WRITTEN SUBMISSION BY THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND: EQUALITY AND HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION (EHRC) - NOTE BY THE SECRETARIAT
This was encouraged to
“streamline benefit applications by allowing low risk applicants for housing benefit and
1 Taskforce on Innovation, Growth and Regulatory Reform (2021), Independent Report.
2 Equality and Human Rights Commission and Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission (2021),
Report of the EHRC and the NIHRC following the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Privacy’s
visit to the UK in June 2018.
3 Court of Appeal (2020), R (Bridges) –v- CC South Wales & ors.
5 Information Commissioner’s Office (2019), Information Commissioner’s Opinion: The use of live
facial recognition technology by law enforcement in public places.
6 Information Commissioner’s Office (2021), Information Commissioner’s Opinion: The use of live
facial recognition technology i n public places.
7 National Audit Office (2018), Rolling out Universal Credit.
8 Big Brother Watch (2021), Poverty Panopticon.
(...) This experiment found that “almost all Facebook users shown adverts for
mechanics were men, while ads for nursery nurses were seen almost exclusively by
women.”23 Schona Jolly QC assessed the experience and stated: “Facebook’s system itself
may, and does appear to, lead to discriminatory outcomes”.24
Automated facial recognition in the gig economy
There is increasing concern that facial recognition software may be placing people from
ethnic minority groups at a disadvantage in the gig economy. (...) Drivers from ethnic minority backgrounds
have failed the facial recognition check, and been unable to work as a result.
WRITTEN SUBMISSION BY THE STATE OF THE UNITED KINGDOM: EQUALITY AND HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION (EHRC) AND THE NORTHERN IRELAND HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION (NIHRC) - NOTE BY THE SECRETARIAT
Policing, data retention, and facial recognition technology
Following EHRC’s submission to the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Privacy, the
ECtHR has ruled on Catt v the United Kingdom. 19 The ECtHR found that the UK
Government violated the right to privacy (Article 8 ECHR) of the applicant and while there
was a pressing need to collect the personal data about the applicant, there was no pressing
need to retain it. (...) The use of automated facial recognition in policing, and its impact on privacy rights, has
become an increasing concern in recent years. In August 2020, the Court of Appeal found
that there were ‘fundamental deficiencies’ in the legal framework governing the use of
automated facial recognition, and that its use was in breach of the right to privacy (Article 8
ECHR), the Data Protection Act 2018 and the Public Sector Equality Duty. 20 The
Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) has previously stated21 that data protection law
sets high standards in relation to the use of Live Facial Recognition (LFR) in a law
enforcement context and when used in public places.
VISIT TO ARGENTINA :REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE RIGHT TO PRIVACY, JOSEPH A. CANNATACI
GE.21-01029 (C) 080221 150221
2021年 2月 22日至 3月 19日
VISIT TO GERMANY :REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE RIGHT TO PRIVACY, JOSEPH A. CANNATACI
The camera systems do not have facial recognition technology on board and
for the near future that is not on the Police’s agenda. (...) (iv) As an indication of the precautionary approach to facial recognition in
Germany, it was pleasing to be told by the Cologne Police that there are no plans to connect
its CCTV system to live facial recognition systems due to the privacy implications. The
Rapporteur was advised that future plans might include the use of facial recognition to allow
monitoring of the movements of people in the surveyed area but not their individual
(b) Pioneering facial recognition test areas at Berlin Südkreuz Station
(i) The Federal Ministry of the Interior advised that it recently tested facial
recognition technologies, using cameras of the German railway system.
ROADMAP ON DIGITAL COOPERATION - IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE INDEPENDENT HIGH-LEVEL PANEL ON DIGITAL COOPERATION: REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL
36 Kristine Hamman 和 Rachel Smith,“Facial recognition technology: where will it take
us?”,Criminal Justice, vol. 34, No. 1 (Spring, 2019)，第 10 页；Monique Mann 和 Marcus
Smith,“Automated facial recognition technology: recent developments and approaches to
oversight”,University of New South Wales Law Journal, vol. 40, No. 1(2017)。
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE PROMOTION OF TRUTH, JUSTICE, REPARATION AND GUARANTEES OF NON-RECURRENCE, PABLO DE GREIFF
Examples include the lowering of the retirement age from 70 to 65,
reforms in the career and promotion system, and steps to encourage voluntary retirement,
opening up opportunities and powerful incentives to bring about the rejuvenation of the top
25. At the same time as the numbers of armed forces staff were reduced, especially
among the top echelons, and entries to military academies were curtailed, changes were
initiated in military training and education, including curricular alterations, as well as
renovation, rotation and improvements in the conditions of employment of teachers and a
closer integration of military courses with other disciplines and with the regular educational
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS, CHALOKA BEYANI : ADDENDUM
It is one of the strategic programmes
under way to achieve the expected urban development in the city of Colombo, among many
other current rejuvenation projects. The Special Rapporteur welcomes the undertaking by
the Government that, under the programme, no families will be displaced and all families
will be provided with permanent houses, while releasing a large acreage of underutilized
land for productive purposes in accordance with the Colombo Development Master Plan.
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE HUMAN RIGHTS TO SAFE DRINKING WATER AND SANITATION ON HIS MISSION TO INDIA :NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
The Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation includes
interventions relating to sewerage systems, wastewater treatment plants and faecal sludge
management in cities.
ELECTION OF 1 MEMBER OF THE INTERNATIONAL NARCOTICS CONTROL BOARD FROM AMONG CANDIDATES NOMINATED BY GOVERNMENTS :NOTE / BY THE SECRETARY-GENERAL
., A randomised controlled trial comparing the efficacy of low-dose
amitriptyline, amitriptyline with pindolol and placebo in the treatment of chronic tension
type facial pain，《鼻科学》，2013年，第 51期，第 143-153页；Muscat, R. and Pike,
B., Some reflections on the concept of coherency in relation to a policy on psychoactive
substances and beyond，欧洲委员会，2012年；Pierruci, M., Galalti, S., Valentino,
M., Di Matteo.V., Benigno, A., Pitruzella, A., Muscat, R. and Di Giovanni, G., Nitric
oxide modulation of basal ganglia circuitry: Therapeutic implications for Parkinson’s
disease and other motor disorders，《中枢神经系统与神经疾病-药物靶标》，2011年，
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON ADEQUATE HOUSING AS A COMPONENT OF THE RIGHT TO AN ADEQUATE STANDARD OF LIVING, AND ON THE RIGHT TO NON-DISCRIMINATION IN THIS CONTEXT, ON HER MISSION TO INDIA :NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
Since 2014, the Minister of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation has launched
several flagship schemes including Housing for All, Smart City Mission, Atal Mission for
Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation and the Swacch Baharat Mission (Clean India