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In relation to economic evaluation, therefore, it should be decided how the benefits should be accounted for in the cost-effectiveness (or cost-benefit) ratio. (...) Cost-effectiveness of environmental health interventions 3 How could these non-health benefits be taken into account in cost-effectiveness analysis to reflect overall benefits of environmental health interventions? (...) The BMJ guidelines are more comprehensive in that they cover all types of economic evaluation (i.e. cost-benefit as well as cost- effectiveness analysis), while the Weinstein et al guidelines use a purely cost- effectiveness framework.
Language:English
Score: 667561.7 - https://www.who.int/docstore/p...h/burden/WSH00-10/wsh00-10.pdf
Data Source: un
This slide shows the effect which the introduction of an income-related benefit with high replacement rate had on second-birth childbearing intensities in these countries. (...) For 2007 (and 2008) no effects on TFR. One hypothesis is that about half of all mothers who gave birth in 2007 were not eligible for the new benefit (which means that these mothers did not meet the employment requirement prior to the birth). (...) It seems that the employment rate among women was still too low so that many women could not make use of this benefit (while women without employment might have abstained from having a child due to cuts in benefit for this group)] Effects of Policies on Childbearing • policy may have an effect on childbearing behavior (on timing and quantum) (effect may be delayed) • changes in behavior may also be brought about by other factors than policies • policies may have only temporal effect • policies may have different effects in different socio-economic circumstances Effects of Family Policies on Childbearing Behavior • ’critical junctures’: – introduction of employment-supporting family policies – effect of such policies under different socio-economic conditions • spatial and cultural aspects: where • use of policy: differential effects of policies on different social groups (who) Presenter Presentation Notes I will bring some examples of effects of family policies on childbearing behavior using examples from the Nordic countries.
Language:English
Score: 666115.67 - https://www.un.org/en/developm...ents/pdf/expert/15.5/Neyer.pdf
Data Source: un
The CE prototype therefore reflects a system that has been significantly reformed to try to bring benefits in line with the fiscal realities. The effective benefit accrual rate is set at 1.4 per cent of the reference earnings level resulting from an estimated average benefit in relation to the average wage in the economy at the relatively low level of 47 per cent. (...) The main variable of immediate interest is the potential effect on financing arrangements. This will be a consequence of the level and timing of changes in both the collections to support the system (Revenues) and the payment of benefits (Expenditures). (...) However, they do not include “dynamic” effects such as higher levels of early retirement and disability benefit claims that are typically associated with significant earnings and employment disruptions. 16 Figure 14: Changes in Expenditure as a Share of GPD.
Language:English
Score: 659586.4 - https://www.cepal.org/sites/de...lt/files/events/files/hinz.pdf
Data Source: un
The more people who are affected, the more likely it is that an option that addresses the problem will be a priority See note 1 above Desirable effects (benefits) Are the anticipated desirable effects of the option large (taking into account the severity or importance of the beneficial consequences and the number of people affected)? The larger the benefit, the more likely it is that an option will be recommended Including health and other benefits Undesirable effects Are the anticipated undesirable effects of the option small (taking into account the severity or importance of the adverse effects and the number of people affected)? The greater the risk of undesirable effects, the less likely it is that an option will be recommended Including harms (to health) and other disbenefits Certainty of evidence (confidence in effect estimates) What is the certainty of the anticipated effects?
Language:English
Score: 658639.55 - https://www.who.int/reproducti...th/Annex_4_DECIDE_criteria.pdf
Data Source: un
SOCIAL COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF THE YOUTH GUARANTEE: A learning package Contents Preface How to use this training package Introduction to social cost-benefit analysis Social benefits of the Youth Guarantee Social costs of the Youth Guarantee Micro-simulation and macro-modelling Data sources, discount rates, distributional weights and sensitivity analysis Practical application of social cost-benefit analysis to the Youth Guarantee Presentations Introduction to social cost-benefit analysis Social benefits of the Youth Guarantee Social costs of the Youth Guarantee Measurement of costs and benefits: Micro-simulations and macro modelling Data sources, discount rates, distributional weights and sensitivity analysis 5 6 1 2 3 4 Case study Social cost-benefit analysis of the JobBrige programme List of boxes, tables and figures Box 1.1: Estimating the costs of youth unemployment and inactivity Box 1.2: Types of evaluation: Why cost-–benefit analysis? Box 2.1: Scarring effects of youth unemployment Table 1.1: Actors involved in the Youth Guarantee Table 2.1: Mean effect sizes of employment interventions Table 6.1: Mean effect size, impact estimates by programme type Table 6.2: Annual number of burglaries, 2015 Table 6.3: Social cost-benefit of the YG in Portugal Table A2.1: Estimates of scarring effects on employment and earnings Table A2.2: Elasticity of crime to youth unemployment Table A3.1 Estimates of deadweight of taxation Table A3.2: Indirect effects of youth employment programmes Table A5.1: Main costs and benefits and their corresponding data sources Table A6.1: Social cost-benefit matrix of the YG Figure 6.1: Development of a SCBA communication strategy Figure A3.1: Youth Guarantee, Spain Preface This learning package was prepared for the International Labour Organization (ILO) by Valli’ Corbanese and Gianni Rosas. (...) Introduction to social cost-benefit analysis 2. Social benefits of the Youth Guarantee 3.
Language:English
Score: 655104.1 - https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/gro...ts/publication/wcms_583273.pdf
Data Source: un
When does payment of a surviving spouse’s benefit start? 2 An entitlement to a surviving spouse’s benefit is effective as of the first day of the month following the date of the retiree’s death. (...) The entitlement to a benefit becomes effective 18 months after the date of marriage (or after one year if the marriage took place before 1 January 2009). (...) When does payment of the benefit begin? Upon becoming effective, the benefit for a spouse married after separation is payable as of the first day of the month following the date of the retiree’s death.
Language:English
Score: 654940.97 - https://www.un.org/other/afics...survivors_benefits_booklet.pdf
Data Source: un
Recommendation and Options for Reform Recommendations for and options for reform of the current benefit system are centred around improving the poverty reduction effectiveness of the UMB. (...) The second issue is that the fixed duration of the benefit makes it less effective in reducing, and responding to, short term poverty. (...) Assessment of State Benefits to Children Final report March 2008 24 The challenge, therefore, is to use these positive features in the strengthening of the poverty reduction effectiveness of state benefits.
Language:English
Score: 653779.93 - https://www.unicef.org/kyrgyzs...ent__State_Benefits.pdf%20.pdf
Data Source: un
Presented at the World Trade Organization Symposium On Issues Confronting the Word Trade System Geneva, Switzerland 7 July 2001 Genetically Modified Organisms Definitions: Transgenic Organisms Food organisms (crops, livestock, fish) Non-food applications (forestry, horticulture) Components of the Debate Scientific and Factual issues Ethical and Value Issues Legal Issues Institutional Issues Scientific and Factual Issues Risks Benefits Distribution Risks Human health risks Ecological risks Economic risks Human Health Risks Allergy/Toxicity Changes in Nutritional Composition Cumulative Effects of Many New Foods Ecological Risks Gene Flow/Gene Pollution (e.g., “superweeds”) Effects on non-target species (e.g., Monarch butterflies) Effects on ecological balances (e.g., supersalmon) Economic Risks Costs of Health/Ecological Damage Major Economic Displacements Loss of Business (consumer choice) Loss of Trade/Trade Barriers Benefits Human health benefits Ecological benefits Economic benefits Human Health Benefits (Mostly Potential/Future) Nutritionally Improved Foods More Food Security Plant-Produced Vaccines Ecological Benefits (Mostly Potential/Future) Reduced need for agricultural chemicals Soil conservation/improved soil quality More efficient production (less land needed for food, fiber, forest crops) Economic Benefits Welfare effects of health and ecological benefits listed above Benefits of trade, to sellers and consumers Distribution of Risks and Benefits Who reaps the benefits? (...) Distribution within societies Distribution among societies Ethical and Value Issues Risk-Benefit trade-offs Social equity issues Religious and cultural values Democratic values Risk-Benefit Trade-Offs Do the benefits justify the risks? (...) These are value-laden social choices (not questions for science to answer) Social Equity Issues Fairness (or unfairness) of distribution of risks and benefits Preservation of individual right to choose (labeling debate) Who should bear the costs of regulation?
Language:English
Score: 651391.2 - https://www.wto.org/english/forums_e/ngo_e/groth.doc
Data Source: un
Risk mitigation measure should in principle be effective, practicable, cost-effective, have an effect that can be quantified and have the possibility of enforcement. (...) In most cases, proof of efficacy establishes the nature of the expected benefits. A more in-depth cost-benefit evaluation is generally difficult to conduct. (...) In some cases, however, a cost-benefit evaluation of introducing a new pesticide into the country will be justified.
Language:English
Score: 650959.67 - https://www.fao.org/pesticide-...s/decision-making/elements/en/
Data Source: un
We show that if the sole effect of introducing MNP is the abolish- ment of switching costs, MNP benefits mobile customers. (...) They find that the overall welfare effect of MNP is ambiguous if the investment or set-up costs of implementing MNP are weighed against the benefits of more intense competition between mobile operators. (...) The introduction of mandatory MNP should be expected to divide providers of mo- bile services into supporters and opponents: While the new mobile operator benefits, the incumbent will typically lose. Therefore, effects on mobile customers will also be am- biguous.
Language:English
Score: 649989.7 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/fina...ars/lithuania-04/haucap%20.pdf
Data Source: un