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UN anti-narcotics panel calls for better support for youth and marginalized 28 February 2012 Law and Crime Prevention Helping marginalized communities and young people experiencing drug problems must be an international priority, the United Nations body tasked with monitoring the production and consumption of narcotics worldwide said today, urging countries to protect these groups so they can be reintegrated into society. “It is crucial that the needs of communities experiencing social disintegration are urgently tackled before the tipping point is reached, beyond which effective action becomes impossible,” said Hamid Ghodse, President of the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), on the release of the board’s annual report . (...) “Although it will be a challenge to meet the needs of these communities experiencing social disintegration and drug problems, the consequences of failure are too high for society and should be avoided at all costs,” Mr.
Language:English
Score: 628830.76 - https://news.un.org/en/story/2012/02/404952
Data Source: un
Technical assistance and training provided through regional workshops MICS methodology Child Discipline Module • Questions addressed to family relatives/mothers or primary caregivers of one randomly selected child aged 2 to 14 years old • The questionnaire asked whether any member of the household had used any of various disciplinary practices with that child during the past month • 8 violent disciplinary practices: 2 psychological (such as shouting and name calling); 6 physical (such as shaking, spanking and hitting with an implement) • 3 non-violent disciplinary practices (such as taking away privileges and explaining why something is wrong) • Assesses mother/primary caregivers’ attitude toward physical punishment Child Discipline Module in MICS and DHS surveys • MICS3 (2005-2007) 33 countries • MICS4 (2010-2012) 42 countries (47 surveys) • By including a module on Child Discipline, MICS has become the largest sources of comparable data on child disciplinary practices for the developing world • Same module used in some DHS surveys DHS (2006-2009): 5 countries (Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Egypt, Liberia) MICS4 countries with data on child discipline 4 6 7 9 3 9 4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Eastern and Southern Africa Middle East and North Africa CEE/CIS Latin America and the Caribbean South Asia West and Central Africa East Asia and the Pacific Number of MICS4 countries with data on child discipline, by UNICEF region Results 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Bosnia and Herzegovina Kyrgyzstan Kazakhstan Montenegro Georgia Serbia Dominican Republic Armenia Ukraine Belize Fiji Solomon Islands Djibouti The former Yugoslav Republic of… Lao People's Democratic Republic Albania Azerbaijan Guyana Trinidad and Tobago Tajikistan Vanuatu Kiribati Mongolia Guinea-Bissau Sierra Leone Burkina Faso Belarus Chad Iraq Suriname Algeria Syrian Arab Republic Jamaica Swaziland Ghana Gambia Morocco Côte d'Ivoire Democratic Republic of the Congo Central African Republic Egypt Cameroon Togo Viet Nam Liberia Occupied Palestinian Territory Yemen Violent discipline is widespread in most countries Percentage of children aged 2–14 who have experienced violent discipline in the past month, 2005–2010 Non-violent methods used with almost all children 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Kazakhstan Georgia Lao Burkina Faso Cameroon Djibouti Guyana Ghana Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Trinidad and Tobago Jamaica Macedonia Syria Gambia Algeria Central African Republic Togo Serbia Cote d'Ivoire Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Belize Montenegro Azerbaijan Guinea-Bissau Sierra Leone Belarus Yemen Iraq Suriname Ukraine Vietnam Percentage of children aged 2–14 who have experienced any non-violent discipline in the past month, 2005–2010 Any non-violent Non-violent methods are the most common form of discipline 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Georgia Kazakhstan Lao Burkina Faso Cameroon Djibouti Guyana Ghana Jamaica Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Trinidad and Tobago Algeria Central African Republic Gambia Macedonia Serbia Syria Togo Cote d'Ivoire Albania Azerbaijan Belize Bosnia and Herzegovina Guinea-Bissau Montenegro Sierra Leone Belarus Yemen Iraq Suriname Ukraine Vietnam Percentage of children aged 2–14 who have experienced any violent and any non-violent discipline in the past month, 2005–2006 Any violent Any non-violent Most households use both non-violent and violent disciplinary practices 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Yemen Cameroon Sierra Leone Burkina Faso Vietnam Cote d'Ivoire Ghana Algeria Syria Central African Republic Togo Jamaica Gambia Suriname Iraq Belarus Guyana Guinea-Bissau Djibouti Tajikistan Trinidad & Tobago Georgia Lao Serbia Azerbaijan Macedonia Belize Ukraine Kazakhstan Montenegro Kyrgyzstan Albania Bosnia & Herzegovina Percentage of children aged 2–14 who have experienced only non-violent discipline and both non- violent and violent discipline in the past month, 2005–2006 Only Nonviolent Any NonviolentNon-violent discipline combined with violent discipline Non-violent discipline only Shouting/yelling is the most common form of violent discipline Violent disciplinary practice Estimate Shook him/her 35 Shouted, yelled at or screamed at him/her 73 Spanked, hit or slapped him/her with bare hand 27 Hit him/her on the bottom or elsewhere on the body with something like a belt, hairbrush, stick or other hard object 4 Called him/her dumb, lazy or another name like that 22 Hit or slapped him/her on the face, head or ears 16 Hit or slapped him/her on the hand, arm or legs 20 Beat him/her up with an implement (hit over and over as hard as one could) 4 Table 7. Percentage of children aged 2–14 who experienced specific forms of violent discipline in the past month, 2005–2006 Psychological aggression and physical punishment go hand in hand 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Yemen Cameroon Sierra Leone Burkina Faso Viet Nam Côte d'Ivoire Ghana Algeria Syrian Arab Republic Central African Republic Togo Jamaica Gambia Suriname Iraq Belarus Guyana Guinea-Bissau Djibouti Tajikistan Trinidad and Tobago Georgia Lao People's Democratic Republic Serbia Azerbaijan The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Belize Ukraine Kazakhstan Montenegro Kyrgyzstan Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Only non-violent discipline Psychological aggression without physical punishment Physical punishment without psychological aggression Both psychological aggression and physical punishment No form of discipline listed in Child Discipline Module Risk and Protective Factors All children, regardless of their personal characteristics and family background, are at risk of violent discipline FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS Family wealth Family & primary caregiver’s education Number of household members Place of residence (urban/ rural) Living arrangement (child living with mother only, father only, both, neither) Caregiver age (under 30/ 30-39/ 40+) Marital status CHILD CHARACTERISTICS Child sex Child age Engagement in child labour CAREGIVER BEHAVIORS Non-adult care Children’s & non-children’s books Educational & play activities Risk and Protective Factors: Child characteristics Child sex • In about half of the countries surveyed (17 out of 33), there is no difference in the prevalence of violent discipline between boys and girls • In the remaining 16 countries, boys are more likely to be subject to violent disciplinary practices, but differences remain small N = 16 Males Females Weighted average 78 72 Risk and Protective Factors: Family characteristics Family Wealth N = 12 Poorest 60% Wealthiest 40% Weighted average 77 70 Definition: • Wealthiest 40 percent and poorest 60 percent • Relative not absolute wealth is measured In more than half of the countries with available data (17 out of 30), there is no difference in the prevalence of violent discipline between poorest and wealthiest children In the rest of countries (12 out of the 30), children from the poorest 60 percent of households are more likely to receive a violent discipline, but overall differences remain small Attitudes toward physical punishment The large majority of mothers/primary caregivers do not think that physical punishment is necessary 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Syria Sierra Leone Vietnam Yemen Cameroon Ghana Cote d'Ivoire Burkina Faso Jamaica Djibouti Gambia Togo Belize Guinea-Bissau Trinidad & Tobago Iraq Guyana Central African Republic Azerbaijan Lao Tajikistan Suriname Ukraine Algeria Belarus Georgia Macedonia Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Serbia Bosnia & Herzegovina Albania Montenegro Percentage of mothers or primary caregivers who do not think that physical punishment is necessary, by country, 2005-2006 When a mother thinks that physical punishment is necessary, her children are significantly more at risk of violent discipline 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Kazakhstan*** Lao*** Bosnia & Herzegovina*** Azerbaijan*** Kyrgyzstan*** Trinidad & Tobago*** Albania*** Burkina Faso*** Ukraine*** Vietnam*** Ghana*** Suriname*** Belarus*** Guyana*** Belize*** Gambia*** Djibouti*** Sierra Leone*** Tajikistan*** Togo*** Serbia*** Montenegro*** Jamaica*** Central African Republic*** Iraq*** Cote d'Ivoire*** Cameroon*** Georgia*** Guinea-Bissau*** Yemen*** Algeria*** Syria*** Percentage of children aged 2–14 who experienced physical punishment in the past month according to the mother’s or primary caregiver’s belief in the need for physical punishment, by country, 2005–2006 No YesMother/caregiver does not think that physical punishment is necessary Mother/caregiver thinks that physical punishment is necessary Implications • Violent disciplinary practices are widespread • When the mother thinks that physical punishment is necessary, her children are significantly more at risk of violent discipline • This means that changing attitudes is important • However, the findings also suggest that among children whose mothers do not think physical punishment is necessary, a large proportion are still experiencing it • This suggests that changing attitudes may not always be sufficient to prevent physical punishment, as many children of mothers/caregivers who do not think it is necessary are still subject to it Thank you ccappa@unicef.org
Language:English
Score: 628573.44 - https://violenceagainstchildre...iplinary_practices_at_home.pdf
Data Source: un
Some 35 per cent of girls and 17 per cent of boys have experienced sexual violence, 59 per cent of girls and 68 per cent of boys experienced physical violence during their childhoods (2015 Violence Against Children survey). This persists into adulthood as 56 per cent of ever married women and 44 per cent of ever married men have experienced physical, sexual or emotional violence by their spouse or partner. 
Language:English
Score: 627372.27 - https://www.unicef.org/uganda/every-child-protection
Data Source: un
UNICEF/UN049427/PANJETA/UNICEF BiH Available in: English русский A region that has transformed itself Europe and Central Asia has experienced tremendous change since the collapse of the Soviet Union three decades ago.  (...) Inequalities are deepening in many places the most vulnerable citizens - including children - too often find themselves excluded from the progress experienced by others.    Disadvantaged and excluded children can be found in every part of the region, and these children are the focus of UNICEF’s work across Europe and Central Asia. (...) The most disadvantaged children are too often denied the care and protection experienced by their peers. National systems, such as education, health, child protection and social welfare systems could, and should, meet the needs of every child – including the most vulnerable. 
Language:English
Score: 627372.27 - https://www.unicef.org/eca/sit...ildren-europe-and-central-asia
Data Source: un
Violence Against Children Surveys (VACS)  completed in 11 countries show high levels of violence exposure amongst this cohort, including 45 per cent of girls and 54 per cent of boys experiencing physical violence and 23 per cent of girls and 10 per cent of boys experiencing sexual and emotional violence. Experiencing or witness violence can lead to psychosocial factors that are associated with increased risk of non-adherence.
Language:English
Score: 627372.27 - https://www.unicef.org/esa/doc...amongst-adolescents-living-hiv
Data Source: un
The report outlines that there has been little decline in the incidence of harassment in the last two decades and that 48% of respondents indicated they had experienced intimidation, abuse or sexual harassment in the workplace. (...) In 2018/19, the eSafety Commissioner reported that assistance was provided to 950 adult complainants experiencing cyber abuse. This was double the number that were assisted over the previous year. (...) Australia provides a national online and telephone counselling and support service, 1800RESPECT, for people who have experienced, or are at risk of experiencing, sexual assault and/or domestic and family violence, their family and friends, and frontline and isolated workers.
Language:English
Score: 627287.55 - https://www.ohchr.org/sites/de...lists/Government/australia.pdf
Data Source: un
Sexual violence against girls and boys: Worldwide, around 15 million adolescent girls aged 15 to 19 have experienced forced sexual intercourse or other forced sexual acts in their lifetime. Only 1 per cent of adolescent girls who had experienced sexual violence said they reached out for professional help. In the 28 countries with data, 90 per cent of adolescent girls who had experienced forced sex, on average, said the perpetrator of the first incident was known to them.
Language:English
Score: 626723.1 - https://www.unicef.org/turkiye/en/node/1916
Data Source: un
Sexual violence against girls and boys: Worldwide, around 15 million adolescent girls aged 15 to 19 have experienced forced sexual intercourse or other forced sexual acts in their lifetime. Only 1 per cent of adolescent girls who had experienced sexual violence said they reached out for professional help. In the 28 countries with data, 90 per cent of adolescent girls who had experienced forced sex, on average, said the perpetrator of the first incident was known to them.
Language:English
Score: 626723.1 - https://www.unicef.org/eca/pre...lk-millions-children-worldwide
Data Source: un
One can perform simple, rough estimates of spectrum needs based on key Technical Performance Requirements (TPRs) (e.g., peak data rate, user experienced data rate and area traffic capacity), or one can perform detailed calculations involving aspects such as link budget and system-level simulations. (...) Considering a user experienced data rate of 100 Mbits/s for the case of outdoor urban and spectral efficiency = 0.15 bits/s/Hz, B (in GHz) could be calculated as follows: TABLE A.2-1B Amount of spectrum required to support a user/device experienced data rate of 100 Mbits/s (Outdoor - urban) Number of simultaneously served users/devices in a cell N = 1 N = 2 N = 4 Amount of spectrum required B (GHz) 0.67 1.32 2.64 Example 2 – Based on cell-edge user spectral efficiency (obtained from 3GPP technical specifications) and data rate targets (from Recommendation ITU-R M.2083) in two given test environments This example uses the same equation as in Example 1, i.e. (...) Spectrum needs = User experienced data rate / 5th percentile user spectral efficiency Input parameter: – User experienced data rate (bits/s) – 5th percentile user spectral efficiency (bits/s/Hz) K2: Area traffic capacity Following equation can be used for the IMT spectrum needs estimate with area traffic capacity of IMT-2020.
Language:English
Score: 626607.9 - https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-R/s...ocuments/5D_TEMP_249(Rev1).pdf
Data Source: un
One study by the United States National Institute of Justice found that 84.3% of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN)1 women have experienced some type of violence over the course of their lives.2 The US federal government does not consistently collect data on violence against AI/AN women and the services available to survivors, and the limited data that does exist—as well as most US law and policy focused on Indigenous people in the United States—largely excludes Indigenous peoples of Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, America Samoa, and the Mariana Islands. (...) See South Dakota Department of Health, Sexual Violence in South Dakota 2019 Data Report, March 2021, available at https://doh.sd.gov/documents/Prevention/2019_SD_SexualViolenceReport.pdf http://www.amnestyusa.org/ https://www.ojp.gov/pdffiles1/nij/249736.pdf https://www.ojp.gov/pdffiles1/nij/249736.pdf https://www.mcdowellgroup.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/sexual-violence-data.pdf. https://live.laborstats.alaska.gov/pop/estimates/pub/17popover.pdf https://doh.sd.gov/documents/Prevention/2019_SD_SexualViolenceReport.pdf Amnesty International USA www.amnestyusa.org providers meant to protect AI/AN women from sexual violence, the under resourcing of Indigenous health services, and the complex jurisdictional maze that face AI/AN survivors of sexual violence.6 AI/AN women also face disproportionately high rates of domestic violence. 55.5% of AI/AN women have experienced physical violence by an intimate partner in their lifetime; 66.4% have experienced psychological aggression by an intimate partner.7 MISSING AND MURDERED INDIGENOUS WOMEN AND GIRLS (MMIWG) On some reservations, AI/AN women are murdered at more than ten times the national average;8 murder is the third-leading cause of death among AI/AN women and girls between the ages of 10 and 24.9 In 2017, the U.S. (...) Among the AI/AN women who have experienced sexual violence in their lifetime, 96 percent have experienced sexual violence by at least one non- Indigenous perpetrator.22 Separately, 21 percent of AI/AN women who have experienced sexual violence have experienced it at least once by an intraracial perpetrator, reflecting that some AI/AN women who have been experienced sexual violence have been assaulted by several perpetrators during their lifetime.
Language:English
Score: 626291.1 - https://www.ohchr.org/sites/de...ault/files/2022-03/Amnesty.pdf
Data Source: un