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Benefits Framework | Unis pour la Réforme Skip to main content Bienvenue aux Nations Unies Toggle navigation Langue: عربي 中文 English Français Русский Español Unis pour la Réforme Search form Rechercher Toggle navigation Accueil Réforme pour le développement Réforme de la gestion Réforme du pilier « paix et sécurité » Benefits Management Benefits Framework Benefits Tracker Stratégie de parité des sexes Actualités Contactez-nous Accueil ONU Benefits Management Benefits Framework Benefits Framework Benefits framework The benefits framework is the first UN-wide approach to managing change. (...) It is our responsibility to help the Secretary-General demonstrate to the UN’s stakeholders that the UN is not only changing but improving. Proving the benefits throughout the reform process and beyond will help us achieve this." — Jens Wandel   Download the benefits framework If you have any questions please email  eosgbenefitsmanagement@un.org  for more information.   Benefits categories In the section below, you can learn about the different benefits categories and their definitions by hovering over them.
Language:English
Score: 779963.4 - https://reform.un.org/fr/node/952
Data Source: un
(2) content of RIA The Japanese Guidelines require that an evaluation report shall contain…  Purpose, contents and necessity of regulations  Analysis of costs and benefits Setting the “Baseline”, Analyzing each element of costs and benefits, and Including secondary or indirect impacts  Analysis of cost-benefit relationship Cost-benefit Analysis, Cost-effectiveness Analysis, Cost Analysis  Comparison with alternatives (It is desirable.)  View of experts and other related matters  Time or conditions for review 4 1.(3)Example of RIA White House rejects ‘Death Star’ petition https://petitions.whitehouse.gov/response/isnt-petition- response-youre-looking There is a petition by more than 25,000 people asking US government to build a Death Star in Star Wars! (...) Content of RIA (5) Assessment of Cost and Benefit In order to estimate the cost and benefit,  (1) benefit-cost analysis (BCA) or (2)cost- effectiveness analysis (CEA) are used. 1. (...) Cost-effectiveness analysis can provide a rigorous way to identify options that achieve the most effective use of the resources available without requiring monetization of all of relevant benefits or costs. 12 2.
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Score: 779749.4 - https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/R...RR-ITP/03-Takuya_Nakaizumi.pdf
Data Source: un
Only 45 per cent of the global population are effectively covered by at least one social protection benefit, while the remaining 55 per cent – as many as 4 billion people – are left unprotected (figure 1). • ILO estimates also show that only 29 per cent of the global population are covered by comprehensive social security systems that include the full range of benefits, from child and family benefits to old-age pensions. (...) SDG indicator 1.3.1: Effective social protection coverage, global and regional estimates by population group (percentage) Note: Population covered by at least one social protection benefit (effective coverage): Proportion of the total population receiving at least one contributory or non‑contributory cash benefit, or actively contributing to at least one social security scheme. (...) However, countries in the region need to intensify efforts to close coverage gaps, reinforce social protection floors and enhance the adequacy of benefits. • In the Arab States, the lack of data allows only a partial assessment of effective social protection cov- erage.
Language:English
Score: 779623 - www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/grou...ts/publication/wcms_605078.pdf
Data Source: un
Only 45 per cent of the global population are effectively covered by at least one social protection benefit, while the remaining 55 per cent – as many as 4 billion people – are left unprotected (figure 1). • ILO estimates also show that only 29 per cent of the global population are covered by comprehensive social security systems that include the full range of benefits, from child and family benefits to old-age pensions. (...) SDG indicator 1.3.1: Effective social protection coverage, global and regional estimates by population group (percentage) Note: Population covered by at least one social protection benefit (effective coverage): Proportion of the total population receiving at least one contributory or non‑contributory cash benefit, or actively contributing to at least one social security scheme. (...) However, countries in the region need to intensify efforts to close coverage gaps, reinforce social protection floors and enhance the adequacy of benefits. • In the Arab States, the lack of data allows only a partial assessment of effective social protection cov- erage.
Language:English
Score: 779623 - https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/gro...ts/publication/wcms_605078.pdf
Data Source: un
Ghusoub of a new OHSS which had become effective on 1 January 2017, shortly before her retirement date of 28 February 2017, her retirement benefits had not been correctly calculated. 6. (...) Mousa’s case, the UNRWA DT rescinded the calculation of the retirement benefit according to the OHSS that was effective on 1 January 2017. 7. (...) Ghusoub pleads in her appeal that: “I’m not satisfied by the decision of UNRWA DT Judgment 2018-044 comparing it with the decision of UNRWA DT 2018-mousa (sic) that was as the same as my appeal rescinded the calculation of retirement benefit according to OHSS that was effective from 01/01/2017.” 18.
Language:English
Score: 778682.76 - https://www.un.org/en/internal...at/judgments/2019-UNAT-905.pdf
Data Source: un
Social protection includes nine main areas: child and family benefits, maternity protection, unemployment support, employment injury benefits, sickness benefits, health protection (medical care), old- age benefits, invalidity/ disability benefits, and survivors’ benefits. (...) Protected persons are those who have benefits guaranteed but are not necessarily currently receiving them at present (including contributors and other affiliated persons) 38 , while actual beneficiaries describe the population who actually receive the appropriate social protection benefits at a point in time. ▶ Measurements of the level of effective coverage relate to benefit amounts actually paid, relating for example to average payment amounts by sex. ▶ Measuring social protection coverage is a complex task. (...) Calculations include separate indicators to distinguish effective coverage of social protection cash benefits for children, unemployed people, older people and people with disabilities, pregnant women and mothers with new-borns, those who have suffered injury at work, the poor and the vulnerable.
Language:English
Score: 778440.77 - https://unece.org/sites/defaul...06%20social%20protection_0.pdf
Data Source: un
Close coordination between sickness cash benefits and health care benefits is needed to reach targets 1.3 and 3.8 of the Sustainable Development Goals.  To be effective, sickness benefits should be extended to all. (...) Appropriate provisions should be made to help economically active persons who must care for a sick dependant. Extending sickness benefits to those not yet covered: the next frontier Closing coverage gaps To be effective, sickness benefits should be extended to all (Lönnroth et al. 2020). (...) The following adequacy gaps need to be considered:  The level of benefits may be insufficient to effectively provide a sufficient replacement for the income lost.
Language:English
Score: 778385.8 - www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/grou...ts/publication/wcms_744506.pdf
Data Source: un
Close coordination between sickness cash benefits and health care benefits is needed to reach targets 1.3 and 3.8 of the Sustainable Development Goals.  To be effective, sickness benefits should be extended to all. (...) Appropriate provisions should be made to help economically active persons who must care for a sick dependant. Extending sickness benefits to those not yet covered: the next frontier Closing coverage gaps To be effective, sickness benefits should be extended to all (Lönnroth et al. 2020). (...) The following adequacy gaps need to be considered:  The level of benefits may be insufficient to effectively provide a sufficient replacement for the income lost.
Language:English
Score: 778385.8 - https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/gro...ts/publication/wcms_744506.pdf
Data Source: un
International Telecommunication Union Geneva, Switzerland, 23-24 January 2012 Network externalities and termination rates – the UK experience William Godfrey Principal Economic Advisor, Ofcom ITU Workshop on “Apportionment of Revenues and International Internet Connectivity” (Geneva, Switzerland, 23-24 January 2012) Geneva, Switzerland, 23-24 January 2012 2 Contents Introduction Preliminary concepts History of NES in the UK Ofcom 2007 model Why we no longer set a NES Implications for international accounting rates Conclusion Geneva, Switzerland, 23-24 January 2012 3 Introduction Various externalities potentially arise in telecoms, e.g. Benefits: Network externalities, call externalities Costs: network congestion Focus here on network externalities: application of a network externality surcharge (NES) in termination or accounting rates why UK no longer applies such a premium to mobile termination rates (MTRs) Geneva, Switzerland, 23-24 January 2012 4 Preliminary concepts Private vs external benefits: Largely, consumers consider their own private benefit when deciding whether to join a network, not the benefit that other subscribers receive from them joining Network effects vs network externalities: we should only be concerned with network effects that cannot be internalised (i.e. true externalities) Geneva, Switzerland, 23-24 January 2012 5 History of NES in the UK Share of final MCT rate 0.0% 2.0% 4.0% 6.0% 8.0% 10.0% MMC 1998 CC 2002 Ofcom 2004 Ofcom 2007 For c. 10 years NES was a component of regulated MTRs (never FTRs) NES was specified as a mark-up over efficient costs… …but was a relatively small proportion of regulated MTRs Geneva, Switzerland, 23-24 January 2012 6 Ofcom 2007 model (I) Basic principle: Optimal (welfare maximising) NES is where: MSB = MSC Marginal Social Benefit (MSB) MSB = marginal private benefit + marginal external benefit Marginal Social Cost (MSC) MSC = marginal cost of mobile subscription + DWL in calls to mobiles DWL = deadweight loss (from funding NES via a mark-up on calls to mobiles) Geneva, Switzerland, 23-24 January 2012 7 Ofcom 2007 model (II) 13 Number of subscribers Cost of subscription marginal social benefit marginal private benefit N £ per subscriber Marginal subscribers Demand for mobile subscription and marginal social benefit marginal social benefit marginal private benefit Rohlfs-Griffin factor = NNE Geneva, Switzerland, 23-24 January 2012 8 Ofcom 2007 model (III) 14 Number of subscribers Cost of subscription marginal social benefit marginal social cost (marginal cost of subscription + DWL) N* marginal private benefit N £ per subscriber Marginal subscribers ...with full MSC added Geneva, Switzerland, 23-24 January 2012 9 Ofcom 2007 model (IV) 15 Revenue and deadweight loss in calls to mobiles ppm Number of minutes terminated Surcharge Price without surcharge Price with surcharge Revenues DWL Subsidy to marginal subscribers Leakage Geneva, Switzerland, 23-24 January 2012 10 Ofcom 2007 model (V) Problem of leakage Leakage = percentage of surcharge revenue not spent subsidising marginal subscribers Depends on: Waterbed effect Ability and incentive to target marginal subscribers Geneva, Switzerland, 23-24 January 2012 11 Ofcom 2007 model (VI) In principle, impact of leakage on optimal level of NES is ambiguous: High leakage ⇒ more revenues must be raised to provide a given subsidy ⇒ higher NES; but Raising NES ⇒ higher deadweight loss ⇒ lower optimal number of subscribers ⇒ lower optimal level of subsidy (and hence NES) Geneva, Switzerland, 23-24 January 2012 12 Why we no longer set a NES (I) Ofcom 2007 decision was appealed CC (2009) concluded: Leakage was too high for NES to be an effective intervention NES imposes costs beyond DWL: Excessive handset churn Inefficient structure of prices overall MNOs already have incentives to subsidise subscription (i.e. profits from usage over customer lifetime) MTRs set at LRIC+ contribute to this incentive Geneva, Switzerland, 23-24 January 2012 13 Why we no longer set a NES (II) European Commission Recommendation (2009): Recommendation that MTRs should be set at pure LRIC Ofcom 2011 MCT statement set MTRs at pure LRIC (by 1 April 2014) Various aspects to the analysis, but re NES Ofcom’s conclusions were much as CC (2009), i.e. leakage renders the intervention an ineffective remedy Geneva, Switzerland, 23-24 January 2012 14 Implications for international accounting rates (I) Subscription/access issues: What is being subsidised? e.g. fixed vs mobile access Identification of “basic access” tariff Definition/identification of marginal subscribers: subsidies to all marginal subscribers are unlikely to be economically efficient How to ensure targeting: only providing subsidies to those who need it (i.e. not infra-marginal subscribers) Geneva, Switzerland, 23-24 January 2012 15 Implications for international accounting rates (II) Effectiveness of intervention: Do operators have incentives to offer subsidies anyway (or by other means?)
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Score: 777283.5 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/fina...lliam_Godfrey_presentation.pdf
Data Source: un
The term Network externality means that there are benefits if many people join and use a network. It is generally appreciated that the greater the size of the network, the greater the benefit to all users and the greater the overall value of the network. (...) A user joins a network to obtain a benefit from making and receiving calls and derives a benefit from being part of the communications network. (...) Each new user of the product derives private benefits. But also confers external benefits (Network externalities) on existing users.
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Score: 776973 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/fina...0NE%20Raynold%20Mfungahema.pdf
Data Source: un