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The wage rate is normalized to one and firms are price-setters. Each firm produces and sells a unique product ω. (...) There are four types of firms that sell products within the Home country. (...) It can be shown (see the appendix for details) that exporting firms sell higher quality products on average than non-exporting firms when IE is suffi ciently low, and in this sense, exporting firms have higher productivity: Proposition 2 Exporting firms are more productive on average than non-exporting firms QE > QN if I > IE2−δ and 2 > δ.
Language:English
Score: 1350882.5 - https://www.wto.org/english/re...dw_e/wkshop11_e/stepanok_e.pdf
Data Source: un
The respondents included micro firms employing one to nine people, small firms with 10 to 50 employees, medium-sized firms with 51 to 250 employees, and big firms with more than 250 employees. (...) These additional costs are large for large firms and small for small firms. Exports of small firms grow more following tariff liberalization than do those of large firms, because small firms face lower costs than large firms to reach additional consumers; and vice versa, large firms respond less to tariff increases, because for each unit of export reduction they save more than small firms in terms of the costs to reach consumers. (...) These firms are on average smaller than firms exporting to the EU.
Language:English
Score: 1350076.2 - https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/booksp_e/wtr16-4_e.pdf
Data Source: un
Brazil detected several discriminatory elements in the US Patents Code, including, but not limited to, the following examples: the stipulation that no small business firm or non-profit organization which receives title to any subject invention shall grant to any person the exclusive right to use or sell any subject invention in the US unless such person agrees that any products embodying the subject invention or produced through the use of the invention will be manufactured substantially in the US.   Brazil also referred to a requirement that each funding agreement with a small business firm or non-profit organization shall contain appropriate provisions to effectuate the above-mentioned requirement; and   the statutory restrictions limiting the right to use or sell any federally owned invention in the US only to a licensee that agrees that any products embodying the invention or produced through the use of the invention will be manufactured substantially in the US.
Language:English
Score: 1340496.5 - https://www.wto.org/english/tr..._e/dispu_e/cases_e/ds224_e.htm
Data Source: un
Do farms and purchasing firms always benefit from engaging in contract farming? (...) Common contractual problems include farmer sales to a different buyer (side selling or extra-contractual marketing), a company's refusal to buy products at the agreed prices, or the downgrading of produce quality by the company. (...) Products for which there is high local demand may be more susceptible to side selling and thus may be less suitable for contract farming.
Language:English
Score: 1329786.9 - https://www.fao.org/in-action/contract-farming/faq/zh/
Data Source: un
Do farms and purchasing firms always benefit from engaging in contract farming? (...) Common contractual problems include farmer sales to a different buyer (side selling or extra-contractual marketing), a company's refusal to buy products at the agreed prices, or the downgrading of produce quality by the company. (...) Products for which there is high local demand may be more susceptible to side selling and thus may be less suitable for contract farming.
Language:English
Score: 1329786.9 - https://www.fao.org/in-action/contract-farming/faq/ar/
Data Source: un
Do farms and purchasing firms always benefit from engaging in contract farming? (...) Common contractual problems include farmer sales to a different buyer (side selling or extra-contractual marketing), a company's refusal to buy products at the agreed prices, or the downgrading of produce quality by the company. (...) Products for which there is high local demand may be more susceptible to side selling and thus may be less suitable for contract farming.
Language:English
Score: 1329786.9 - https://www.fao.org/in-action/contract-farming/faq/en/
Data Source: un
In our survey, one third of women-led firms aged 0-2—particularly those that sell on online marketplaces—report exporting to at least one new market. • Female executives empower other women to become business leaders. (...) Our findings suggest that firms born in the past two years are more likely than older firms to be headed by women. (...) Once they start to export, they sell to a larger and more diverse set of markets.
Language:English
Score: 1309547.7 - https://www.wto.org/english/tr..._and_cross_border_payments.pdf
Data Source: un
Based on the bids, the K firms with the K lowest bids become the “winners” (to sell their frequencies). (...) In the event that the government procures license i at price i t , firm i ’s profit by selling the license is as follows: (;) iiiii tt pqq =- MACROBUTTON MTPlaceRef \* MERGEFORMAT (1.1) We consider a procurement mechanism conducted by the government. (...) Specifically, only those firms who sell their licenses get positive payments, while those who don’t sell end up with zero payments. (1.8) , then the payments given by Some have argued that such an auction would be extremely costly, referencing the prices of PCS auctions, but this is not the case.
Language:English
Score: 1306725.9 - https://www.itu.int/osg/spu/ni.../presentations/Paper-Ikeda.doc
Data Source: un
In such a scenario, operators might arrangements that lead to interoperability and implement only incremental improvements to greater innovation may boost a single firm to existing, interoperable systems. This would -- or a few firms -- in a manner that is, over foreclose opportunities for radical innovations that time, anticompetitive. (...) HBO, a movie network and content creator, recently Even when more interoperability does lead to began selling its HBO Now service directly to more competition, the net result is not necessarily consumers over the Internet, breaking with its maximum innovation. According to one economic traditional business model of selling only through theory, firms may have the strongest incentive to cable and satellite TV providers.
Language:English
Score: 1302918.6 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page124.html
Data Source: un
The paper finds that in firms that make multiple products, a rise in demand in one industry to which the firm sells also  increases the firm's sales to other industries. (...) Knowledge inputs have a special role in joint production because they allow capital to be more flexibly deployed across the firm's various products to find its best match. These findings have implications for the re-evaluation of trade restrictions as there is found to be a lesser tendency for protectionist policies to raise consumer prices if the measures are focused on knowledge-intensive industries.
Language:English
Score: 1302227.9 - https://www.wto.org/english/ne..._e/news20_e/rese_17sep20_e.htm
Data Source: un