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UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM-WIDE STUDY ON THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANT : REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL
Estas tecnologías tienen un alto grado de exactitud, sensibilidad, especificidad y precisión, y pueden aumentar la productividad de las cosechas y el ganado, además de contribuir a la lucha contra __________________ 2 Tratado para la Proscripción de las Armas Nucleares en la América Latina y el Caribe (Tratado de Tlatelolco); Tratado sobre la zona desnuclearizada del Pacífico Sur (Tratado de Rarotonga); Declaración sobre política nuclear común argentino-brasileña (28 de noviembre de 1990); Tratado sobre el establecimiento de una zona libre de armas nucleares en Asia sudoriental (Tratado de Bangkok); Tratado sobre una zona libre de armas nucleares en África (Tratado de Pelindaba); y Tratado sobre la creación de una zona libre de armas nucleares en el Asia central (Tratado de Semipalatinsk). 3 Con arreglo al documento del OIEA INFCIRC/153 (Corregido). 4 Ibid. 5 Con arreglo al documento del OIEA INFCIRC/66/Rev.2. 6 Con arreglo al Modelo de Protocolo Adicional publicado por el OIEA en su documento INFCIRC/540 (Corregido). 7 Esta sección fue preparada por la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura. (...) Los países que están introduciendo por primera vez la industria nuclear y las regiones donde esta ya se utiliza deben evaluar y reforzar, si procede, su capacidad institucional para evaluar y regular el impacto ambiental y diseñar modelos en función de ello, así como su capacidad para responder a las cuestiones ambientales en situaciones de emergencia.
Idioma:Español
Puntuación: 1196342.3 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...t?open&DS=SG/HLM/2011/1&Lang=S
Fuente de datos: ods
REGIONAL CENTRES FOR SPACE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION (AFFILIATED TO THE UNITED NATIONS) : CURRICULUM ON SPACE AND ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE
El tercer curso se compondrá de los cinco módulos siguientes: 1 Teoría 2 Experimentos 3 Teoría 4 Experimentos 5 Proyectos piloto En el anexo I se presenta un programa más detallado, particularmente en lo que respecta a los modelos teóricos. 2. Cambios sugeridos al programa del segundo curso. 12. (...) Details of the theoretical topics are as follows: Module/ submodule Topic and hours 1 1.1 Structure, composition and dynamics of planetary atmospheres (60 hours) 1.1.1 Basic concepts of the Earth’s atmosphere (12 hours) Atmospheric nomenclature, hydrostatic equations, scale height, geopotential height; chemical concepts of the atmosphere; thermodynamic considerations, elementary chemical kinetics; composition and chemistry of middle atmosphere and thermo- sphere; thermal balance in the thermosphere; modelling of neutral atmosphere 1.1.2 Dynamics of the Earth’s atmosphere (16 hours) Equation of motion of neutral atmosphere; thermal wind equation; elements of planetary waves; internal gravity waves and atmospheric tides; fundamental description of atmospheric dynamics and effects of dynamics on chemical species; lidar technique 1.1.3 Solar radiation and its effect on atmosphere (20 hours) Solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere, attenuation of solar radiation in the atmosphere, radiative transfer, thermal effects of radiation, photochemical effects of radiation, modelling of radiative effects of aerosols 1.1.4 Atmospheres of planets and satellites (12 hours) Inner and outer planets; atmospheric structure and composition of the Moon, Jupiter, Mars, Venus and Saturn and their important satellites 1.2 Ionospheric physics (60 hours) 1.2.1 Structure and variability of the Earth’s ionosphere (12 hours) Introduction to ionosphere; photochemical processes; Chapman’s theory of photoionization; production of ionospheric layers; loss reactions and chemistry of ionospheric regions; morphology of the ionosphere 1.2.2 Ionospheric propagation and measurement techniques (16 hours) Effect of ionosphere on radio wave propagation; refraction, dispersion and polarization; magneto-ionic theory; critical frequency and virtual height; oblique propagation and maximum usable frequency; ground-based techniques—ionosonde; radars; scintillations and total electron content (TEC), photometers, imagers and interferometers, ionospheric absorption; rocket- and satellite-borne techniques— Langmuir probe, electric field probe, retarding potential analysers, mass spectrometers, magnetometers, vapour release, satellite drag for neutral density 1.2.3 Ionospheric plasma dynamics (16 hours) Basic fluid equations; steady state ionospheric plasma motions owing to applied forces; generation of electric fields; electric field mapping; collision frequencies; electrical conductivity; plasma diffusion; ionospheric dynamo; equatorial electrojet; ionospheric modelling 1.2.4 Airglow (8 hours) Nightglow; dayglow; twilight glow; aurora; applications of airglow measurements for ionospheric dynamics and composition 1.2.5 Ionospheres of other planets and satellites (8 hours) Ionospheres of Mars, Venus and Jupiter A/AC.105/L.240 12 Module/ submodule Topic and hours 3 3.1 Solar wind, magnetosphere and space weather (60 hours) 3.1.1 Elements of solar physics (6 hours) Structure and composition of the Sun; the Sun as a source of radiation; sunspots and solar cycles; solar flares 3.1.2 Magnetic field of the Earth and other planets (12 hours) Models for generation of geomagnetic fields; secular variations of geomagnetic fields; international geomagnetic reference fields; local elements of geomagnetic fields; determinations of geomagnetic coordinates of stations; diurnal variation of geomagnetic fields; magnetic fields of other planets 3.1.3 Magnetosphere of the Earth and other planets (14 hours) Solar wind and its characteristics; interplanetary magnetic field and sector structure; formation of geomagnetic cavity, magnetopause; magnetosheath and bow shock; polar cusp and magnetotail; plasma sphere and Van Allen radiation belts; magneto- sphere of other planets 3.1.4 Space weather (16 hours) Geomagnetic storms, sub-storms and current systems; coronal mass ejections; modification of the Earth’s magnetosphere during magnetic disturbances and its implications; effect of magnetic disturbance on high, mid, and low latitudes 3.1.5 Measurement techniques for solar and geomagnetic parameters (12 hours) Optical techniques for solar parameters; radio techniques for solar parameters; X-ray techniques for solar parameters; techniques for magnetic measurements 3.2 Astronomy and astrophysics (60 hours) 3.2.1 Introduction to astronomy and astrophysics (18 hours) Basic parameters in astronomical observations (magnitude scale, coordinate systems), stellar classification, Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, Saha equation, Jean’s criteria for stellar formation, stellar evolution, galaxy classification, cosmology 3.2.2 Astronomical instruments and observation techniques (12 hours) Telescopes: f/# (a telescope of focal ratio f/# has an aperture equal to one #th of its focal length), plate scale, types of telescopes, seeing conditions, diffraction limited resolution; photometers: spectrometers (interferometers, gratings), imaging detectors (microchannel plate (MPC), charged couple device (CCD) and IR arrays), high angular resolution techniques (speckle, lunar occultation, adaptive optics) 3.2.3 Optical and near IR studies of stars and galaxies (12 hours) Spectral energy distribution (in optical and IR bands) in stars, rotation of stars, study of binary stars, gaseous nebulae, extinction curve of interstellar matter, dust, rotation curves of galaxies, spectral energy distribution, colour-colour studies (imaging of galaxies in different bands) 3.2.4 High-energy astronomy (6 hours) Atmospheric transmission, detection techniques for X-rays and gamma rays, X-ray telescopes, imaging and spectroscopy, radiation processes, accretion disks in black holes and X-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei 3.2.5 Radio astronomy (12 hours) Radio telescopes, aperture synthesis, interplanetary scintillation (IPS) techniques, very long base interferometry (VLBI), pulsars, radio galaxies, distribution of HI gas in galaxies, radiation mechanisms 3.3 Spacecraft design, construction and launch (details to be determined) A/AC.105/L.240 13 2. (...) The detailed course content of the theoretical portion of the course was as follows: Module 1: Atmosphere Structure and composition, hydrostatic equilibrium, scale heights, thermo- dynamics, solar radiation and its transfer through atmosphere, aerosols and radiation Atmospheric electricity, global electric circuit Atmospheric dynamics, large-scale motions, tides, gravity waves, and turbulence Ozone, trace gases and chemistry, methods of measurements, ozone depletion; concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases, global warming, long-term changes in atmosphere due to anthropogenic changes Module 2: Ionosphere and solar terrestrial interaction Basic plasma physics The sun, solar radiation, solar activity, solar wind, geomagnetism, magnetosphere Photoabsorption and photoionization, formation of ionospheric layers, magneto-ionic theory, radio propagation in ionosphere, radio sounding, maximum usable frequency (MUF) and high frequency (HF) radio link calculations, features of ionosphere at low latitudes, equatorial electrojet, equatorial sporadic-E and equatorial spread-F A/AC.105/L.240 20 Solar flares, geomagnetic storm and effects in the ionosphere, magnetosphere- ionosphere coupling Radio propagation through ionosphere, Faraday rotation, differential phase and group delay measurements, ionospheric tomography, radiowave scintillations Radiowave scattering processes, coherent and incoherent backscatter radars Probe theory, probe characteristics, in-situ measurements, airglow emissions, principles of optical measurements, optical aeronomy High-energy astronomy, X-ray astronomy, X-ray sources, detection techniques; gamma-ray astronomy, sources, telescope and detectors in space, ground-based Cerenkov telescopes and very high energy gamma-ray astronomy; engineering trends and recent advances in detection techniques Space biology Module 3: Instrumentation techniques and data processing Radio sounding: ionosondes, HF Doppler technique, spaced receiver technique Radio beacon methods for electron content, tomography and scintillation studies Radars for atmospheric and ionospheric studies, coherent backscatter radar, incoherent backscatter radar, meteor radar and mesosphere/stratosphere/troposphere (MST) radar In-situ probes and artificial modification experiments, Langmuir probe, double probe, retarding potential analyser (RPA), magnetometer, mass spectrometer, and chemical release experiments; balloon-borne conductivity, ion density and electric field probes for stratosphere Optical aeronomy experiments, photometers, spectrometers, imaging camera for day and night airglow emissions Lidar techniques, principle and application, aerosol lidar, Rayleigh lidar, Doppler lidars and differential-absorption lidars (DIALs) Instrumentation for atmospheric chemistry and aerosol studies, Dobson absorption spectroscopy, cryosampler, gas chromatography, sun photometer, aerosol sampler, remote sensing techniques Techniques for laboratory measurements, instrumentation for laboratory experiments on photoabsorption and photoionization Instrumentation for astronomical observations, telescopes, polarimetry, high resolution and spectrophotometry and spectroscopy, array detectors Module 4: Modelling Ocean-atmosphere and land-atmosphere interaction, past climate studies Tropospheric and stratospheric ozone chemistry, aerosol-solar radiation interaction Continuity equation, ionospheric models, numerical simulation studies, ionospheric scintillations, planetary atmospheres A/AC.105/L.240 21 3.
Idioma:Español
Puntuación: 1147591.2 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...?open&DS=A/AC.105/L.240&Lang=S
Fuente de datos: ods
NAIROBI WORK PROGRAMME ON IMPACTS, VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE : DRAFT CONCLUSIONS / PROPOSED BY THE CHAIR
Capacity-building is needed to understand the context and limitations of climate model outputs given the variety of assumptions on which models are based. (...) Efforts to quantify and reduce uncertainty within and across models should be continued in order to increase the accuracy of future projections and the representation and communication of uncertainties should be improved to ensure credibility of model outputs and climate data. (...) Needs identified regarding understanding impacts and vulnerabilities include reducing uncertainty in the sensitivity of the climate system, enhancing the connections between General Circulation Models and regional models to improve the performance of regional climate change models, and enhancing the validation of climate models with observations of essential climate variables. 26.
Idioma:Español
Puntuación: 1127976.6 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...DS=FCCC/SBSTA/2008/L.22&Lang=S
Fuente de datos: ods
FCCC/SBSTA/200
The physical science research revolves around fundamental understanding of the basic processes that cause climate variability, and developing models and techniques to represent these processes. These models of the climate systems, which are now tending towards models that aim to represent the whole earth system, can then be used to generate projections of climate under different scenarios of greenhouse gas forcing. The output of one or more models can then be compared and used for a variety of studies including assessments of vulnerability and adaptive capacity.
Idioma:Español
Puntuación: 1111355.3 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...FCCC/SBSTA/2007/MISC.23&Lang=S
Fuente de datos: ods
12 April 200
While climate change models for use at the regional level have been developed, these regional models require further improvements. (...) - 5 - - Develop and further improve climate change models that can be run with limited informational, technological and human capacity; and design of dissemination strategies for these models, including capacity-building measures (...) - Identify obstacles for the application and dissemination of such models in the LDC context and suggest ways to overcome the obstacles
Idioma:Español
Puntuación: 1090926.3 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...=FCCC/SBSTA/2005/MISC.3&Lang=S
Fuente de datos: ods
SUMMARY FOR POLICYMAKERS OF THE METHODOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF SCENARIOS AND MODELS OF BIODIVERSITY AND ECOSYSTEM SERVICES (DELIVERABLE 3 (C))
SUMMARY FOR POLICYMAKERS OF THE METHODOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF SCENARIOS AND MODELS OF BIODIVERSITY AND ECOSYSTEM SERVICES (DELIVERABLE 3 (C))
Idioma:Español
Puntuación: 1062687.8 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...get?open&DS=IPBES/4/L.4&Lang=S
Fuente de datos: ods
* These submission
The SBSTA requested the Secretariat to prepare a background paper on the application of methods and tools, including regional models, for assessing impacts and vulnerability and developing adaptation responses. (...) Workshop Topics (a) Application of methods and tools, including regional models, for assessing impacts and vulnerability and adaptation. (...) These tools should include the application of regional models for assessment of impacts, vulnerability and adaptation requirements.
Idioma:Español
Puntuación: 1054862.5 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...FCCC/SBSTA/2004/MISC.12&Lang=S
Fuente de datos: ods
SUMMARY FOR POLICYMAKERS OF THE METHODOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF SCENARIOS AND MODELS OF BIODIVERSITY AND ECOSYSTEM SERVICES (DELIVERABLE 3 (C))
SUMMARY FOR POLICYMAKERS OF THE METHODOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF SCENARIOS AND MODELS OF BIODIVERSITY AND ECOSYSTEM SERVICES (DELIVERABLE 3 (C))
Idioma:Español
Puntuación: 1054862.5 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...f/get?open&DS=IPBES/4/4&Lang=S
Fuente de datos: ods
SEGUIMIENTO A LA VISITA OFICIAL A MÉXICO :INFORME DEL RELATOR ESPECIAL SOBRE EL DERECHO HUMANO AL AGUA POTABLE Y EL SANEAMIENTO
n0=AC. 11 Programa Federal de Agua Potable y Saneamiento https://www.gob.mx/conagua/acciones-y- programas/proagua. 12 Presupuesto de Egresos de la Federación para el ejercicio fiscal 2017: http://www.diputados.gob.mx/LeyesBiblio/abro/pef_2017/PEF_2017_orig_30nov16.pdf y 2018: https://www.transparenciapresupuestaria.gob.mx/work/models/PTP/Presupuesto/DecretosPEF/Decret o_PEF_2018.pdf. (...) Para los 13 Programa Nacional para Captación de Agua de Lluvia y Ecotecnias en Zonas Rurales https://www.gob.mx/conagua/acciones-y-programas/programa-nacional-para-captacion-de-agua-de- lluvia-y-ecotecnias-en-zonas-rurales-procaptar. 14 Presupuesto de Egresos de la Federación para el ejercicio fiscal 2019: https://sep.gob.mx/work/models/sep1/Resource/15113/1/images/pef_2019.pdf y 2020: http://www.diputados.gob.mx/LeyesBiblio/pdf/PEF_2020_111219.pdf. 15 Presupuesto asignado a la SEMARNAT por unidad administrativa. (...) https://sep.gob.mx/work/models/sep1/Resource/15113/1/images/pef_2019.pdf. 23 PROY-NOM-127-SSA1-2017, Agua para uso y consumo humano: límites permisibles de la calidad del agua. https://www.dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?
Idioma:Español
Puntuación: 1030235.5 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...en&DS=A/HRC/45/10/ADD.1&Lang=S
Fuente de datos: ods
DISCUSSION OF ISSUES RELATED TO INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN TAX MATTERS: TAXATION AND THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS :NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
In the current context, in which multinational enterprises use innovative and complex business models, companies can sell products across borders without maintaining a presence on the ground. (...) In the past, business models involved moving from centralized to more decentralized structures, with business functions and segments being situated in different jurisdictions. However, newer business models that take advantage of advanced technologies allow multinational enterprises to generate income in countries despite having little or no physical presence there.
Idioma:Español
Puntuación: 1025836.4 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...t?open&DS=E/C.18/2022/4&Lang=S
Fuente de datos: ods