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If your net earnings are $400 or more in a year, you must report your earnings on Schedule SE, in addition to the other tax forms you must file. (...) In 2018, if your net earnings are $5,280 or more, you earn the yearly maximum of four credits — one credit for each $1,320 of earnings during the year. (...) Figuring your net earnings Net earnings for Social Security are your gross earnings from your trade or business, minus your allowable business deductions and depreciation.
Language:English
Score: 831242.5 - https://www.un.org/other/afics...are_self-employed_pamphlet.pdf
Data Source: un
Apportioned effort Earned value dependent on other discrete tasks being completed. (...) Work start Earn 100% of the budget value when the work effort begins. Half start Earn 50% of the budget value when work begins, earn remaining 50% when work completes.
Language:English
Score: 828530 - https://unece.org/fileadmin/DA...alueCalculationMethod_D09B.xsd
Data Source: un
Earnings also exclude severance and termination pay. (...) International Labour Office Department of Statistics Definition of earnings (12th ICLS, 1973) • Concept of earnings (§ 8,9) – Remuneration paid by employers directly to their employees – In cash and in kind – In exchange of time worked or work done • Includes remuneration for time not worked • Excludes employers’ social security contributions and benefits from these schemes • Excludes severance and termination pay – Gross remuneration • Before any deductions by the employer on behalf of the employee to a compulsory social security scheme or for income tax deductions 20 Department of Statistics http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---stat/documents/normativeinstrument/wcms_087496.pdf http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---stat/documents/normativeinstrument/wcms_087496.pdf http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---stat/documents/normativeinstrument/wcms_087496.pdf http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---stat/documents/normativeinstrument/wcms_087496.pdf http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---stat/documents/normativeinstrument/wcms_087496.pdf 11 • Basic pay – Pay for time worked or work done • Straight-time pay of time-rated workers • Earnings of pieceworkers (excluding overtime premiums) – Remuneration for time not worked • Public holidays • Annual vacations • Other time off with pay granted by the employer • Allowances – Geographical and zone differentials – Cost of living allowances – Payments under guaranteed wage systems – Other regular allowances • Bonuses and gratuities – Incentive pay of time-rated workers – Premium pay for overtime, shift, night and holiday work – Commissions paid to sales and other personnel – Seniority and special skills – Responsibility premiums – Dirt, danger and discomfort allowances – Seasonal and end-of-year bonuses – Additional payments in respect of vacation period (supplementary to normal pay) – Profit sharing bonuses • Social security benefits – Housing and family allowances paid directly by the employer (social security benefit) 21 Definition of earnings: Components (§ 10) Adopted by the 12th ICLS in 1973 Relates to pay which is regularly provided by employers to employees Earnings Bonuses paid less frequently Basic pay Allowances Pay in kind Bonuses paid every pay period Profit-related pay Pay for time not worked International Labour Office Department of Statistics 12 Definitions Types of earnings • Gross earnings - international definition – Before any deductions made by employers on behalf of employees – Standard measure of earnings • Net earnings (no international definition) – Disposable income or take-home pay – After compulsory deductions by employers (for income and other tax, employees’ contributions to compulsory social security and pensions schemes) • Real earnings (of gross or net earnings) – Spending power of earnings – The amount of goods and services which can be purchased – comparable in time – Net earnings divided by consumer price index or similar indicator. 23 24 Labour cost, 11th ICLS, 1966 • Expressed as labour cost per hour worked • Criterion for inclusion of an item as labour cost: benefit character to the worker as compared to the production process • Worker coverage: all employees excluding managerial staff remunerated predominantly by a share of profits • Taxes imposed on employment or payrolls: in countries where these are considered as labour cost, should be identified separately (net basis) For more information, please see the Resolution concerning statistics of labour cost, adopted by the Eleventh International Conference of Labour Statisticians (October 1966); web link: http://www.ilo.org/global/statistics-and-databases/standards-and-guidelines/resolutions-adopted-by-international-conferences-of-labour- statisticians/WCMS_087500/lang--en/index.htm Definition: Labour cost is the actual cost incurred by the employer in the employment of labour. (...) Taxes regarded as labour cost (e.g. taxes on employment or payrolls) Adopted by the 12th ICLS in 1966 Relates to the cost incurred by the employer in the employment of labour Allowances Bonuses paid every pay period Bonuses paid less frequently Profit-related pay Employers’ social security contributions Basic pay Irregular bonuses Pay in kind Pay for time not worked Social security benefits received from employer Vocational training and other labour costs Taxes regarded as labour cost Labour Cost International Labour Office Department of Statistics 14 ILO Department of Statistics 27 Derived variables related to earnings and an integrated system of wages statistics Earnings: Derived variables and indicators • Derived variables – Net earnings – Real earnings • Averages of earnings – Per month, week, day, hour – By sex – By full time/part-time employment • Medians of earnings – Per month, week, day, hour • Quantiles 28 15 Earnings: Derived variables Net earnings • Gross earnings MINUS • Contributions of the employee to a compulsory social security scheme – Private or public – Usually the employer deducts this contribution from the pay check • Advance payment of income tax – Most countries require that tax be paid on earnings, when earnings are above a certain threshold – Usually, this tax should be paid in advance to the end of the year – Usually, the employer deducts the estimated tax amounts from the pay check 29 Earnings: Derived variables Real earnings • Gross (= nominal) earnings – Do not indicate the capacity of workers to consume goods and services (purchasing power) – Do not indicate whether persons can buy more or less than before • Real earnings – Also known as earnings adjusted for inflation, earnings in terms of prices of a specific year, earnings at constant prices – Take into account increases or decreases in the consumer price levels – Indicate whether increases in earnings result in increases or decreases in purchasing power • If earnings increase more slowly than the prices of goods and services (= inflation), real earnings decrease – Are always calculated with respect to another (base) period, e.g., • What is the amount of goods and services that a person can buy today compared to what s(he) could have bought during the base period. 30 16 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 2001 4001 6001 8001 10001 12001 14001 16001 18001 20001 % e m p lo y e e s earnings category Distribution of employees by gross monthly earnings (%) Switzerland, 2006 31 Mean gross earnings = 5623 Because earnings follow a skewed distribution, the mean is influenced by the few employees with high earnings Earnings: Derived variables Means are commonly used Earnings: Derived variables Medians 32 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 2001 4001 6001 8001 10001 12001 14001 16001 18001 20001 % e m p lo y e e s Earnings category Distribution of employees by gross monthly earnings Switzerland, 2006 mean median • The median is the value separating the higher half of a population from the lower half • Is found by arranging all the observations from lowest value to highest value, cumulating them and picking the value of middle observation 17 33 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 2001 4001 6001 8001 10001 12001 14001 16001 18001 20001 % e m p lo y e e s Earnings category Distribution of employees by gross monthly earnings Switzerland, 2006 average median 1st quartile Quantiles are points taken at regular intervals from the cumulative distribution function of a random variable (income) Deciles: any of the 9 values that divide the sorted data into 10 equal parts, so that each part represents 1/10th of the sample or population • 1st income decile: the value below which are the 10% of persons with the lowest income • 9th income decile: the value below which are the 90% of persons with the lowest income Quartiles: divide the population in quarters Quintiles: divide the population in five parts 3rd quartile Earnings: Derived variables Quantiles Measuring earnings: An integrated system of wages statistics (12th ICLS, 1973) Survey on the structure and distribution of earnings Survey on labour cost Current statistics (monthly, quarterly, yearly) Structural (non- current) Statistics (3 to 5 yearly) Agricultural surveys Labour cost for between survey years can be estimated by combining establishment surveys with administrative information Household-based Surveys Administrative records Es ta b lis h m en t- b as ed s u rv ey s In d u st ri al c en su se s an d su rv ey s Establishment survey on: Employment, earnings and hours Wage rates and normal hours of work 34 18 References • International Labour Office, 1979.
Language:English
Score: 823183.9 - https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/gro...ts/publication/wcms_413782.pdf
Data Source: un
In boom spans, nominal earnings tend to grow, whereas in slumps tend to decline and thus, the nominal earnings path follows mostly, the business cycle. (...) Furthermore, females’ earnings growth has been maintained higher than males during both, earnings upswings and downturns during the decade 2006-2015. (...) In all sectors, males’ earnings have exhibited a larger downward adjustment, whereas females’ earnings in relative terms were reduced less.
Language:English
Score: 823151.2 - https://www.ohchr.org/sites/de...Debt/WomenAusterity/Cyprus.pdf
Data Source: un
Earnings also exclude severance and termination pay. 9. (...) (c) Bonuses and gratuities cover seasonal and end-of-year bonuses, additional payments in respect of vacation period (supplementary to normal pay) and profit-sharing bonuses. (ii) Statistics of earnings should distinguish cash earnings from payments in kind. (...) If the national monthly or quarterly statistics of average earnings exclude certain important components, such as the annual or other infrequent payments mentioned above, the current programme of earnings statistics should include the compilation once a year, wherever possible, of statistics of average earnings including these particular components. 29.
Language:English
Score: 821245.6 - www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/grou...tiveinstrument/wcms_087496.pdf
Data Source: un
International recommendations The definition of earnings covers regular cash earnings only. The value of payments in kind and irregular, seasonal or one-off bonuses are excluded. (...) Types of estimates Totals of persons engaged and industrial workers, at sectoral level and by sex, Averages of weekly and hourly earnings, and weekly hours of work, Indices of average earnings and hours of work. (...) A full description of the methodology used in compiling the quarterly estimates of industrial employment, earnings and hours worked is given in a special publication, Industrial Employment, Earnings and Hours Worked - Updated quarterly series 1980-1986 .
Language:English
Score: 820930.5 - http://www.ilo.org/ilostat-files/SSM/SSM2/E/IE1.html
Data Source: un
Although it is hard to estimate the exact amount earned by Western Balkans (WB6) countries through online job market, based on data collected they have earned more than $140 mln from 2015 till June 2021. (...) Albania and Kosovo have earned the lowest amount per capita since the platform was launched. (...) In WB’s approx. 8% of the freelancers registered in the platform provide one or more out of the top 15 tech skills. These freelancers earn approx. 9% of the total amount earned in the platform.
Language:English
Score: 820638.7 - https://www.undp.org/sites/g/f...ef_Draft_1%5B42%5D%5B90%5D.pdf
Data Source: un
Each year the amount of earnings needed for credits goes up slightly as average earnings levels increase. The credits you earn remain on your Social Security record even if you change jobs or have no earnings for a while. (...) If you are self-employed, you earn Social Security credits the same way employees do (one credit for each $1,320 in net earnings, but no more than four credits per year).
Language:English
Score: 818586.2 - https://www.un.org/other/afics..._you_earn_credits_pamphlet.pdf
Data Source: un
Types of estimates Average monthly earnings are computed by dividing the sum of the monthly earnings of all active CPF contributors (employees) by the number of active CPF contributors (employees). (...) Average real monthly earnings correspond to nominal earnings deflated by the corresponding year’s Consumer Price Index (at present, on base November 1997-October 1998=100). (...) Available series Quarterly and annual series of average monthly earnings by economic activity and sex. Annual series of average real monthly earnings by economic activity and sex.
Language:English
Score: 816634.57 - http://www.ilo.org/ilostat-files/SSM/SSM4B/E/SG.html
Data Source: un
For example, for a worker who turns 62 in 2018, the first $895 of average monthly earnings is multiplied by 90 percent; earnings between $895 and $5,397 by 32 percent; and the balance by 15 percent. (...) Social Security years of substantial earnings If you have 30 or more years of substantial earnings, we don’t reduce the standard 90 percent factor in our formula. See the first table that lists substantial earnings for each year. The second table shows the percentage used to reduce the 90 percent factor depending on the number of years of substantial earnings.
Language:English
Score: 815720.36 - https://www.un.org/other/afics...ination_provision_pamphlet.pdf
Data Source: un