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National policies and programmes should be formulated and implemented in respect of international, legally binding agreements relevant to the human right to adequate food that have been ratified by the country, or to which the country is a party of. (...) Policy implementation principles are explicitly stated in the policy, and point to a clear commitment to respect and protect the human rights of all when implementing the policy. Policy formulation, design and implementation at regional and national levels The process of formulating a policy should conform to governance practices with strong links to human rights principles, as this raises the probability that the policy in actuality will be implemented in ways that contribute to the right to food. (...) In particular, Guidelines 2 (“Economic Development Policies”) and 3 (“Strategies”) are explicit about the obligations of the state to formulate policies and strategies that contribute to the progressive realization of the right to adequate food.
Language:English
Score: 593669.04 - https://www.fao.org/right-to-f...s-of-work/policy-programme/en/
Data Source: un
National policies and programmes should be formulated and implemented in respect of international, legally binding agreements relevant to the human right to adequate food that have been ratified by the country, or to which the country is a party of. (...) Policy implementation principles are explicitly stated in the policy, and point to a clear commitment to respect and protect the human rights of all when implementing the policy. Policy formulation, design and implementation at regional and national levels The process of formulating a policy should conform to governance practices with strong links to human rights principles, as this raises the probability that the policy in actuality will be implemented in ways that contribute to the right to food. (...) In particular, Guidelines 2 (“Economic Development Policies”) and 3 (“Strategies”) are explicit about the obligations of the state to formulate policies and strategies that contribute to the progressive realization of the right to adequate food.
Language:English
Score: 593669.04 - https://www.fao.org/right-to-f...s-of-work/policy-programme/ar/
Data Source: un
National policies and programmes should be formulated and implemented in respect of international, legally binding agreements relevant to the human right to adequate food that have been ratified by the country, or to which the country is a party of. (...) Policy implementation principles are explicitly stated in the policy, and point to a clear commitment to respect and protect the human rights of all when implementing the policy. Policy formulation, design and implementation at regional and national levels The process of formulating a policy should conform to governance practices with strong links to human rights principles, as this raises the probability that the policy in actuality will be implemented in ways that contribute to the right to food. (...) In particular, Guidelines 2 (“Economic Development Policies”) and 3 (“Strategies”) are explicit about the obligations of the state to formulate policies and strategies that contribute to the progressive realization of the right to adequate food.
Language:English
Score: 593669.04 - https://www.fao.org/right-to-f...s-of-work/policy-programme/ru/
Data Source: un
It typically includes: the type of application equipment used, pesticide formulation, application rate, work rate, level of personal protection, etc. (...) For indoor residual spraying: concentration of the a.i.in the formulation and the spray solution; additional data needed if the pesticide is volatile. For space spraying: concentration of the a.i.in the formulation and the spray solution; dermal absorption percentage.
Language:English
Score: 593669.04 - https://www.fao.org/pesticide-...ds/method-detail/zh/c/1187107/
Data Source: un
Correct) diagnoses • Effects of “malnutrition” and low weight likely to capture HIV and non-HIV related mortality CD4%, CD4 count and TLC values corresponding to 12-month risk of death of ~5% (from HIV Paediatric Prognostic Markers Collaborative Study, HPPMCS) Age CD4% CD4 Count TLC <= 1 year 25-35% ~1000-1500 ~3,900-5700 1-3 years 15-25% ~500-800 ~2000-3,900 3-5 years 10-15% ~ 200-350 ~1500-2000 5-10 years 7-10% < 200 ~1000-1500 10+ years <7% < 200 ~1000 Antiretroviral Drugs Obstacles and Issues Issues for dosing of ART in children • Large variability in pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters – age (and PK data by age-group often sparse) – effect of nutritional status, ethnicity • Methods of dose calculation (per m2 or per kg) • Formulations may not be bioequivalent – (liquid versus capsule – eg EFV) • Ability to give with/without food (ddI, NFV) Issues for dosing of antiretroviral drugs in children • PK data by age group are sparse • Few data on the effect of race, nutritional status • Young children require higher doses • unclear when to change to adult doses • dose according to weight or surface area: – somewhat arbitrary – where both available, may not correspond (eg NVP) • Formulations may not be bio-equivalent (eg EFV) Dose by weight or Body Surface Area (BSA) • BSA relates to renal clearance: – drugs cleared by the kidney should be dosed by BSA – PK is not fully explained by variability in BSA – Newborns and premature babies need reduced doses • BSA calculations crude: – require measurement of height and weight – subject to error (many reports in the literature): • Normograms underestimate values in infants • Formulae are complex – calculator required: – Most equations derived from well-nourished Caucasian children • In 1998, the UK Children’s Cancer Group (UKCCSG) produced tables for estimating BSA based on weight alone NNRTI dosing Recommendation Nevirapine 300-400mg/m2 to max 400mg 7mg/kg if <8yr 4mg/kg if >8yr Efaverenz 15mg/kgkg to max 600mg (dose liquid according to weight bands) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 dm gm 2_ 10 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 dmgkg_101 90-110% reccommended <90% or >110% recommended NVP 0 200 400 600 800 1000 D os e (m g/ m 2) 0 5 10 15 20 age 0-1 years 2-12 years 13+ years NVP: DOSE per m2 by AGE 0 10 20 30 40 50 D os e (m g/ kg ) 0 5 10 15 20 age 0-1 years 2-12 years 13+ years NVP: DOSE per ***KG*** by AGE Obstacles for Pharmaceutical Companies • Big Pharma: – Formulation difficulties (especially for PI’s) – ‘no business case’, especially to make several formulations – Extension of patent (FDA); Big stick (being proposed by EU) • Generic Companies: – Also need a business case – Lack of expertise and research ‘know-how’ – Pre-qualification issues • Demand Forecasting Antiretroviral drugs for children in resource-poor settings • Scored tablets versus liquid formulations: – cost – storage and transport problems – shelf-life • Fixed-dose combinations – simplification and compatibility with adult treatment – Many advantages – Need to vary doses of drugs with age and weight eg: Generic (3TC+d4T+NVP) combination tablets in quarters will underdose for NVP if <15kg as well as being difficult to cut accurately ART IN FIXED DOSE COMBINATIONS: Adult Tablet Children Tablets Adult Tablet Children Tablets d4T + 3TC + NVP FORMULATIONS Adult: d4T (30 mg or 40mg), 3TC 150mg, NVP 200 mg) "Junior" (10 - 30 Kg):d4T 12mg, 3TC 60mg, NVP 100 mg Children "Baby" (3 – 10 Kg): d4T 6mg, 3TC 30mg, NVP 50mg FDCs Advantages Disadvantages Efficacy/ Toxicity •Reduced risk of wrong dose (over or under): To prescribe To dispense To take or miss doses by care-giver/child •Less risk of prescribing wrong regimens •More difficult to alter doses: Dose escalation Child growth Toxicity Drug interactions •Less flexibility in regimens •Need to combine drugs with similar half-lives. •Shelf-life determined by least stable tolerability •Low pill/powder burden •Limited formulation choices Simplified treatment •Easier to manage supply, distribution, transportation •? Greater risks of drug sharing tablets by adults Cost / availability •Decrease pharmacy and health professionals time • Should be cheaper to produce •Incentives to produce •Pre-qualification requirements Dosing Tables of ARVs for children • Simple • Based on weight bands • Could be linked to Road to Health Chart Weight Recommended daily dose (min-max) Total daily tablet Schedule D4T 3TC NVP 3-5kg 6-10 24-40 42-70 1 1/2 BD 6 30 50 5-7kg 10-14 40-56 70-98 2 1 BD 12 60 100 8-9kg 16-18 64-72 160- 174 3 1.5 BD* 18 90 150 10-14kg 20-28 80-112 180- 252 2 1 BD 24 120 200 15-19kg 30-36 120-152 240- 320 5 2.5 BD* 30 150 250 20-24kg 40-48 160-192 304- 376 3 1.5 BD* 36 180 300 25-29kg 50-58 200-232 400 4 2 BD 48 240 400 30-39kg 60 300 400 2 1 BID 60 300 400 40-49kg 60 300 400 2 1 BID 60 300 400 Daily dose of Baby Pedimune (d4T 6mg, 3TC 30mg, NVP 50mg) Daily dose of Junior Pedimune (d4t 12mg, 3TC 60mg, NVP 100 mg) Daily dose of Triomune 30 Range D4T 3TC NVP 50-59kg 60 300 400 2 1 BID 60 300 400 Challenges • Appropriate simple ART formulations and combinations relevant to resource–poor settings urgently needed – Industry interest and accelerated PK research • Integration of adult and paediatric treatment and care: FAMILY APPROACH • Applying and Scaling-up what we already know: – Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis – Nutritional support • Training in paediatric and family-based care for HIV • Strengthen links between access to treatment and operational research to answer important questions about natural history and response to ART 5 10 15 D os e (m g/ kg ) 5 10 15 age 0-1 years 2-12 years 13+ years TDF: DOSE per kg by AGE 10 20 30 40 50 D os e (m g/ kg ) 0 5 10 15 20 age 0-1 years 2-12 years 13+ years EFV: DOSE per kg by AGE Obstacles - Pre-Qualification • ‘National and or international regulatory and prequalification procedures may discourage the production of specific paediatric ART formulations’ • WHO requirements – Shelf-life studies – Dissolution studies – Bio-equivalence Studies – PK studies in children Adherence to and tolerability of ARVs • Tolerability of formulations varies with age • Ability to give with/without food (ddI, NFV) • Adherence depends on caregivers 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 dm gm 2_ 10 3 10 20 30 40 50 dmgkg_103 90-110% reccommended <90% or >110% recommended EFV 200 400 600 800 1000 D os e (m g) 0 20 40 60 80 wgt 0-1 years 2-12 years 13+ years EFV: DOSE (mg) by WGT ***BAND*** The Way Forward • HIV-infected children need advocates • Partnerships in care, research and training: – Between adult, paediatric and obstetric services – Between and across countries • Fast-tracking provision of appropriate ARV formulations and fixed dose drug combinations for children – Clinical/industry/research collaborations • Operational research (requires partnerships and networks): – Cohort collaborations – Operational research questions on using ART in children – Psychosocial issues – Linked to capacity strengthening • Linking prevention and treatment/care Weight for age by CD4% 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 B as el in e C D 4 pe rc en t -12 -9 -6 -3 0 3 Baseline weight z-score Single Antiretroviral Drugs for children NRTI NNRTI PI Recommendation Recommendation Recommendation ZDV 360mg/m2 to max 600mg NVP 300-400mg/m2 to max 400mg NFV 110-150mg/kg to max 2500mg 3TC 8mg/kg to max 300mg EFV 15mg/kg to max 600mg LPVr 460/115mg/m2 to max 800/200mg ABC 16mg/kg to max 600mg ddI 180mg/m2 to max 400mg d4T 2mg/kg to max 80mg m 2 = (hgt*wgt/3600)½ Review dose at EVERY clinic visit – 3-monthly Clinical, Psychosocial, Programmatic Obstacles and Issues for Paediatric ARVs Obstacles to HIV Testing in Children Death by time at risk(534 children > 1 year in the CHAP Trial, Lancet in press) Clinical Paediatric WHO Staging Mortality by New WHO stage at baseline(534 children >1 year in the CHAP trial) New WHO Paediatric Staging CD4%, CD4 count and TLC values corresponding to 12-month risk of death of ~5%(from HIV Paediatric Prognostic Markers Collabo Antiretroviral DrugsObstacles and Issues Issues for dosing of ART in children Issues for dosing of antiretroviral drugs in children Dose by weight or Body Surface Area (BSA) Obstacles for Pharmaceutical Companies Antiretroviral drugs for children in resource-poor settings Dosing Tables of ARVs for children Challenges Obstacles - Pre-Qualification Adherence to and tolerability of ARVs The Way Forward Weight for age by CD4% Single Antiretroviral Drugs for children
Language:English
Score: 592092.8 - https://www.who.int/3by5/en/5gibb.pdf
Data Source: un
[4]  Toward a Single ICT Index Recommendations on the Formulation of a Flagship ICT Index for the ITU (draft)   Français   Español     Home : ITU-D : DAP2B.1.3 : Contributions : 4 Recently posted  -  Search Meeting Documents     [4]  Toward a Single ICT Index Recommendations on the Formulation of a Flagship ICT Index for the ITU (draft) Format Size Posted English PDF (acrobat)   530873 bytes 2007-12-12 [4]    Document : ITU-D DAP2B.1.3  Contribution  4 Title : Toward a Single ICT Index Recommendations on the Formulation of a Flagship ICT Index for the ITU (draft) Date : 2007-11-16 Source : STAT, ITU Meeting : 2007-12-13 Access : Public Document Top  -  Feedback  -  Contact Us  -  Copyright © ITU  2008 All Rights Reserved Contact for this page :  Webmaster Updated : 2007-12-12  
Language:English
Score: 591772.07 - https://www.itu.int/md/D06-DAP2B.1.3-C-0004/en
Data Source: un
DSD :: Areas of Work :: NSDS - Technical Cooperation/Capacity Building Skip to main links | Skip to secondary links | Skip to content Links to UN bodies [an error occurred while processing this directive] Links to site map [an error occurred while processing this directive] UN Economic and Social Development Division for Sustainable Development Main Links [an error occurred while processing this directive] Areas of Work > NSDS > Technical Cooperation/Capacity Building Secondary Links NSDS Intergovernmental Decisions Global Map Climate Change & NSDS :: Expert Group Meeting (Nov 07) :: Country Experiences (*PDF) Shared Learning & Review :: Expert Group Meeting (Mar 07) :: French Peer Review Meeting (Feb 05) :: Expert Group Meeting (Oct 05) Technical Cooperation :: Workshop (May 06) :: National Assessment Reports Meetings & Workshops Publications Links Contact Us Technical Cooperation/Capacity Building National Support to the Formulation of National Sustainable Development Strategies in the Pacific: A Regional Approach About Pacific SIDS Project The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation from the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), as well as the Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States , called upon countries to formulate and begin implementation of NSDS by 2005. In response to the inter-governmental decisions and in order to assist countries in achieving their NSDS goals and priorities, UNDESA in 2005 formulated a project “National Support to the Formulation of National Sustainable Development Strategies in the Pacific: a regional approach”, funded by the Government of Italy.
Language:English
Score: 591481.6 - https://www.un.org/esa/dsd/dsd_aofw_nsds/nsds_techcoop.shtml
Data Source: un
Approve the Procedures for the Formulation and Placing of State Orders for the Supply of Production for State Purposes and Review of their Implementation" (in addendum). 2. Assign the functions of formulating government orders and coordinating the activities of state customers of placing state orders to the Ministry of the Economy. 3. (...) I. Formulation of state orders 1. State orders are formulated on the basis of state needs for production, determined by the Programmes of economic and social development for Ukraine. 2.
Language:English
Score: 591046.4 - https://www.wto.org/english/th..._e/ukr_e/WTACCUKR26_LEG_27.pdf
Data Source: un
They will receive, by e-mail, the draft formulation and appraisal reports and will have the opportunity to respond. The appraisal mission, scheduled for July 2002, will begin with delivery of the formulation report and a presentation of the terms of reference to the local preparation committee, which will thus be in a position to take an active part in designing PRODAM-II. (...) Ben Senia; BOAD representative, Mr E.J.Boka (PRODAM cofinancing and supervision); the head of formulation mission, Mr Marc Lebrun, and all the members of the formulation mission; and the IFAD evaluation officer for Senegal, Mr J.
Language:English
Score: 591046.4 - https://www.ifad.org/zh-TW/web...-project-in-matam-prodam-2004-
Data Source: un
Special attention for bridging an EC formulation to other sprayed formulations may therefore be required. All formulations incorporated into the soil (e.g. GR, liquid formulations injected directly into the soil), except seed treatments. All formulations used to treat seeds, including pre-treated seeds.
Language:English
Score: 591046.4 - https://www.fao.org/pesticide-...ds/method-detail/zh/c/1300676/
Data Source: un