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The policy brief also discusses how the findings of cost-benefit analysis can be used as an effective marketing tool by govern- ments, trade unions and employers associations to boost the overall attractiveness of apprenticeships.1 Why are we interested in the costs and benefits of apprenticeships? (...) Lodovici, M.; Comi, S.; Origo, F.; Patrizo, M.; Torchio, N. 2013. The effectiveness and cost benefits of apprenticeships: Results of the quantitative analysis. (...) Mühlemann S. 2015: Apprenticeship training in Spain – a cost-effective model for firms?. A cost-benefit simulation study commissioned by the Bertelsmann Stiftung and the Fundación Bertelsmann.
Language:English
Score: 770926.56 - https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/gro...ts/publication/wcms_715099.pdf
Data Source: un
However, means tested benefits are found to have very limited effects on poverty reduction because of limited coverage, significant targeting errors and low value of benefits. (...) In some countries evidence suggests that administrators apply targeting mechanisms arbitrarily, which may also imply the presence of corruption. Conditional cash benefits are not effective in certain circumstances. (...) Gassmann F. and Notten G., (2006), Size matters: Targeting efficiency and poverty reduction effects of means-tested and universal child benefits in Russia, Maastricht University.
Language:English
Score: 770364.06 - https://www.unicef.org/eca/med...le/social%20protection%201.pdf
Data Source: un
The ‘acceptable’ ratio in country 2 is $200/LYG v $2000/LYG in Australia The opportunity cost of $2000 is too high in country 2 Committing $200/LYG in country 2 is a good investment compared with other life-saving interventions A case study using ACE-inhibitors Basic assumptions underlying the analysis: Set ‘value’ of LYG as equivalent to a proportion of per capita GNP (A proxy measure of value) not a judgment of intrinsic worth Estimates of benefit of ACE-Is Derived from systematic (Cochrane) reviews In treatment of hypertension - no evidence of benefit over diuretics / $- blockers In congestive heart failure - clear benefit over placebo In patients with left ventricular dysfunction after heart attack - clear benefit over placebo Magnitude of the benefit Mortality Indication ACE-Inhibitor Comparator Risk difference hypertension 0% CHF 35.18% 39.72% 4.54% post-MI 20.45% 24.64% 4.19% Lives and life years gained per 1,000 patients Indication Lives saved Years of follow-up Life years gained hypertension 0 3.5 0 CHF 45.4 3.5 80 post-MI 41.9 3.5 74 Use of ACE-s is 90% for hypertension, 8% for CHF, 2% for post-MI (base case) Treatment of hypertension requires one DDD, of CHF 2DDDs, post-MI 3DDDs Other assumptions in the model From estimates of LYGs derived from the meta-analyses, combined with . . . value of LYG, set to a proportion of per capita GNP . . . calculate an implied incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, and from this . . . an indicative price (the price which would have resulted in this ICER) Method Results Base case: 90% hypertension, 8% CCF, 2% post-MI Country GNP per capita Weight LYG Incr.cost/1000pt/3.5 yrs Target Mthly Price Armenia $500 7.83 3,670 $0.20 Australia $20,511 7.83 150,547 $8.07 Banglad $359 7.83 2,633 $0.14 Belgium $24,088 7.83 176,808 $9.47 Brazil $4,541 7.83 33,329 $1.79 Canada $20,000 7.83 146,800 $7.87 China $826 7.83 6,063 $0.32 India $461 7.83 3,383 $0.18 RSA $3,112 7.83 22,839 $1.22 USA $31,880 7.83 233,998 $12.54 Results (2) 80% HT, 15% CHF, 5% post MI       Country Target Mthly Price (1) Target Mthly Price (2) Armenia $0.20 $0.27 Australia $8.07 $11.00 Bangladesh $0.14 $0.19 Belgium $9.47 $12.92 Brazil $1.79 $2.44 Canada $7.87 $10.73 China $0.32 $0.44 India $0.18 $0.25 RSA $1.22 $1.67 USA $12.54 $17.10 Limitations of the methodology Per capita GNP as proxy measure of affordability is arbitrary (and probably not linear) Method dependent on the quality/applicability of evidence Any effect modifiers should be included The present example takes no account of cost offsets Must be supported by underlying data collection systems to inform the context Advantages of the methodology Places PE in context Establishes nexus between price, value and evidence of benefit Price not derived from cost of R&D or production Can be used in price/volume agreements EBM foundation is empowering Sources of evidence Blood Pressure Lowering Triallists' Collaboration. Effect of ACE inhibitors, calcium antagonists, and other blood-pressure-lowering drugs: results of prospectively designed overviews of randomised trials. (...) The SOLVD Investigators. Effect of enalapril on survival in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractionsand congestive heart failure.
Language:English
Score: 770223 - https://www.wto.org/english/tr..._presentations_e/37henry_e.pdf
Data Source: un
This is one of the most effective ways to address global environmental challenges. (...) OP7 Focal Areas & Strategic Initiatives OP7 Indicators Biodiversity Conservation: Community-based Conservation of Threatened Ecosystems and Species Improve management effectiveness of protected areas through ICCAs and shared governance with private sector and government. 1) Improve community-led biodiversity friendly practices and approaches, including promoting blue economy (e.g. agriculture, fisheries, forestry, tourism, infrastructure, etc.) 2) Enhance community led actions for protection of threatened species  Hectares of landscapes under improved management to benefit biodiversity.  Hectares of Marine protected areas under improved management effectiveness.  Hectares of marine habitat under improved practices to benefit biodiversity (excluding protected areas). (...) Climate Change (Mitigation): Low-carbon Energy Access Co-benefits Support implementation of Paris Agreement and the NDCs 1) Promote renewable and energy efficient technologies providing socio-economic benefits and improving livelihoods.  Kw of installed renewable energy capacity from local technologies (e.g., on types of renewable energy technology biomass, small hydro, solar).  Number of households achieving energy access, with co-benefits estimated and valued.
Language:English
Score: 769218.3 - https://www.undp.org/sites/g/f...7-CallForConcept-Aug2022_0.pdf
Data Source: un
Legal advice in employment law and administrative law covering such areas appeal and disciplinary procedures will continue to be provided in a timely manner to line managers across the Organization. Expected benefits: 483.     Fair treatment of staff contributes to effective human resources management, good staff morale and dedication to the mandate of the Organization. (...) In order to ensure that FAO is perceived as an "employer of choice", it must provide a competitive benefit package, including life and medical insurance, as well as adequate pensions. Expected benefits: 491.     A competitive benefit package would directly contribute to attracting and retaining the high-quality staff necessary to carry out FAO's programmes.
Language:English
Score: 769218.3 - https://www.fao.org/pwb/2007/J7290Add1e/J7290Add1e38.htm
Data Source: un
These results have implications for the design of complementary policies that seek to promote more competitive market structures that more effectively transmit the benefits of trade liberalization to consumers. (...) Introduction There is a consensus in the international trade literature about the potential welfare benefits of a more open trading regime, always assuming competitive market conditions and the absence of information asymmetries.1 This effect could be greater still in small countries with small or underdeveloped domestic markets. (...) This creates scope for complementary policies aimed at inducing competition with a view to the benefits of trade opening being effectively passed on to final consumers and not just captured by firms or business groups.
Language:English
Score: 768689.16 - https://www.cepal.org/sites/de...documento_jose_duran_cepal.pdf
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WTO | 2009 Press Releases - Informal employment curbs trade benefits for developing countries - Press/574 WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION Home   |  About WTO   |  News & events   |  Trade topics   |  WTO membership   |  Documents & resources   |  External relations Contact us   |  Site map   |  A-Z   |  Search español   français home wto news 2009 press releases press release WTO: 2009 PRESS RELEASES PRESS/574 ILO, WTO JOINT STUDY ON TRADE AND INFORMAL EMPLOYMENT Informal employment curbs trade benefits for developing countries > Publication details > Download publication > The WTO and International Labour Organization    GENEVA (ILO/WTO News) — A joint study from the International Labour Organization and the WTO has found that high incidence of informal employment in the developing world suppresses countries' ability to benefit from trade opening by creating poverty traps for workers in job transition. (...) Informality also prevents countries from fully benefiting from trade reforms by creating poverty traps for workers in job transition. (...) Facilitating formality of firms and jobs helps a country to benefit fully from trade openness, improves living standards and gives workers access to decent working conditions.
Language:English
Score: 768638.13 - https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/pres09_e/pr574_e.htm
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Applying statistically significant effects of LBW and SGA from the WHO sub-analysis, MMS 4 remained very cost effective in all scenarios.13 The NI MMS Cost–Benefit Tool estimates between 7.8 M11 and 28.6 M2 additional DALYs can be averted by MMS compared to IFA across 32 LMICs.14* Table 2. (...) Improving the quality of nutrition counselling and communications is also key to ensuring effective distribution and adherence to MMS. This includes training health workers and community workers on the benefits of MMS, managing side-effects, and strategies on how to remember to take MMS daily throughout pregnancy, along with counselling on nutritious diets. 6. (...) MMS Cost-Benefit Tool https://www.nutritionintl.org/knowledge-centre/mms- cost-benefit-tool/ (accessed Nov 11, 2020). (15) UNICEF; World Food Programme; Global Nutrition Cluster; Nutrition GTAM.
Language:English
Score: 768310.06 - https://www.unicef.org/media/9...l-Guidance-MMS-for-PW-2021.pdf
Data Source: un
Benefits may include child and family benefits, sickness and health-care benefits, maternity benefits, disability benefits, old-age benefits, survivors’ benefits, unemployment benefits and employment guarantees, and employment injury benefits as well as any other social benefits in cash or in kind” [Paragraph 9(2)]. (...) (b) What combinations of benefits and schemes proved to be most effective in lifting people out of poverty, vulnerability, social exclusion and informality? (...) Has the effectiveness and efficiency of the combination of benefits and schemes been assessed in terms of extending coverage and reducing poverty, vulnerability and social exclusion [Paragraph 9]?
Language:English
Score: 767607.03 - https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/gro...s/presentation/wcms_574129.pdf
Data Source: un
Benefits may include child and family benefits, sickness and health-care benefits, maternity benefits, disability benefits, old-age benefits, survivors’ benefits, unemployment benefits and employment guarantees, and employment injury benefits as well as any other social benefits in cash or in kind” [Paragraph 9(2)]. (...) (b) What combinations of benefits and schemes proved to be most effective in lifting people out of poverty, vulnerability, social exclusion and informality? (...) Has the effectiveness and efficiency of the combination of benefits and schemes been assessed in terms of extending coverage and reducing poverty, vulnerability and social exclusion [Paragraph 9]?
Language:English
Score: 767607.03 - www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/grou...s/presentation/wcms_574129.pdf
Data Source: un