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0 School Furniture Innovation Project: Field Trial Results UNICEF Supply Division April 2016 1 School Furniture Innovation Project: Field Trial Results April 2016 1. (...) However, UNICEF did not have a defined management process or any generic school furniture designs and specifications to ensure adequate school furniture procurement standards. (...) The UNICEF CO tendered for the furniture construction and selected two local manufacturers to produce the school furniture in accordance with the designs.
Language:English
Score: 1176974.7 - https://www.unicef.org/supply/...%20field%20trial%20results.pdf
Data Source: un
School furniture is an essential part of the supply component of Education and Child Survival country programmes. The connection between comfortable school furniture and increased learning and development of children in classrooms reveals that high quality child-friendly school furniture is essential for children’s ability to learn. In addition, this project seeks to reduce the carbon footprint caused by importing furniture from overseas, by creating school furniture designs suitable for local production and with the use of locally available materials.
Language:English
Score: 1165596.6 - https://www.unicef.org/innovat...ign-and-procurement-guidelines
Data Source: un
The guidelines, which are intended to support staffs at country office level, cover all aspects of furniture deployment such as sourcing of suppliers, procurement, design of furniture, production, delivery and maintenance. (...) The guidelines will provide several benefits to the countries: Firstly, the project is looking into the possibility of utilizing flat-packed furniture which will allow local artisans or other users to assemble the furniture themselves. Secondly, the flat pack furniture format reduces the damage caused by the distribution and transportation process which has been encountered with ready built furniture.
Language:English
Score: 1160141.1 - https://www.unicef.org/innovat...-school-furniture-field-trials
Data Source: un
Momentarily, there are 2767 companies dealing with wood processing and furniture manufacturing in Serbia, where 2365 companies are in wood processing sector and 402 firms produce furniture. (...) The biggest concentration of small companies is in large towns. The production of furniture in Serbia is characterized by a large number of different furniture categories and types, among which the following are particularly distinguished: home furniture, office furniture and furniture for interior arrangement and decoration. (...) In 2005, furniture export was US $81.8 million. Furniture for sitting (chairs and wooden seats) represents the most significant export product of Serbian furniture industry (graph 6).
Language:English
Score: 1140365.4 - https://unece.org/fileadmin/DA...is/market/market-64/serbia.pdf
Data Source: un
Furthermore, local production of furniture will also help build local capacity of manufacturers and reduce reliance on importing ready made goods. While boasting local economy, local production makes maintenance a lot easier and lengthens the life span of furniture. Facilitate learning and teaching : Studies have shown a direct connection between comfortable school furniture and increased learning and development. (...) For those interested to receive more information on UNICEF’s school furniture procurement guidelines or technical specifications on standardized furniture designs, please contact:  innovateforchildren@unicef.org .  
Language:English
Score: 1139443.7 - https://www.unicef.org/innovat...hool-furniture-guideline-scale
Data Source: un
Graph by Inaamul Haque. 33 Relevance of WTO AgreementsRelevance of WTO Agreements to Furniture to Furniture SegmentSegment * Acquires high intensity relevance in the context of Regional Trading Arrangements and/or where any scheme of preferential tariffs has been adopted * * Dispute Settlement Understanding * * * Subsidies & Countervailing Measures Source: adopted from ITC (2007) The Furniture Sector in Pakistan: Export Performance and Potential - Implications of the WTO Agreements. Graph by Inaamul Haque. 44 Impacts of WTO Agreements (1)Impacts of WTO Agreements (1) Agreement of Technical Barriers on Trade (TBT)Agreement of Technical Barriers on Trade (TBT) assures that assures that regulations, standards, testing and certification procedures incregulations, standards, testing and certification procedures including luding packaging, marking and labeling requirements do not create unnecpackaging, marking and labeling requirements do not create unnecessary essary hurdles to tradehurdles to trade Encourages member countries to use international standardsEncourages member countries to use international standards TBT gives an advantage to industrialized countriesTBT gives an advantage to industrialized countries Sanitary and Sanitary and PhytoPhyto--sanitary (SPS)sanitary (SPS) measures guarantee that the producer measures guarantee that the producer has been capable of rendering the offered commodity without riskhas been capable of rendering the offered commodity without risk to to human, animal or plant life or healthhuman, animal or plant life or health Relevant regulations must be based on science and applied only tRelevant regulations must be based on science and applied only to the o the extent necessary to protect safetyextent necessary to protect safety Considered legitimate but complexity may constitute trade impediConsidered legitimate but complexity may constitute trade impedimentsments 55 Impacts of WTO Agreements (2)Impacts of WTO Agreements (2) Agreement on TradeAgreement on Trade--Related Aspects of Intellectual Related Aspects of Intellectual Property RightsProperty Rights ((TRIPS)TRIPS) is directly relevant for the is directly relevant for the furniture sector in protecting designs and trademarksfurniture sector in protecting designs and trademarks Innovative new furniture designs can be protected Innovative new furniture designs can be protected through registration under the Registered Designs through registration under the Registered Designs Ordinance (2000)Ordinance (2000) The wellThe well--established companies should get their established companies should get their trademarks protectedtrademarks protected The quality of protection for designs & trademarks has The quality of protection for designs & trademarks has significantly improvedsignificantly improved 66 Safety Concerns in Furniture TradeSafety Concerns in Furniture Trade Safety is a very important requirement on furniture, and legislaSafety is a very important requirement on furniture, and legislation is in force at both EU tion is in force at both EU and national level to ensure that no unsafe products are offeredand national level to ensure that no unsafe products are offered for sale to consumersfor sale to consumers Intake of raw materials / properties of finished products / packIntake of raw materials / properties of finished products / packaging / disposalaging / disposal Examples:Examples: formaldehydeformaldehyde in panelsin panels wood preservatives containing arsenicwood preservatives containing arsenic borax (e.g. rubberwood furniture)borax (e.g. rubberwood furniture) pentachlorophenol (PCP), flamepentachlorophenol (PCP), flame--retardants (retardants (pentaBDEpentaBDE and and octaBDEoctaBDE)) coloring agentscoloring agents The exporter (or his representative in Europe) can be held liablThe exporter (or his representative in Europe) can be held liable for compensation on e for compensation on damage caused to person and property by a product that turns outdamage caused to person and property by a product that turns out to be not as safe as to be not as safe as expected (EU Product Liability Directive 85/374/EEC) expected (EU Product Liability Directive 85/374/EEC) But, if arbitrary standards have been imposed to create unnecessBut, if arbitrary standards have been imposed to create unnecessary impediments, a ary impediments, a WTO case can be filedWTO case can be filed for violating TBT/SPS rulesfor violating TBT/SPS rules 77 Quality and StandardizationQuality and Standardization What is product quality? (...) Satisfaction of customerSatisfaction of customer’’s needss needs Suitability to intended endSuitability to intended end--useuse Performance according to product specification and long service Performance according to product specification and long service lifelife Quality products meet the above requirements consistently and coQuality products meet the above requirements consistently and comply with applicable mply with applicable standards and with other norms of the societystandards and with other norms of the society In furniture, quality will denote the differences between customIn furniture, quality will denote the differences between customer groups and price pointser groups and price points Differing costs accrue to meet with the quality specifications: Differing costs accrue to meet with the quality specifications: CONFORMITY TO A CONFORMITY TO A PRESCRIBED STANDARD AT COMPETITIVE COST IS THE KEY CHALLENGE TO PRESCRIBED STANDARD AT COMPETITIVE COST IS THE KEY CHALLENGE TO A A FURNITURE MANUFACTURERFURNITURE MANUFACTURER Objective of standardization of product quality and safety is toObjective of standardization of product quality and safety is to ensure that all furniture ensure that all furniture available on the market is safe to use and of solid and strong cavailable on the market is safe to use and of solid and strong constructiononstruction Enables an efficient exchange of information between the importeEnables an efficient exchange of information between the importer and the supplier on the r and the supplier on the basis of a stable set of requirementsbasis of a stable set of requirements Standards provide Standards provide a common language on product test methods, dimensions, safety ana common language on product test methods, dimensions, safety and d strength characteristics strength characteristics Furniture standards concentrate on the safety and healthFurniture standards concentrate on the safety and health--related aspects, test methods, related aspects, test methods, dimensional coordination and terminologydimensional coordination and terminology 88 Product Defects and Deviations from Standards: Need for Product Defects and Deviations from Standards: Need for Quality ControlQuality Control Sources of deviations from standards:Sources of deviations from standards: Defective raw material (natural / handling / drying defects)Defective raw material (natural / handling / drying defects) Inadequate machines and tools (poor surface quality or dimensionInadequate machines and tools (poor surface quality or dimensional accuracy)al accuracy) Poor technical design (joints, stability)Poor technical design (joints, stability) Lacking or delayed machine maintenance / reLacking or delayed machine maintenance / re--settingsetting Inappropriate operating environment (poor finishing)Inappropriate operating environment (poor finishing) Human errors / management cultureHuman errors / management culture Quality control objectives:Quality control objectives: maintain design standardsmaintain design standards meet customer specificationsmeet customer specifications observe and correct process discrepanciesobserve and correct process discrepancies check and replace wearing processing mechanismscheck and replace wearing processing mechanisms measure process department / personnel effectivenessmeasure process department / personnel effectiveness withdraw and correct defective products withdraw and correct defective products If defects are eliminated through quality control, the cost of pIf defects are eliminated through quality control, the cost of production will decrease and roduction will decrease and labor productivity will increaselabor productivity will increase Ultimately, customer satisfaction will improve with better qualiUltimately, customer satisfaction will improve with better quality productsty products 99 Monitoring the Accuracy along the Manufacturing ProcessMonitoring the Accuracy along the Manufacturing Process Sawn timber yard Kiln-drying Trim-sawing Particleboard sawing Particleboard storage Edge veneering Mortising Drilling Tenoning Moulding Routing Sanding Assembly into finished products Veneer storage Veneer Veneer handling Panel furniture Solid wood furniture Rough milling / stock preparation Trim-sawing Mortising Drilling Tenoning Moulding Routing Sanding Assembly into finished products Surface planing Thickness planing Four-side moulding 1010 Communicating Conformity with Standards to Customers: Communicating Conformity with Standards to Customers: LabelingLabeling Voluntary product labels are given as a proof of conformity to qVoluntary product labels are given as a proof of conformity to quality, safety, uality, safety, health,health, etc. etc. on the basis of product certification carried out by accredited on the basis of product certification carried out by accredited certification bodiescertification bodies –– against national / ISO / EN standardsagainst national / ISO / EN standards E.g. furniture with a E.g. furniture with a MMööbelfaktabelfakta label has been extensively tested against the criteria label has been extensively tested against the criteria on its:on its: •• strength and durability (performance)strength and durability (performance) •• surface resistancesurface resistance •• fire resistance / flammabilityfire resistance / flammability •• safetysafety •• upholstery coversupholstery covers Also retailers of furniture may in some countries use recognizabAlso retailers of furniture may in some countries use recognizable labels for le labels for assuring consumers on quality and reliable service. assuring consumers on quality and reliable service.
Language:English
Score: 1138544 - https://www.fao.org/forestry/2...47fe07a94f31637fdd7a0350f9.pdf
Data Source: un
In the EU-15, the furniture production was down by 14%. The balance of furniture trade went negative and a correction of this trend is unlikely. (...) China is now the second world exporter of furniture. Its capacity is expanding and the current trend will last, both in parts and finished furniture. (...) P-M DESCLOS pmdfilo @ tin.it Forest Products Consultants 7UN/EC TC V-AWPT 2003 Furniture 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Billion $ Furniture parts, all materials Furniture, other materials Other furniture Bedroom furniture Kitchen furniture Office furniture Seats World imports of wooden furniture by product group Source: UN COMTRADE, 2003 P-M DESCLOS pmdfilo @ tin.it Forest Products Consultants 8UN/EC TC V-AWPT 2003 Furniture Major importers of wooden furniture and parts, 2001 Japan 6% UK 7% France 8% Germany 10% USA 33% Others 36% Source: UN COMTRADE, 2003 P-M DESCLOS pmdfilo @ tin.it Forest Products Consultants 9UN/EC TC V-AWPT 2003 Joinery, carpentry and profiled wood In value, the global imports of joinery, carpentry and profiled wood, went down 2.4% in 2001.
Language:English
Score: 1138436.5 - https://unece.org/fileadmin/DA...1/presentations/21-desclos.pdf
Data Source: un
UNICEF identified the need to improve standards of local school furniture procurement and management processes to ensure it provides more consistent and better quality standard school furniture to school. This note provides presents guidelines for innovative school furniture design and procurement to ensure better quality school furniture in schools, designed to suit local needs and conditions. UNICEF will continue to evaluate the implementation of school furniture designs and guidelines to ensure corrective measures to improve local school furniture production.
Language:English
Score: 1133189.1 - https://www.unicef.org/supply/...on-project-field-trial-results
Data Source: un
To enable procurement of locally produced child-friendly school furniture and play-based learning, the Product Innovation Unit based at UNICEF Supply Division initiated a project that includes the development of local procurement guidelines covering all aspects of furniture planning such as sourcing, production, delivery and maintenance; in addition, a portfolio of UNICEF-developed child-friendly furniture designs is made available to countries, with the aim to further expand the portfolio based on local designs. (...) However, unsuitable school furniture presents a particularly burdensome problem in low-resource environments. (...) Furthermore, local production of furniture will also help build local capacity of manufacturers and reduce reliance on importing ready-made goods.
Language:English
Score: 1132902.4 - https://www.unicef.org/innovat...sustainable-school-environment
Data Source: un
FURNITURE Seats, with wooden frames 940161 Upholstered 940169 Others Wooden furniture 940330 940340 940350 940360 940390 For office For kitchen For bedroom Other wooden furniture Parts of furniture 2 1 Nomenclature. 2 The Comtrade six-digit heading 940390 covers all types of furniture parts, of metal, plastic or other material. (...) The main importers and exporters of each product will be presented in the Discussion Paper. 6.3.3 Furniture Furniture is a product with a high value-added ratio. (...) Upholstered furniture has the highest trade value in the ECE, followed by bedroom, kitchen and office furniture (table 6.3.1).
Language:English
Score: 1130464.6 - https://unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/timber/docs/rev-00/06.pdf
Data Source: un