Details of the theoretical topics are as follows: Module/ submodule Topic and hours 1 1.1 Structure, composition and dynamics of planetary atmospheres (60 hours) 1.1.1 Basic concepts of the Earth’s atmosphere (12 hours) Atmospheric nomenclature, hydrostatic equations, scale height, geopotential height; chemical concepts of the atmosphere; thermodynamic considerations, elementary chemical kinetics; composition and chemistry of middle atmosphere and thermosphere; thermal balance in the thermosphere; modelling of neutral atmosphere 1.1.2 Dynamics of the Earth’s atmosphere (16 hours) Equation of motion of neutral atmosphere; thermal wind equation; elements of planetary waves; internal gravity waves and atmospheric tides; fundamental description of atmospheric dynamics and effects of dynamics on chemical species; lidar technique 1.1.3 Solar radiation and its effect on atmosphere (20 hours) Solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere, attenuation of solar radiation in the atmosphere, radiative transfer, thermal effects of radiation, photochemical effects of radiation, modelling of radiative effects of aerosols 1.1.4 Atmospheres of planets and satellites (12 hours) Inner and outer planets; atmospheric structure and composition of the Moon, Jupiter, Mars, Venus and Saturn and their important satellites 1.2 Ionospheric physics (60 hours) 1.2.1 Structure and variability of the Earth’s ionosphere (12 hours) Introduction to ionosphere; photochemical processes; Chapman’s theory of photoionization; production of ionospheric layers; loss reactions and chemistry of ionospheric regions; morphology of the ionosphere 1.2.2 Ionospheric propagation and measurement techniques (16 hours) Effect of ionosphere on radio wave propagation; refraction, dispersion and polarization; magneto-ionic theory; critical frequency and virtual height; oblique propagation and maximum usable frequency; ground-based techniques—ionosonde; radars; scintillations and total electron content (TEC), photometers, imagers and interferometers, ionospheric absorption; rocket- and satellite-borne techniques—Langmuir probe, electric field probe, retarding potential analysers, mass spectrometers, magnetometers, vapour release, satellite drag for neutral density 1.2.3 Ionospheric plasma dynamics (16 hours) Basic fluid equations; steady state ionospheric plasma motions owing to applied forces; generation of electric fields; electric field mapping; collision frequencies; electrical conductivity; plasma diffusion; ionospheric dynamo; equatorial electrojet; ionospheric modelling 1.2.4 Airglow (8 hours) Nightglow; dayglow; twilight glow; aurora; applications of airglow measurements for ionospheric dynamics and composition 1.2.5 Ionospheres of other planets and satellites (8 hours) Ionospheres of Mars, Venus and Jupiter 11 A/AC.105/L.240 Module/ submodule Topic and hours 3 3.1 Solar wind, magnetosphere and space weather (60 hours) 3.1.1 Elements of solar physics (6 hours) Structure and composition of the Sun; the Sun as a source of radiation; sunspots and solar cycles; solar flares 3.1.2 Magnetic field of the Earth and other planets (12 hours) Models for generation of geomagnetic fields; secular variations of geomagnetic fields; international geomagnetic reference fields; local elements of geomagnetic fields; determinations of geomagnetic coordinates of stations; diurnal variation of geomagnetic fields; magnetic fields of other planets 3.1.3 Magnetosphere of the Earth and other planets (14 hours) Solar wind and its characteristics; interplanetary magnetic field and sector structure; formation of geomagnetic cavity, magnetopause; magnetosheath and bow shock; polar cusp and magnetotail; plasma sphere and Van Allen radiation belts; magnetosphere of other planets 3.1.4 Space weather (16 hours) Geomagnetic storms, sub-storms and current systems; coronal mass ejections; modification of the Earth’s magnetosphere during magnetic disturbances and its implications; effect of magnetic disturbance on high, mid, and low latitudes 3.1.5 Measurement techniques for solar and geomagnetic parameters (12 hours) Optical techniques for solar parameters; radio techniques for solar parameters; X-ray techniques for solar parameters; techniques for magnetic measurements 3.2 Astronomy and astrophysics (60 hours) 3.2.1 Introduction to astronomy and astrophysics (18 hours) Basic parameters in astronomical observations (magnitude scale, coordinate systems), stellar classification, Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, Saha equation, Jean’s criteria for stellar formation, stellar evolution, galaxy classification, cosmology 3.2.2 Astronomical instruments and observation techniques (12 hours) Telescopes: f/# (a telescope of focal ratio f/# has an aperture equal to one #th of its focal length), plate scale, types of telescopes, seeing conditions, diffraction limited resolution; photometers: spectrometers (interferometers, gratings), imaging detectors (microchannel plate (MPC), charged couple device (CCD) and IR arrays), high angular resolution techniques (speckle, lunar occultation, adaptive optics) 3.2.3 Optical and near IR studies of stars and galaxies (12 hours) Spectral energy distribution (in optical and IR bands) in stars, rotation of stars, study of binary stars, gaseous nebulae, extinction curve of interstellar matter, dust, rotation curves of galaxies, spectral energy distribution, colour-colour studies (imaging of galaxies in different bands) 3.2.4 High-energy astronomy (6 hours) Atmospheric transmission, detection techniques for X-rays and gamma rays, X-ray telescopes, imaging and spectroscopy, radiation processes, accretion disks in black holes and X-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei 3.2.5 Radio astronomy (12 hours) Radio telescopes, aperture synthesis, interplanetary scintillation (IPS) techniques, very long base interferometry (VLBI), pulsars, radio galaxies, distribution of HI gas in galaxies, radiation mechanisms 3.3 Spacecraft design, construction and launch (details to be determined) 12 A/AC.105/L.240 2. 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Table 2 Syllabus followed in the second course Module/ submodule Topic Number of hours 1 1.1 Structure, composition and dynamics of the neutral atmosphere 50 1.1.1 Structure, composition, hydrostatic equilibrium, scale height thermodynamics 1.1.2 Solar radiation, its transfer through the atmosphere, aerosols and radiative effects of aerosols 1.1.3 Atmospheric dynamics, large-scale motions, tides’ gravity waves and turbulence 15 A/AC.105/L.240 Module/ submodule Topic Number of hours 1.1.4 Greenhouse gases and trace gases: their chemistry and measuring techniques and global warming 1.1.5 Satellite measurement of neutral parameters 1.2 Plasma aspects of Earth’s environment 50 1.2.1 Geomagnetism, global electric circuit 1.2.2 Plasma physics 1.2.3 Magnetospheric processes and solar wind, solar activity 1.2.4 In-situ measurements of plasma parameters 1.2.5 Ionospheric irregularities 1.3 Astronomy and astrophysics 50 1.3.1 Basic astronomy (planetary, stellar and extragalactic) 1.3.2 Gamma-ray, X-ray and UV astronomy 1.3.3 Optical, IR and far IR astronomy 1.3.4 Millimeter wave, radio and solar astronomy 1.3.5 Recent advances in astronomical detection techniques 2 2.1 Measurement of mass of suspended particles 25 2.2 Surface monitoring of minor constituents 25 2.3 Determination of the slit function of a monochromator using a helium-neon (He-Ne) laser as light source 25 2.4 Ionospheric sounding using an ionosonde 25 2.5 Low-current measurement using Langmuir probe 25 2.6 Optical imaging of plasma depletions 25 3 3.1 Ionospheric physics and radiowave propagation 3.1.1 Formation and structure of the ionosphere 3.1.2 Theory of ionospheric radio propagation 3.1.3 Radio sounding of the ionosphere (ionosonde, HF Doppler, meteor wind radar, spaced receiver technique, total electron content) 3.1.4 Ionosphere scintillations, tomography and GPS systems 3.1.5 Ionospheric radars (VHF backscatter radar, incoherent scatter radar and MST radar) 3.2 Optical and laboratory studies of space processes 3.2.1 Basic optics 3.2.2 Photometers and images 3.2.3 Spectral imaging of the atmosphere 3.2.4 Laser sounding of the atmosphere 3.2.5 Laboratory astrophysics 3.3 Modelling of atmospheric processes 3.3.1 Climate modelling 3.3.2 Modelling of the neutral atmosphere 3.3.3 Modelling of radiative effects of aerosol 3.3.4 Modelling of ionosphere 16 A/AC.105/L.240 Module/ submodule Topic Number of hours 3.3.5 Numerical simulation of plasma bubbles 4 4.1 Absorption spectrometry to determine column density of minor constituents 25 4.2 Filter photometer for optical depth measurement 25 4.3 Measurement of Earth’s magnetic field by proton precession magnetometer 25 4.4 Interferometry using a Fabry-Perot interferometer 25 4.5 Measurement of transmission of MgF2 window 25 4.6 Characterization of interference filters 25 5 Pilot project a aTwo months. 5. 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The detailed course content of the theoretical portion of the course was as follows: Module 1: Atmosphere Structure and composition, hydrostatic equilibrium, scale heights, thermodynamics, solar radiation and its transfer through atmosphere, aerosols and radiation Atmospheric electricity, global electric circuit Atmospheric dynamics, large-scale motions, tides, gravity waves, and turbulence Ozone, trace gases and chemistry, methods of measurements, ozone depletion; concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases, global warming, long-term changes in atmosphere due to anthropogenic changes Module 2: Ionosphere and solar terrestrial interaction Basic plasma physics The sun, solar radiation, solar activity, solar wind, geomagnetism, magnetosphere Photoabsorption and photoionization, formation of ionospheric layers, magneto-ionic theory, radio propagation in ionosphere, radio sounding, maximum usable frequency (MUF) and high frequency (HF) radio link calculations, features of ionosphere at low latitudes, equatorial electrojet, equatorial sporadic-E and equatorial spread-F Solar flares, geomagnetic storm and effects in the ionosphere, magnetosphere- ionosphere coupling Radio propagation through ionosphere, Faraday rotation, differential phase and group delay measurements, ionospheric tomography, radiowave scintillations 19 A/AC.105/L.240 Radiowave scattering processes, coherent and incoherent backscatter radars Probe theory, probe characteristics, in-situ measurements, airglow emissions, principles of optical measurements, optical aeronomy High-energy astronomy, X-ray astronomy, X-ray sources, detection techniques; gamma-ray astronomy, sources, telescope and detectors in space, ground-based Cerenkov telescopes and very high energy gamma-ray astronomy; engineering trends and recent advances in detection techniques Space biology Module 3: Instrumentation techniques and data processing Radio sounding: ionosondes, HF Doppler technique, spaced receiver technique Radio beacon methods for electron content, tomography and scintillation studies Radars for atmospheric and ionospheric studies, coherent backscatter radar, incoherent backscatter radar, meteor radar and mesosphere/stratosphere/troposphere (MST) radar In-situ probes and artificial modification experiments, Langmuir probe, double probe, retarding potential analyser (RPA), magnetometer, mass spectrometer, and chemical release experiments; balloon-borne conductivity, ion density and electric field probes for stratosphere Optical aeronomy experiments, photometers, spectrometers, imaging camera for day and night airglow emissions Lidar techniques, principle and application, aerosol lidar, Rayleigh lidar, Doppler lidars and differential-absorption lidars (DIALs) Instrumentation for atmospheric chemistry and aerosol studies, Dobson absorption spectroscopy, cryosampler, gas chromatography, sun photometer, aerosol sampler, remote sensing techniques Techniques for laboratory measurements, instrumentation for laboratory experiments on photoabsorption and photoionization Instrumentation for astronomical observations, telescopes, polarimetry, high resolution and spectrophotometry and spectroscopy, array detectors Module 4: Modelling Ocean-atmosphere and land-atmosphere interaction, past climate studies Tropospheric and stratospheric ozone chemistry, aerosol-solar radiation interaction Continuity equation, ionospheric models, numerical simulation studies, ionospheric scintillations, planetary atmospheres 3.
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