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Operator exposure is derived by using the unit exposure method specific to a scenario. (...) Exposure assessment may be based on measured user exposure or estimated using surrogate data and data models. (...) The EU policy is to use of health-based exposure limits. Other regulators use a margin of exposure approach.
Language:English
Score: 775861.8 - https://www.fao.org/pesticide-...h-risks/occupational-risks/es/
Data Source: un
Operator exposure is derived by using the unit exposure method specific to a scenario. (...) Exposure assessment may be based on measured user exposure or estimated using surrogate data and data models. (...) The EU policy is to use of health-based exposure limits. Other regulators use a margin of exposure approach.
Language:English
Score: 775861.8 - https://www.fao.org/pesticide-...h-risks/occupational-risks/zh/
Data Source: un
Operator exposure is derived by using the unit exposure method specific to a scenario. (...) Exposure assessment may be based on measured user exposure or estimated using surrogate data and data models. (...) The EU policy is to use of health-based exposure limits. Other regulators use a margin of exposure approach.
Language:English
Score: 775861.8 - https://www.fao.org/pesticide-...h-risks/occupational-risks/fr/
Data Source: un
Chemicals and Children’s Health The Early and Delayed Consequences of Early Exposures Chemicals and Children’s Health The Early and Delayed Consequences of Early Exposures Philip J. (...) Policy informed by scientific evidence can reduce exposure, improve health, and reduce costs. 1. Fetuses, infants and children are exquisitely sensitive to environmental exposure. a) Vulnerability is greatest in the fetal period. 2. (...) Policy informed by scientific evidence can reduce exposure, improve health, and reduce costs. Fetuses, infants and children are uniquely vulnerable to environmental exposure.
Language:English
Score: 770975.83 - https://www.who.int/ifcs/documents/forums/forum5/forman.pdf
Data Source: un
Human exposure to electromagnetic fields I n t e r n a t i o n a l T e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n U n i o n ITU-T05.2013 tsbpromo@ itu .in t Key EMF Recommendations Recommendation ITU-T K.70 “Mitigation techniques to limit human exposure to EMFs in the vicinity of radiocommunication stations” Defines techniques which may be used by telecommunication operators to evaluate the cumulative (total) exposure ratio in the vicinity of transmitting antennas and to identify the main source of radiation. It offers guidance on mitigation methods which allow reduction of radiation level in order to comply with exposure limits. It also provides guidance on procedures necessary in the environment (on site) in which there is a simultaneous exposure to multiple frequencies from many different sources. (...) Recommendation ITU-T K.91 “Guidance for assessment, evaluation and monitoring of human exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields” Guidance on how to assess and monitor human exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the areas with surrounding radiocommunication installations, based on existing exposure and compliance standards in the frequency range of 9 kHz to 300 GHz.
Language:English
Score: 766602.3 - https://www.itu.int/dms_pub/it.../0b/04/T0B040000512C01PDFE.pdf
Data Source: un
The drawback of the deterministic approach is that it does not incorporate information about the variability of real exposures, nor is the uncertainty in the exposure estimate assessed or communicated. (...) Hazard assessment comprises hazard iden- tification and hazard characterization, i.e. identification of the possible toxic effects of a substance, the dose/exposure levels at which those effects occur, and the dose/exposure levels below which no adverse effects are observed. • Exposure assessment. (...) In the risk characterization step, esti- mates of exposure are compared with acceptable exposure lev- els previously established in hazard assessment in all relevant exposure situations and subpopulations.
Language:English
Score: 763857.57 - https://www.icao.int/safety/CA.../Pages/Zika/WHO-IPCSehc243.pdf
Data Source: un
IFCS Recommendation: Take actions to prevent and reduce exposure Legislation and regulations …aimed at reducing & preventing children's harmful exposures to chemicals Many countries have already implemented such laws and regulations .. (...) Data collection & research IFCS Recommendation: Take actions to prevent and reduce exposure Indicators of children’s environmental health • Bridge the gap between information about environmental quality and information about health status •Guide policy and actions •Begin by defining priorities & collecting data on basic indicators •Maximize the use of existing data IFCS Recommendation: Take actions to prevent and reduce exposure Indicators of children’s environmental health Over the long term, both basic and more subtle indicators can assist in: • Identifying potential sources of childhood chemical exposures of concern; • Identifying health and developmental outcomes that may be related to children’s exposures; • Tracking trends in exposures and health outcomes; and • Measuring progress in preventing exposures and reducing illness. (...) Children and chemical safety:framework for action to protect children from harmful exposures Harmful exposures to chemicals in the environment Three pillars of sustainable development are: society, economy and environmentThe "heart" of sustainable development are th Chemical risks to children's health can be reduced through …..
Language:English
Score: 762057.5 - https://www.who.int/ifcs/documents/champions/inches.pdf
Data Source: un
Using an appropriate exposure scenario, exposure of operators to a pesticide is being estimated by a model and the outcome is compared with Tolerable Systemic Dose (TSD) (The TSD is equivalent the Acceptable Operator Exposure Level used in agricultural operator risk assessment) An exposure scenario is a description of the situation where the operator is exposed to the pesticide. (...) The following risk assessment models are available: •  Indoor and outdoor space spraying  (exposure if mixing, loading and spraying the insecticide, and cleaning/maintenance of the spray equipment) •  Indoor residual spraying  (exposure if mixing, loading and spraying the insecticide, and cleaning/maintenance of the spray equipment) •  Laviciding   (exposure if mixing, loading and spraying the insecticide, and cleaning/maintenance of the spray equipment) •  Insecticide treated nets  (exposure if treating nets with insecticides or professional net dipping) •  Aircraft disinsection  (cabin crew exposure during spraying, and ground personnel exposure in sprayed aircraft) Data required The following data are generally used for an operator risk assessment using a WHOPES exposure model: Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) and (if relevant) Acute Reference Dose (ARfD) If no ADI and/or ARfD are available: the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOEAL) For insecticide treated nets: fraction of pesticide released in a wash; target concentration of the insecticide in the net; actual size of the net; concentration of insecticide in the dipping solution. (...) Establish or calculate the Tolerable Systemic Dose (TSD), and if relevant the Acute Tolerable Systemic Dose (TSDac) Calculate the exposure levels through all relevant exposure routes Calculate the total exposure Calculate risk ratios (total exposure/TSD) This  Assessment Summary Table  can be used to summarize the data.
Language:English
Score: 761848.5 - https://www.fao.org/pesticide-...ds/method-detail/fr/c/1187107/
Data Source: un
Using an appropriate exposure scenario, exposure of operators to a pesticide is being estimated by a model and the outcome is compared with Tolerable Systemic Dose (TSD) (The TSD is equivalent the Acceptable Operator Exposure Level used in agricultural operator risk assessment) An exposure scenario is a description of the situation where the operator is exposed to the pesticide. (...) The following risk assessment models are available: •  Indoor and outdoor space spraying  (exposure if mixing, loading and spraying the insecticide, and cleaning/maintenance of the spray equipment) •  Indoor residual spraying  (exposure if mixing, loading and spraying the insecticide, and cleaning/maintenance of the spray equipment) •  Laviciding   (exposure if mixing, loading and spraying the insecticide, and cleaning/maintenance of the spray equipment) •  Insecticide treated nets  (exposure if treating nets with insecticides or professional net dipping) •  Aircraft disinsection  (cabin crew exposure during spraying, and ground personnel exposure in sprayed aircraft) Data required The following data are generally used for an operator risk assessment using a WHOPES exposure model: Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) and (if relevant) Acute Reference Dose (ARfD) If no ADI and/or ARfD are available: the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOEAL) For insecticide treated nets: fraction of pesticide released in a wash; target concentration of the insecticide in the net; actual size of the net; concentration of insecticide in the dipping solution. (...) Establish or calculate the Tolerable Systemic Dose (TSD), and if relevant the Acute Tolerable Systemic Dose (TSDac) Calculate the exposure levels through all relevant exposure routes Calculate the total exposure Calculate risk ratios (total exposure/TSD) This  Assessment Summary Table  can be used to summarize the data.
Language:English
Score: 761848.5 - https://www.fao.org/pesticide-...ds/method-detail/es/c/1187107/
Data Source: un
This results in relatively homogenous whole-body exposure. MPBS exposure can occur continuously but the levels are considerably lower than the local maximum levels that occur when someone uses a mobile phone handset. 9 A recent study that measured personal exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in a Swiss population sample demonstrated that the average exposure contribution from MPBSs is relevant for cumulative long-term whole-body exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. (...) Exposure levels varied between 0.9 and 10 volts per metre (V/m). (...) The corresponding bias probably diluted any exposure–response association, if one existed. None of the studies applied long-term exposure measurements.
Language:English
Score: 761608.8 - https://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/88/12/09-071852/en/
Data Source: un