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Microsoft PowerPoint - Drivers Distraction 1 1 Drivers Distraction Drivers Distraction –– To what Extent can the Work of ITU To what Extent can the Work of ITU FG FG CarComCarCom contribute to reduced drivers contribute to reduced drivers distraction? (...) Gierlich HEAD acoustcics GmbH Chair of ITU-T Focus Group CarCom Drivers Distraction – An Analysis* oo PhysicalPhysical//manualmanual distractiondistraction •• Manual Manual operationoperation of of devicesdevices Vi l Vi l di t tidi t tioo Visual Visual distractiondistraction •• WatchingWatching informationinformation otherother thanthan roadroad oo AuditoryAuditory distractiondistraction •• FocusingFocusing on on auditoryauditory eventsevents not not relatedrelated toto the the drivingdriving tasktask The Fully Networked Car Geneva, 2-3 March 2011 oo CognitiveCognitive distractiondistraction •• OccupiedOccupied byby non non drivingdriving relatedrelated taskstasks * See also NHTSA 2 Technology Based Distraction in Cars oo Car Car entertainmententertainment systemssystems oo Navigation Navigation systemssystems oo PhonesPhones for for speechspeech communicationcommunication oo Car Car informationinformation systemssystems oo Text messanging Text messanging systemssystems The Fully Networked Car Geneva, 2-3 March 2011 oo „„TextingTexting whilewhile drivingdriving““ oo :: To be avoided oo In In generalgeneral all all activitiesactivities distractingdistracting fromfrom the the drivingdriving tasktask, , espesp.:.: •• Visual Visual cuescues whichwhich requirerequire different different focusfocus thanthan roadroad •• Non intuitive Non intuitive manualmanual operationoperation of the of the carcar •• LoadingLoading the human the human auditoryauditory systemsystem byby The Fully Networked Car Geneva, 2-3 March 2011 gg yy yy yy distractingdistracting cuescues •• UnnaturalUnnatural and and lowlow qualityquality dialogsdialogs and and communicationscommunications 3 5 The driving taskThe driving task mostly occupied: mostly occupied: visual systemvisual system mainly involved: mainly involved: hands and legshands and legs involved: involved: not involved: not involved: The Fully Networked Car Geneva, 2-3 March 2011 => Auditory Channel => Auditory Channel and Speech “available”and Speech “available” auditory systemauditory system not involved: not involved: talkingtalking Speech Based Services in Cars oo Speech Speech promptsprompts oo Speech Speech dialogdialog systemssystems The Fully Networked Car Geneva, 2-3 March 2011 oo Speech Speech communicationcommunication servicesservices 4 Speech Based Services in Cars 7 oo The main speech applications:The main speech applications: •• Speech recognition systemsSpeech recognition systems•• Speech recognition systemsSpeech recognition systems •• Speech dialog systemsSpeech dialog systems •• Text to speech systemsText to speech systems •• Speech enhancement for Speech enhancement for communication systemscommunication systems The Fully Networked Car Geneva, 2-3 March 2011 •• HandsHands--free communicationfree communication •• Enhanced inEnhanced in--car communication car communication systems between passengerssystems between passengers Communicational Quality – Drivers Distraction 8 Superior Superior CommunicationCommunication Quality Quality --> > ReducedReduced Drivers Drivers DistractionDistraction Perfekt Perfekt IntelligibilityIntelligibility, , High Speech High Speech NaturalnessNaturalness atat the the FarFar EndEnd Perfekt Perfekt IntelligibilityIntelligibility, , High Speech High Speech NaturalnessNaturalness in the in the CarCar The Fully Networked Car Geneva, 2-3 March 2011 SeamlessSeamless Interaction Interaction --> Low Delay, > Low Delay, Perfekt Double Talk Perfekt Double Talk PerformancePerformance 5 Hands-Free in Cars oo WhyWhy handshands--freefree in in carscars?? (...) Rec.: Parameters describing the interaction with spoken dialog systemsinteraction with spoken dialog systems 8 Conclusions 15 oo Speech technologies may help to reduce drivers Speech technologies may help to reduce drivers distraction if properly implementeddistraction if properly implemented ITU i ll t f f h l t d ITU i ll t f f h l t d oo ITU is an excellent forum for speech related ITU is an excellent forum for speech related technologies and their standardizationtechnologies and their standardization oo FG FG CarCOMCarCOM is actively working on advanced is actively working on advanced standards for handsstandards for hands--free implementations and free implementations and subsystems, more: subsystems, more: The Fully Networked Car Geneva, 2-3 March 2011 http://www.itu.int/ITUhttp://www.itu.int/ITU--T/focusgroups/carcom/T/focusgroups/carcom/ oo A new ITU Focus group on Drivers Distraction is A new ITU Focus group on Drivers Distraction is starting soon!
Language:English
Score: 688252.4 - https://www.itu.int/dms_pub/it.../06/41/T06410000200001PDFE.pdf
Data Source: un
Article 30: When about to be overtaken, the drivers must immediately keep close to their right without speeding up. (...) Article 35: When two drivers enter an intersection by different roads, the driver coming from the left must give way to the other one. (...) In case of breakage, they must allow the driver to still clearly see the road. Article 86: The windscreen must be equipped with at least one windscreen wiper having a working surface and a frequency sufficient to enable the driver to clearly see the road from his seat.
Language:English
Score: 687984.67 - https://www.wto.org/english/th...cc_e/khm_e/WTACCKHM5_LEG_7.pdf
Data Source: un
FAO - SFM Outils de détails: Drivers of deforestation and forest degradation - A synthesis report for REDD+ policymakers FAO.org english français Español Gestion Durable des Forêts (GDF) Boîte à outils Contexte Modules Outils Cas News Apprentissage en ligne Gateway Enregistrez Tool Details Drivers of deforestation and forest degradation - A synthesis report for REDD+ policymakers Author Kissinger, G., Herold, M. & De Sy. (...) This synthesis report investigates activities (drivers) that lead to deforestation and forest degradation. It explores the relevance of drivers in REDD+ policy development and implementation, key interventions to address driver activity, the role of drivers for national forest monitoring and for developing REDD+ forest reference (emission) levels.
Language:English
Score: 687033.84 - https://www.fao.org/sustainabl...ols/tools-details/fr/c/411784/
Data Source: un
Microsoft PowerPoint - Damascus_2_2_3.ppt 1 CONVERGENCE IN THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS WORLD Emmanuel Kakai Research & Development Telkom Kenya Regional Workshop for the Arab Region On Guidelines On the Smooth Transition of Existing Mobile Networks to IMT-2000 for Developing Countries Damascus, Syria, 13 - 15 June 2005 2 • Introduction • Drivers for Convergence • Types of Convergence • Network Architecture for future IT &Communication • Impediments to Convergence • Conclusions CONTENTS INTRODUCTION • In the telecommunications world, convergence means a moving towards the use of one medium. • The architecture selected for convergence must satisfy the business requirements before it meets the technical requirements • The architecture for collaboration must address the IT infrastructure, both what is already in place and what can be implemented in the future 3 DRIVERS FOR CONVERGENCE Many drivers but perhaps the most significant is a vision of the future • Lower Cost • Simplified Provisioning • Easier Management • Less Maintenance • Fewer User Interfaces DRIVERS FOR CONVERGENCE • More Rapid Provisioning • Improved Service • New Services • Simplification of user’s Life 4 DRIVERS FOR CONVERGENCE A brief review of each driver LOWER COST • If a new technology is to gain any recognition and market share, it must promise some savings- the more the better. DRIVERS FOR CONVERGENCE SIMPLIFIED PROVISIONING • Transport/Physical level - Allows a reduction in the number of cables to be laid • Switching level - Reduces the number of cable plants needed within a building • Application level - Only one medium e.g. the Internet is required to deliver content 5 DRIVERS FOR CONVERGENCE EASIER MANAGEMENT • Separate networks means that managers have to coordinate data from multiple sources to determine service quality • Combination of multiple systems and Networks simplifies management of telecommunications services DRIVERS FOR CONVERGENCE LESS MAINTENANCE • Reduction in the number of cable plants required means a reduction in the maintenance required • Easier upgrades as demand grows and as the need to provision new services arise 6 DRIVERS FOR CONVERGENCE FEWER USER INTERFACES • Use of a single cable plant with appropriate switching results into fewer separate user interfaces • Single type of of plug in the wall, which supplies raw bandwidth on demand • Reduction in costs for eqpmt manufacturers and savings passed on to consumers DRIVERS FOR CONVERGENCE MORE RAPID PROVISIONING • When existing cabling can carry new signals, provisioning is much faster • When existing cabling and switching can allow new services to be engineered and deployed without the need to add either cable or switching equipment, provisioning can be extremely fast 7 DRIVERS FOR CONVERGENCE IMPROVED SERVICE • Service quality improves when fewer components are involved in provisioning and maintenance DRIVERS FOR CONVERGENCE NEW SERVICES • Design, implementation and provisioning of new services is faster • Use of IP as the common switching technology allows new telephone services to be deployed easily in VoIP networks • As more switching intelligence resides in user eqpmt, need for fixed services reduces in favour of guarantees on packet delivery 8 DRIVERS FOR CONVERGENCE SIMPLIFICATION OF USER’S LIFE • New technologies are hard to sell unless users can perceive tangible benefits • Users do not respond to “Technological elegance”, but to concrete improvements and documentable savings. • Converged solutions have foundered in the past because telcom executives did not view things through from the user’s standpoint TYPES OF CONVERGENCE • TRANSPORT • SWITCHING • APPLICATION • TELECOMMUNICATION/IT 9 TYPES OF CONVERGENCE TYPES OF CONVERGENCE CONVERGENCE PYRAMID- Four levels: • :Network convergence(transport) - LAN, WAN, Wired and Wireless transmission • IT infrastructure-Servers,workstations, etc. • Applications - Web servers and other forms of Input/output devices • User Interface.
Language:English
Score: 686730.13 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/tech.../Damascus_AddContrib_Kakai.PDF
Data Source: un
Bottlenecks and loopholes with exclusionary potential | UNESCO Inclusive Policy Lab Skip to main content UNESCO Inclusive Policy Lab Menu Inclusive Policy Markers Learning E-teams Member search Think pieces Publications Podcasts Expert advice Invite a friend Work by region Quick links About the Lab About the MOST Programme Stay connected           UNESCO.org Log in User login Username or e-mail * Password * Create new account Request new password You are here: Home » Inclusive Policy Markers » Inclusive Policy Markers » Intersecting risks and drivers » Removal of exclusion drivers » Bottlenecks and loopholes with exclusionary potential Bottlenecks and loopholes with exclusionary potential Join Register Ask an expert Explore the inclusive policy markers Join an e-team Invite a friend Step 1 Select a dimension of ex/inclusion Open Multidimensional Relational Intersecting risks and drivers Dynamic Multi-layered and contextual Participatory Selected: Intersecting risks and drivers Some groups are at a higher risk of exclusion and inequality, but the status of excluded often transcends a single group affiliation and lies at the intersection of multiple identities.  (...) Yet a combination of the two – i.e., an approach of intersecting risks and drivers – is feasible and has a solid policy value.   (...) Step 2 Select an Inclusive Policy Marker Open Exclusion risks and their intersections Removal of exclusion drivers Differentiated and distributional effects of policies Tailored policy design and service delivery Selected: Removal of exclusion drivers Drivers of exclusion – which may be entrenched in values, behaviours, institutions and/or policies themselves – help exclusion risks materialize.
Language:English
Score: 685792.97 - https://en.unesco.org/inclusivepolicylab/taxonomy/term/190
Data Source: un
Bottlenecks and loopholes with exclusionary potential | UNESCO Inclusive Policy Lab Skip to main content UNESCO Inclusive Policy Lab Menu Inclusive Policy Markers Learning E-teams Member search Think pieces Publications Podcasts Expert advice Invite a friend Work by region Quick links About the Lab About the MOST Programme Stay connected           UNESCO.org Log in User login Username or e-mail * Password * Create new account Request new password You are here: Home » Inclusive Policy Markers » Inclusive Policy Markers » Intersecting risks and drivers » Removal of exclusion drivers » Bottlenecks and loopholes with exclusionary potential Bottlenecks and loopholes with exclusionary potential Join Register Ask an expert Explore the inclusive policy markers Join an e-team Invite a friend Step 1 Select a dimension of ex/inclusion Open Multidimensional Relational Intersecting risks and drivers Dynamic Multi-layered and contextual Participatory Selected: Intersecting risks and drivers Some groups are at a higher risk of exclusion and inequality, but the status of excluded often transcends a single group affiliation and lies at the intersection of multiple identities.  (...) Yet a combination of the two – i.e., an approach of intersecting risks and drivers – is feasible and has a solid policy value.   (...) Step 2 Select an Inclusive Policy Marker Open Exclusion risks and their intersections Removal of exclusion drivers Differentiated and distributional effects of policies Tailored policy design and service delivery Selected: Removal of exclusion drivers Drivers of exclusion – which may be entrenched in values, behaviours, institutions and/or policies themselves – help exclusion risks materialize.
Language:English
Score: 685792.97 - https://en.unesco.org/inclusiv...opholes-exclusionary-potential
Data Source: un
Bottlenecks and loopholes with exclusionary potential | UNESCO Inclusive Policy Lab Skip to main content UNESCO Inclusive Policy Lab Menu Inclusive Policy Markers Learning E-teams Member search Think pieces Publications Podcasts Expert advice Invite a friend Work by region Quick links About the Lab About the MOST Programme Stay connected           UNESCO.org Log in User login Username or e-mail * Password * Create new account Request new password You are here: Home » Inclusive Policy Markers » Inclusive Policy Markers » Intersecting risks and drivers » Removal of exclusion drivers » Bottlenecks and loopholes with exclusionary potential Bottlenecks and loopholes with exclusionary potential Join Register Ask an expert Explore the inclusive policy markers Join an e-team Invite a friend Step 1 Select a dimension of ex/inclusion Open Multidimensional Relational Intersecting risks and drivers Dynamic Multi-layered and contextual Participatory Selected: Intersecting risks and drivers Some groups are at a higher risk of exclusion and inequality, but the status of excluded often transcends a single group affiliation and lies at the intersection of multiple identities.  (...) Yet a combination of the two – i.e., an approach of intersecting risks and drivers – is feasible and has a solid policy value.   (...) Step 2 Select an Inclusive Policy Marker Open Exclusion risks and their intersections Removal of exclusion drivers Differentiated and distributional effects of policies Tailored policy design and service delivery Selected: Removal of exclusion drivers Drivers of exclusion – which may be entrenched in values, behaviours, institutions and/or policies themselves – help exclusion risks materialize.
Language:English
Score: 685792.97 - en.unesco.org/inclusive...opholes-exclusionary-potential
Data Source: un
The model enables firms to construct their own metrics to describe the connection between their top financial objectives (e.g. return on capital or return on equity) and the following: Revenue growth from sustainability-advantaged products, services and/or strategies (S/G) Total annual cost savings (and cost avoidance) from sustainability-driven productivity initiatives (S/P) Reduced sustainability-related risk exposure that could materially impair a company’s performance (S/R) Next Steps for Your Company Adapt and Apply the Value Driver Model Companies are invited to use the Value Driver Toolkit to apply the Value Driver Model to their strategies, operations, and communications. The toolkit, available in our library, includes the Value Driver Model, case examples and training presentations. Additional support is available to companies wishing to further adapt the Value Driver Model for their business Share Your Progress Help us improve.
Language:English
Score: 685359.77 - https://www.unglobalcompact.or...tion/action/value-driver-model
Data Source: un
Stakeholders in the area of road safety realise that safety and sustainability in driver’s practise requires more than the capacity of keeping a vehicle on the road. (...) This European Directive prescribes obligatory training for professional drivers transporting goods or passengers by road. This directive aims to improve the quality of the services offered by drivers, to make the driver’s job more respected and more attractive, to increase road safety and to facilitate the free movement of workers.
Language:English
Score: 684248.2 - https://unece.org/fileadmin/DA...cuments/ece.ac.21.2002.9.e.pdf
Data Source: un
I. Blinov, an Embassy driver. Ambassador A. N. Sychev was in the vehicle, en route to an official meeting. The police officers, without giving any explanation, demanded to see the driving licence and vehicle registration and the accreditation documents of the driver and the ambassador. After a lengthy verification of the documents, lasting about 20 minutes, the police officers demanded that the Embassy driver take a blood alcohol test. (...) In the course of the verification the police officers behaved rudely, ignored the fact that the ambassador was in the vehicle, refused to show their identification documents, repeatedly demanded that the driver get out of the vehicle, threatening him with arrest and detention of the vehicle, and also showed a willingness to use physical force against the driver.
Language:English
Score: 684165.14 - https://www.un.org/en/ga/sixth...omments/Addendum/Belarus_E.pdf
Data Source: un