Violence affecting Children in the Philippines (2015) noted that alcohol use is a primary driver of violence in the home.”3 Information and Communications technology have changed the opportunity, scale, form and impact of exploitation and violence. 5.
语言:中文
得分: 1100862.6 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...t?open&DS=A/HRC/34/NI/9&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS - STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 1: TO IMPROVE THE CONDITION OF AFFECTED ECOSYSTEMS, COMBAT DESERTIFICATION/LAND DEGRADATION, PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE LAND MANAGEMENT AND CONTRIBUTE TO LAND DEGRADATION NEUTRALITY. NOTE BY THE SECRETARIAT
Land cover tables Table 1 Distribution of land cover stocks (km2) and percentage over global and regionally reported land areas as of 2015 Tree-covered areas Grassland Cropland Wetland Artificial surfaces Other land Region Area (1000s km2) Percentage Area (1000s km2) Per- centage Area (1000s km2) Per- centage Area (1000s km2) Per- centage Area (1000s km2) Per- centage Area (1000s km2) Per- centage Africa 5 892 23.9 6 334 25.7 4 013 16.3 369 1.5 67 0.3 7 948 32.3 Asia 4 285 19.3 6 080 27.4 4 577 20.6 369 1.7 268 1.2 6 633 29.9 LAC 8 805 44.6 6 250 31.6 3 286 16.6 605 3.1 78 0.4 737 3.7 NMED 523 28.6 292 16.0 913 49.9 9 0.5 46 2.5 47 2.5 CEE 8 362 47.7 1 039 5.9 2 113 12.1 2 285 13.1 192 1.1 3 521 20.1 Global 28 192 32.4 20 134 23.1 15 426 17.7 3 643 4.2 692 0.8 18 896 21.7 Notes: LAC = Latin America and the Caribbean; NMED = Northern Mediterranean; CEE = Central and Eastern Europe IC C D /C R IC (1 7 )/2 G E .1 8 -2 2 3 1 9 1 9 Table 2 Cumulative change in land area and as percentage of original area for different land cover classes from 2000−2015 Region name Tree-covered areas Grassland Cropland Wetland Artificial surfaces Other land Year Net area change (km2 1000s) Percent change Net area change (km2 1000s) Percent change Net area change (km2 1000s) Percent change Net area change (km2 1000s) Percent change Net area change (km2 1000s) Percent change Net area change (km2 1000s) Percent change Africa 2005 21 0.4 -70 -1.1 61 1.6 2 0.7 7 15.5 -11 -0.1 2010 7 0.1 -132 -2.0 120 3.1 3 1.0 14 30.8 0 0.0 2015 -4 -0.1 -183 -2.8 133 3.4 5 1.5 23 51.6 47 0.6 Asia 2005 -6 -0.1 16 0.3 84 2.0 4 1.0 16 7.9 -103 -1.5 2010 -11 -0.3 -342 -5.5 215 5.1 18 5.4 40 20.0 77 1.1 2015 24 0.6 -186 -3.0 352 8.3 34 10.0 69 34.4 -290 -4.2 LAC 2005 -171 -1.9 43 0.7 106 3.4 4 0.7 9 16.7 0 0.0 2010 -210 -2.3 48 0.8 134 4.2 6 1.0 16 31.7 -1 -0.2 2015 -270 -3.0 77 1.3 136 4.3 8 1.3 26 50.4 24 3.4 NMED 2005 6 1.1 -3 -0.8 -8 -0.9 0 1.1 7 22.2 -2 -3.0 2010 14 2.7 -6 -2.1 -16 -1.7 0 2.1 11 34.9 -3 -5.5 2015 15 2.9 -8 -2.5 -19 -2.0 0 2.6 15 48.6 -4 -7.5 CEE 2005 10 0.1 -1 -0.1 -12 -0.6 0 0.0 7 4.4 -2 -0.1 2010 198 2.4 -3 -0.3 -12 -0.6 -2 -0.1 17 10.1 -2 -0.1 2015 198 2.4 1 0.1 -14 -0.7 16 0.7 22 13.3 -10 -0.3 Global 2005 -142 -0.5 -15 -0.1 222 1.5 10 0.3 56 10.6 -118 -0.6 2010 -2 0.0 -436 -2.1 430 2.9 26 0.7 110 21.0 71 0.4 2015 -35 -0.1 -301 -1.5 575 3.9 63 1.7 168 32.2 -233 -1.2 Notes: LAC = Latin America and the Caribbean; NMED = Northern Mediterranean; CEE = Central and Eastern Europe IC C D /C R IC (1 7 )/2 2 0 G E .1 8 -2 2 3 1 9 Table 3 Land area converted from natural vegetation land cover classes (natural land losses) and converted to natural land cover classes (natural land gains) as well as transitions between other classes (other transitions) as net area change (km2 1000s) and percent change between 2000 and 2015 Region Land cover transition Tree-covered areas Grassland Cropland Wetland Artificial surfaces Other land Total Net area change (km2 1000s) Percent change Net area change (km2 1000s) Percent change Net area change (km2 1000s) Percent change Net area change (km2 1000s) Percent change Net area change (km2 1000s) Percent change Net area change (km2 1000s) Percent change Net area change (km2 1000s) Percent change Africa Natural land losses - - - - 231.0 1.8 - - 8.9 0.1 113.3 0.9 353.1 2.8 Natural land gains 56.5 0.4 136.1 1.1 - - 7.1 0.1 - - - - 199.7 1.6 Asia Natural land losses - - - - 288.4 2.7 - - 22.2 0.2 256.3 2.4 566.9 5.2 Natural land gains 135.1 1.2 446.2 4.1 - - 15.4 0.1 - - - - 596.7 5.5 LAC Natural land losses - - - - 266.0 1.7 - - 11.3 0.1 6.6 0.0 283.8 1.8 Natural land gains 66.4 0.4 52.2 0.3 - - 1.6 0.0 - - - - 120.2 0.8 NMED Natural land losses - - - - 8.7 1.1 - - 2.5 0.3 0.2 0.0 11.4 1.4 Natural land gains 17.6 2.1 1.4 0.2 - - 0.0 0.0 - - - - 19.0 2.3 CEE Natural land losses - - - - 4.8 0.0 - - 0.8 0.0 0.8 0.0 6.4 0.1 Natural land gains 11.1 0.1 10.1 0.1 - - 0.7 0.0 - - - - 22.0 0.2 Global Natural land losses - - - - 803.9 1.5 - - 48.2 0.1 377.2 0.7 1 229.3 2.4 Natural land gains 292.8 0.6 647.1 1.2 - - 24.9 0.0 - - - - 964.8 1.8 Notes: LAC = Latin America and the Caribbean; NMED = Northern Mediterranean; CEE = Central and Eastern Europe ICCD/CRIC(17)/2 GE.18-22319 21 Table 4 Critical land cover transitions by different regions and globally between 2000 and 2015 Region Transition class Area (km2 1000s) Percent initial area Africa Conversion from tree-covered areas to other land types (deforestation) 172.2 2.9 Conversion from natural and semi-natural vegetated land to artificial areas 18.4 0.1 Conversion from natural and semi-natural vegetated land to other land 117.2 0.7 Conversion from cropland to natural vegetated land 71.2 1.8 Conversion from other land types to tree-covered areas 163.6 0.9 Asia Conversion from tree-covered areas to other land types (deforestation) 270.8 6.4 Conversion from natural and semi-natural vegetated land to artificial areas 59.9 0.4 Conversion from natural and semi-natural vegetated land to other land 385.1 2.6 Conversion from cropland to natural vegetated land 141.1 3.3 Conversion from other land types to tree-covered areas 409.9 2.3 LAC Conversion from tree-covered areas to other land types (deforestation) 447.3 4.9 Conversion from natural and semi-natural vegetated land to artificial areas 26.2 0.1 Conversion from natural and semi-natural vegetated land to other land 7.1 0.0 Conversion from cropland to natural vegetated land 111.3 3.5 Conversion from other land types to tree-covered areas 217.7 2.0 NMED Conversion from tree-covered areas to other land types (deforestation) 8.1 1.6 Conversion from natural and semi-natural vegetated land to artificial areas 10.9 0.6 Conversion from natural and semi-natural vegetated land to other land 0.4 0.0 Conversion from cropland to natural vegetated land 18.3 2.0 Conversion from other land types to tree-covered areas 21.4 1.6 CEE Conversion from tree-covered areas to other land types (deforestation) 6.5 0.1 Conversion from natural and semi-natural vegetated land to artificial areas 14.3 0.1 Conversion from natural and semi-natural vegetated land to other land 0.8 0.0 Conversion from cropland to natural vegetated land 12.8 0.6 Conversion from other land types to tree-covered areas 15.3 0.2 Global Conversion from tree-covered areas to other land types (deforestation) 911.1 3.2 Conversion from natural and semi-natural vegetated land to artificial areas 143.2 0.2 Conversion from natural and semi-natural vegetated land to other land 510.7 0.8 Conversion from cropland to natural vegetated land 361.5 2.4 Conversion from other land types to tree-covered areas 835.4 1.4 Notes: LAC = Latin America and the Caribbean; NMED = Northern Mediterranean; CEE = Central and Eastern Europe ICCD/CRIC(17)/2 22 GE.18-22319 Table 5 Area change (km2 1000s) from initial land cover classes (rows) to final land cover classes (columns) between 2000 and 2015 for different regions Region name Land cover Tree-covered areas (km2 1000s) Grassland (km2 1000s) Cropland (km2 1000s) Wetland (km2 1000s) Artificial surfaces (km2 1000s) Other land (km2 1000s) Africa Tree-covered areas 5 652.9 79.8 83.0 2.4 5.4 1.6 Grassland 105.6 5 271.8 146.8 1.0 3.2 106.1 Cropland 49.4 15.9 3 472.0 6.0 9.4 3.9 Wetland 1.5 0.8 1.2 341.6 0.3 5.6 Artificial surfaces 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 26.5 2.0 Other land 7.0 120.1 7.8 1.0 5.0 7 754.5 Asia Tree-covered areas 2 379.3 109.3 106.9 9.1 7.8 37.8 Grassland 270.8 4 920.0 174.9 40.4 13.3 211.2 Cropland 79.8 55.4 3 050.6 5.9 37.7 128.8 Wetland 3.9 31.9 6.6 169.1 1.0 7.3 Artificial surfaces 5.4 2.5 15.8 1.3 110.5 5.5 Other land 49.9 388.3 301.3 8.1 20.1 3 021.0 LAC Tree-covered areas 7 547.5 226.8 167.1 50.5 2.4 0.6 Grassland 112.0 5 460.1 96.7 2.9 8.2 5.8 Cropland 66.1 44.0 2 926.0 1.2 14.9 0.5 Wetland 39.3 51.4 2.2 479.9 0.8 0.2 Artificial surfaces 0.1 0.3 0.6 0.0 43.6 0.0 Other land 0.2 7.9 0.6 0.4 0.4 254.8 NMED Tree-covered areas 458.2 1.6 5.1 0.1 1.1 0.1 Grassland 3.8 272.9 3.6 0.0 1.3 0.1 Cropland 17.4 0.9 880.1 0.0 8.5 0.2 Wetland 0.1 0.0 0.0 7.1 0.1 0.0 Artificial surfaces 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 26.7 0.0 Other land 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.0 3.2 46.0 CEE Tree-covered areas 337.2 1.3 4.0 0.2 0.4 0.5 Grassland 4.1 58.8 0.8 0.3 0.3 0.3 Cropland 10.7 1.8 694.5 0.2 13.5 0.0 Wetland 0.0 0.2 0.0 4.4 0.0 0.0 Artificial surfaces 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 21.0 0.0 Other land 0.4 8.3 0.7 0.5 0.0 2.9 Global Tree-covered areas 16 691.0 420.9 369.0 62.3 18.1 40.8 Grassland 497.7 16 120.9 424.7 44.8 27.9 323.4 Cropland 229.0 119.0 11 543.4 13.5 95.0 133.5 Wetland 45.0 84.4 10.1 1 006.4 2.2 13.0 Artificial surfaces 5.6 3.0 16.7 1.4 254.9 7.6 Other land 58.2 525.1 310.9 10.0 28.6 11 088.9 Notes: LAC = Latin America and the Caribbean; NMED = Northern Mediterranean; CEE = Central and Eastern Europe IC C D /C R IC (1 7 )/2 G E .1 8 -2 2 3 1 9 2 3 Table 6 Number of times direct drivers were attributed to land cover class transition by regions Region Deforestation Over- grazing Improper management of annual, perennial, scrub and tree crops Improper soil management Urbanization Overexploitation of vegetation for domestic use Release of airborne pollutants Discharges Disturbance of the water cycle Industrial activities Any other Africa 44 29 38 37 30 39 2 6 7 12 45 Asia 27 4 17 8 17 18 - 2 5 9 29 LAC 20 5 8 15 13 5 3 1 6 4 23 NMED 1 - 4 2 8 - - - - 3 2 CEE 9 - 7 1 7 - - 2 - 4 5 Global 102 38 76 63 76 62 5 11 18 32 106 Notes: LAC = Latin America and the Caribbean; NMED = Northern Mediterranean; CEE = Central and Eastern Europe Table 7 Number of times direct drivers were attributed to land cover transition by initial land cover class From Area (km2 1000s) Deforestation Over- grazing Improper management of annual, perennial, scrub and tree crops Improper soil management Urbanization Over- exploitation of vegetation for domestic use Release of airborne pollutants Discharges Disturbance of the water cycle Industrial activities Any other Tree-covered areas 674 90 11 34 22 21 37 2 2 6 12 22 Grassland 1 161 6 23 16 18 15 19 1 3 3 3 35 Cropland 438 4 3 18 19 27 5 2 4 4 12 30 Wetland 8 1 - 3 3 5 1 - 1 4 2 4 Artificial surfaces 4 - - - - 1 - - - - - - Other land 655 - 1 3 1 6 - - 1 1 3 15 Total 2 940 102 38 76 63 76 62 5 11 18 32 106 ICCD/CRIC(17)/2 24 GE.18-22319 Table 8 Number of times indirect drivers were attributed to land cover transition across regions Region Population pressure Governance, institutional settings and policies Education, access to knowledge and support services Land tenure Labour availability Poverty War and conflict Any other Africa 91 40 47 61 11 55 21 24 Asia 31 19 8 19 6 25 - 13 LAC 21 14 8 22 4 16 - 18 NMED 11 2 - 3 1 4 - - CEE 8 4 3 11 4 2 - 7 Global 165 79 66 118 26 102 21 62 Notes: LAC = Latin America and the Caribbean; NMED = Northern Mediterranean; CEE = Central and Eastern Europe Table 9 The number of times indirect drivers were attributed to land cover transition by initial land cover class Land cover Area (km2 1000s) Population pressure Governance, institutional settings and policies Education, access to knowledge and support services Land tenure Labour availability Poverty War and conflict Any other Tree-covered areas 727 73 22 20 59 8 51 8 22 Grassland 1 178 44 21 17 33 3 24 4 17 Cropland 439 30 25 20 23 10 19 7 11 Wetland 8 6 5 4 2 - 3 1 5 Artificial surfaces 3 - - - - - 1 - - Other land 577 10 6 5 1 5 4 1 6 Total 2 934 165 79 66 118 26 102 21 62 IC C D /C R IC (1 7 )/2 G E .1 8 -2 2 3 1 9 2 5 B. (...) Land productivity tables Table 10 Land productivity dynamics (LPD) for static land cover classes of each LPD class across different regions as area (km2) and as percentage of initial area Declining Stressed Stable or increasing No data Region Land cover Area (km2 1000s) Percentage Area (km2 1000s) Percentage Area (km2 1000s) Percentage Area (km2 1000s) Percentage Africa Tree-covered areas 318.9 5.4 489.8 8.3 5 054.8 86.0 14.7 0.2 Grassland 922.6 14.8 524.8 8.4 4 603.1 74.1 163.5 2.6 Cropland 498.3 12.9 365.7 9.5 2 980.9 77.2 18.9 0.5 Wetland 18.6 5.3 18.4 5.2 283.9 80.5 31.9 9.0 Total 1 758.3 10.8 1 398.7 8.6 12 922.8 79.2 228.9 1.4 Asia Tree-covered areas 361.6 9.8 421.1 11.4 2 893.7 78.3 18.6 0.5 Grassland 628.2 12.7 943.8 19.1 3 311.2 66.9 69.7 1.4 Cropland 180.9 5.3 360.8 10.6 2 829.3 83.2 30.0 0.9 Wetland 23.2 9.1 46.8 18.3 160.2 62.8 24.8 9.7 Total 1 193.8 9.7 1 772.5 14.4 9 194.4 74.7 143.1 1.2 LAC Tree-covered areas 606.4 7.0 1 022.2 11.8 6 975.7 80.5 56.4 0.7 Grassland 1 188.0 19.5 731.1 12.0 4 034.7 66.3 128.4 2.1 Cropland 647.7 21.0 513.6 16.6 1 913.1 62.0 10.9 0.4 Wetland 52.6 9.6 58.9 10.8 373.9 68.3 61.9 11.3 Total 2 494.7 13.6 2 325.8 12.7 13 297.4 72.4 257.6 1.4 NMED Tree-covered areas 5.7 1.3 40.0 8.9 403.4 89.8 0.3 0.1 Grassland 4.0 1.6 37.5 14.7 212.8 83.5 0.7 0.3 Cropland 20.2 2.3 101.8 11.5 760.8 86.1 1.1 0.1 Wetland 0.1 1.1 1.4 12.0 9.6 81.2 0.7 5.8 Total 30.0 1.9 180.7 11.3 1 386.6 86.7 2.7 0.2 CEE Tree-covered areas 1.1 0.0 6.4 0.1 8 271.4 99.9 3.4 0.0 Grassland 1.8 0.2 2.3 0.2 43.9 4.5 926.1 95.1 Cropland 75.3 3.8 63.6 3.2 1 864.6 92.9 3.0 0.2 Wetland 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.0 4.7 0.2 2 268.4 99.8 Total 78.2 0.6 72.5 0.5 10 184.6 75.2 3 200.9 23.6 IC C D /C R IC (1 7 )/2 3 0 G E .1 8 -2 2 3 1 9 Global Tree-covered areas 1 296.3 4.8 1 989.9 7.3 23 862.7 87.6 94.2 0.3 Grassland 2 748.1 14.8 2 248.6 12.1 12 314.2 66.2 1 288.6 6.9 Cropland 1 440.3 10.5 1 433.5 10.4 10 814.8 78.6 64.6 0.5 Wetland 95.3 2.8 125.9 3.7 834.6 24.2 2 387.1 69.3 Total 5 580.0 8.9 5 797.9 9.2 47 826.3 75.9 3 834.5 6.1 Notes: LAC = Latin America and the Caribbean; NMED = Northern Mediterranean; CEE = Central and Eastern Europe Table 11 Direct drivers of land productivity dynamics within static land cover classes grouped by region Region Deforestation Discharges Disturbance of the water cycle Improper management of annual, perennial and tree crops Improper soil management Industrial activities Over- exploitation of vegetation for domestic use Over- grazing Release of airborne pollutants Urbanization Any other Africa 20 2 3 14 11 2 21 8 - 13 15 Asia 4 - - 7 8 2 3 3 - 4 8 LAC 5 - - 1 3 - 7 1 - 3 9 NMED - - - 1 - - - - - - - CEE - - 3 1 2 - - 1 - 3 10 Global 29 2 6 24 24 4 31 13 - 23 42 Notes: LAC = Latin America and the Caribbean; NMED = Northern Mediterranean; CEE = Central and Eastern Europe IC C D /C R IC (1 7 )/2 G E .1 8 -2 2 3 1 9 3 1 Table 12 Direct drivers of land productivity dynamics (LPD) within static land cover classes grouped by LPD trajectory classes From LPD Area (km2) Deforesta tion Discharge s Disturbance of the water cycle Improper managemen t of annual, perennial and tree crops Improper soil managemen t Industri al activitie s Over- exploitation of vegetation for domestic use Over- grazin g Release of airborne pollutants Urbanizati on Any other Tree- covered areas Declinin g 98 092 5 - 1 - - - 3 1 - 3 3 Stressed 69 460 4 - - - - - - - - 1 2 Other 1 096 395 6 - - 2 1 - 3 - - - 11 Total 1 263 948 15 - 1 2 1 - 6 1 - 4 16 Grass- Declinin g 192 358 2 - - 2 2 1 4 4 - 2 1 land Stressed 24 031 - - - 1 - - 2 - - - 1 Other 60 358 1 - - 1 - - - 2 - - 5 Total 276 747 3 - - 4 2 1 6 6 - 2 7 Cropland Declinin g 86 098 1 - 1 6 7 1 2 2 - 3 4 Stressed 53 417 - - 1 1 4 - - - - - 2 Other 694 849 3 - - 4 5 1 8 - - - 8 Total 834 364 4 - 2 11 16 2 10 2 - 3 14 Wetland Declinin g 965 1 1 2 2 1 - 1 - - 2 - Stressed 130 1 - - 2 1 - 1 - - 1 - Other 28 434 - - 1 - - - 1 - - - - Total 29 530 2 1 3 4 2 - 3 - - 3 - Total 2 404 588 24 1 6 21 21 3 25 9 - 12 37 Notes: LAC = Latin America and the Caribbean; NMED = Northern Mediterranean; CEE = Central and Eastern Europe IC C D /C R IC (1 7 )/2 3 2 G E .1 8 -2 2 3 1 9 Table 13 Global land productivity dynamics (LPD) for changing land cover classes between 2000 and 2015 showing net area change (km2) for each land cover transition, with the area (km2) of each LPD trajectory and the proportion (%) of the LPD trajectory relative to the net area change Net area change (km) Declining Stressed Other Initial Final Area (km2) Percent Area (km2) Percent Area (km2) Percent Tree-covered areas Grassland 556 807 274 483 49.3 79 999 14.4 202 325 36.3 Cropland 315 176 53 542 17.0 67 779 21.5 193 855 61.5 Wetland 13 851 905 6.5 967 7.0 11 979 86.5 Grassland Tree-covered areas 263 866 35 503 13.5 62 107 23.5 166 255 63.0 Cropland 144 242 29 460 20.4 7 679 5.3 107 103 74.3 Wetland 36 205 3 038 8.4 4 725 13.1 28 441 78.6 Cropland Tree-covered areas 169 109 11 873 7.0 28 659 16.9 128 577 76.0 Grassland 68 968 6 456 9.4 10 377 15.0 52 135 75.6 Wetland 3 541 230 6.5 306 8.6 3 005 84.9 Wetland Tree-covered areas 1 810 67 3.7 181 10.0 1 562 86.3 Grassland 2 349 224 9.5 711 30.2 1 415 60.2 Cropland 2 474 458 18.5 736 29.8 1 280 51.7 Table 14 Direct drivers of land productivity dynamics with changing land cover classes grouped by region Region Deforestation Discharges Disturbance of the water cycle Improper management of annual, perennial and tree crops Improper soil management Industrial activities Over- exploitation of vegetation for domestic use Over- grazing Release of airborne pollutants Urbanization Any other Africa 20 - 5 18 16 7 19 15 1 14 14 Asia 5 - 3 5 2 4 2 4 - 3 7 LAC 19 - 3 4 4 2 7 5 2 6 10 NMED - - - - - - - - - 2 1 CEE - - - - - 2 - - - 1 - Global 44 - 11 27 22 15 28 24 3 26 32 Notes: LAC = Latin America and the Caribbean; NMED = Northern Mediterranean; CEE = Central and Eastern Europe IC C D /C R IC (1 7 )/2 G E .1 8 -2 2 3 1 9 3 3 Table 15 Direct drivers of land productivity dynamics (LPD) with changing land cover classes grouped by initial land cover class and LPD trajectory classes From LPD Area (km2) Deforesta tion Dis- charges Disturbance of the water cycle Improper management of annual, perennial and tree crops Improper soil manage- ment Indus- trial active- ties Over- exploitation of vegetation for domestic use Over- grazin g Release of airborne pollutants Urbani- zation Any other Tree- covered areas Declining 73 894 20 - 1 6 2 5 6 3 - 4 5 Stressed 31 663 12 - 1 5 5 1 4 1 - - 1 Other 12 801 5 - - 1 2 - 2 2 - - 7 Total 118 358 37 - 2 12 9 6 12 6 - 4 13 Grass- Declining 62 374 2 - 1 1 3 1 4 5 - 5 - land Stressed 63 710 3 - 3 5 2 - 5 8 - 1 1 Other 1 102 558 - - - 2 1 1 1 - 1 - 7 Total 1 228 643 5 - 4 8 6 2 10 13 1 6 8 Cropland Declining 23 512 - - 2 4 5 3 2 2 - 8 1 Stressed 836 - - 1 1 1 1 1 1 - 1 - Other 113 032 1 - - 2 1 2 1 - 2 2 6 Total 137 380 1 - 3 7 7 6 4 3 2 11 7 Wetland Declining 1 824 1 - - - - 1 1 1 - 2 - Other 26 - - 2 - - - - - - - - Total 1 850 1 - 2 - - 1 1 1 - 2 - Total 1 486 231 44 - 11 27 22 15 27 23 3 23 28 ICCD/CRIC(17)/2 34 GE.18-22319 Table 16 Regional land productivity dynamics (LPD) for land cover classes that have undergone change between 2000 and 2015, reported as net area change (km2) for each land cover transition, with the area (km2) of each LPD trajectory and the proportion (%) of the LPD trajectory relative to the net area change for the land cover transition Net area change (km) Declining Stressed Other Region Initial Final Area (km2) Percent Area (km2) Percent Area (km2) Percent Africa Tree-covered areas Grassland 55 195 9 893 17.9 4 360 7.9 40 942 74.2 Cropland 87 481 11 281 12.9 6 300 7.2 69 900 79.9 Wetland 1 646 79 4.8 66 4.0 1 501 91.2 Grassland Tree-covered areas 52 441 8 277 15.8 1 867 3.6 42 296 80.7 Cropland 47 678 18 106 38.0 3 875 8.1 25 698 53.9 Wetland 488 68 13.8 14 2.8 407 83.3 Cropland Tree-covered areas 79 225 5 902 7.4 10 518 13.3 62 805 79.3 Grassland 6 018 1 054 17.5 311 5.2 4 652 77.3 Wetland 1 762 98 5.5 92 5.2 1 573 89.3 Wetland Tree-covered areas 103 3 2.4 3 2.5 98 95.1 Grassland 14 0 0.0 0 2.0 14 98.0 Cropland 30 10 33.8 1 2.6 19 63.5 Asia Tree-covered areas Grassland 112 493 15 677 13.9 21 186 18.8 75 630 67.2 Cropland 50 234 5 101 10.2 9 515 18.9 35 618 70.9 Wetland 2 894 55 1.9 58 2.0 2 781 96.1 Grassland Tree-covered areas 152 689 20 285 13.3 33 929 22.2 98 474 64.5 Cropland 74 302 2 616 3.5 3 377 4.5 68 309 91.9 Wetland 35 697 2 967 8.3 4 711 13.2 28 018 78.5 Cropland Tree-covered areas 54 584 3 081 5.6 5 154 9.4 46 348 84.9 Grassland 51 376 3 259 6.3 6 159 12.0 41 959 81.7 Wetland 1 459 74 5.0 212 14.5 1 174 80.4 Wetland Tree-covered areas 308 6 1.9 31 10.1 271 88.0 Grassland 1 333 58 4.4 107 8.0 1 167 87.6 Cropland 1 774 255 14.4 440 24.8 1 080 60.8 LAC Tree-covered areas Grassland 385 829 248 155 64.3 54 312 14.1 83 362 21.6 Cropland 167 912 36 770 21.9 51 206 30.5 79 937 47.6 Wetland 9 138 767 8.4 827 9.0 7 545 82.6 Grassland Tree-covered areas 55 594 6 938 12.5 26 298 47.3 22 358 40.2 Cropland 22 214 8 732 39.3 406 1.8 13 076 58.9 Wetland 20 3 16.3 0 0.9 16 82.8 Cropland Tree-covered areas 29 726 2 881 9.7 12 951 43.6 13 895 46.7 Grassland 10 635 2 119 19.9 3 817 35.9 4 699 44.2 Wetland 127 58 46.0 2 1.5 66 52.4 Wetland Tree-covered areas 1 397 59 4.2 147 10.5 1 190 85.2 Grassland 1 003 165 16.5 603 60.2 234 23.4 Cropland 669 193 28.9 295 44.1 181 27.0 NMED Tree-covered areas Grassland 25 6 24.0 6 24.0 13 52.0 Cropland 2 534 166 6.6 290 11.4 2 078 82.0 Cropland Grassland 853 23 2.7 89 10.4 741 86.9 ICCD/CRIC(17)/2 GE.18-22319 35 CEE Tree-covered areas Grassland 886 43 4.9 35 4.0 807 91.2 Cropland 4 064 132 3.2 241 5.9 3 691 90.8 Wetland 173 4 2.3 16 9.1 153 88.5 Grassland Tree-covered areas 3 143 4 0.1 13 0.4 3 126 99.5 Cropland 48 6 12.6 21 44.5 20 42.9 Cropland Tree-covered areas 5 573 9 0.2 36 0.6 5 528 99.2 Grassland 86 2 1.7 1 1.2 84 97.1 Wetland 192 0 0.2 0 0.2 192 99.7 Wetland Tree-covered areas 2 0 0.0 0 8.9 2 91.1 Notes: LAC = Latin America and the Caribbean; NMED = Northern Mediterranean; CEE = Central and Eastern Europe IC C D /C R IC (1 7 )/2 3 6 G E .1 8 -2 2 3 1 9 B. (...) Carbon stocks tables Table 17 Direct drivers of soil organic carbon change with static land cover classes From Area Deforestation Over- grazing Improper management of annual, perennial, scrub and tree crops Improper soil management Urbanization Over- exploitation of vegetation for domestic use Discharges Disturbance of the water cycle Industrial activities Any other Tree-covered areas 199 735 3 - 2 2 - - - - 1 4 Grassland 1 055 267 3 7 7 4 3 5 - 1 1 3 Cropland 1 039 480 4 - 1 4 2 2 - 2 - 7 Wetland 533 015 2 - 4 1 - - - - - 1 Artificial surfaces 74 403 2 - - 1 4 1 1 - 4 - Other land 202 131 - 1 1 - 1 1 - - 1 - Total 3 104 030 14 8 15 12 10 9 1 3 7 15 IC C D /C R IC (1 7 )/2 G E .1 8 -2 2 3 1 9 4 1 Table 18 Indirect drivers of soil organic carbon change with static land cover classes From Area Population pressure Poverty Governance, institutional settings and policies Labour availability Land tenure Education, access to knowledge and support services War and conflict Any other Tree-covered areas 199 735 2 2 1 1 3 1 - 2 Grassland 1 055 267 2 1 2 1 - 1 1 2 Cropland 1 039 480 4 2 3 3 1 2 1 1 Wetland 533 015 3 1 - - 1 - - 1 Artificial surfaces 74 403 3 - - - 2 - - 2 Other land 202 131 - - - - - - - - Total 3 104 030 14 6 6 5 7 4 2 8 Table 19 Direct drivers of soil organic carbon change with changing land cover classes From To Area De- forestation Over- grazing Improper management of annual, perennial, scrub and tree crops Improper soil manage- ment Urbani- zation Over- exploitation of vegetation for domestic use Release of airborne pollutants Dis- charges Distur- bance of the water
语言:中文
得分: 1073955.8 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...open&DS=ICCD/CRIC(17)/2&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON EXTRAJUDICIAL, SUMMARY OR ARBITRARY EXECUTIONS, PHILIP ALSTON :ADDENDUM
The focus of the violence has been on bus drivers in the capital. In 2008, 165 drivers and 12 co-pilots were assassinated. The deaths of 5 drivers were reported in the first two weeks of 2009 alone. These assassinations are attributed to the maras, who extort money from bus drivers, sometimes on a daily basis. If the money is not paid, the driver and/or the assistant are assassinated.
语言:中文
得分: 1067828.4 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...pen&DS=A/HRC/11/2/ADD.7&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF CHEMICALS MANAGEMENT FOLLOWING THE ADOPTION OF THE STRATEGIC APPROACH TO INTERNATIONAL CHEMICALS MANAGEMENT: TRACKING PROGRESS, PROMOTING IMPLEMENTATION AND FOLLOW-UP
One proposal for the paper was that it would identify drivers to meet targets, propose incentives for stakeholders to meet targets early and identify challenges that might keep targets from being met. (...) SAICM/PREPCOM.3/INF/6 9 Drivers, incentives and obstacles to implementation of SAICM Section V of the Thought-Starter5 prepared by the IFCS Forum IV for SAICM PrepCom 1 identified gaps in chemical safety at present, and Section V.E identified ‘obstacles and enablers’ of chemical safety. (...) most of the answers would relate to the drivers, incentives and obstacles at national level; as already noted, that is where the major responsibility for implementation essentially rests.
语言:中文
得分: 1060928.3 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...S=SAICM/PREPCOM.3/INF/6&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
DRAFT RESOLUTION, SPONSORED BY RUSSIAN FEDERATION, CO-SPONSORED BY CHINA, IRAN (ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF) AND PAKISTAN: ADOPTION OF THE REGIONAL COOPERATION FRAMEWORK FOR THE FACILITATION OF INTERNATIONAL RAILWAY TRANSPORT
Developing human resources for cross-border railway operations Visas for crews and drivers. The cross-border movement of trains also requires the railway employees of one country to travel to another country. (...) A common system of training for drivers — with a common set of rules and regulations — could facilitate the interoperability of drivers. Mutually recognized authorization/certification may be issued by national railways and be acceptable to other railways in the region based on pre-agreed common training of drivers. This will ensure that the driver is aware of the operational route, including speed restrictions, signalling systems and emergency procedures.
语言:中文
得分: 1055829.7 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...open&DS=E/ESCAP/71/L.15&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
ADOPTION OF THE REGIONAL COOPERATION FRAMEWORK FOR THE FACILITATION OF INTERNATIONAL RAILWAY TRANSPORT : RESOLUTION / ADOPTED BY THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMISSION FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC
Developing human resources for cross-border railway operations Visas for crews and drivers. The cross-border movement of trains also requires the railway employees of one country to travel to another country. (...) A common system of training for drivers — with a common set of rules and regulations — could facilitate the interoperability of drivers. Mutually recognized authorization/certification may be issued by national railways and be acceptable to other railways in the region based on pre-agreed common training of drivers. This will ensure that the driver is aware of the operational route, including speed restrictions, signalling systems and emergency procedures.
语言:中文
得分: 1055829.7 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...pen&DS=E/ESCAP/RES/71/7&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
REPORT OF THE STANDING COMMITTEE ON FINANCE TO THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES
Agriculture was highlighted as one of the main drivers of deforestation by a number of participants. (...) Another example was to reduce the policy incentives for drivers of deforestation, or to add fiscal conditions and requirements for subsidies that drive deforestation. (...) Addressing drivers of deforestation requires cross-sectoral cooperation among different institutions, especially between different government ministries.
语言:中文
得分: 1053880.3 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...?open&DS=FCCC/CP/2015/8&Lang=C
数据资源: ods