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LETTER DATED 22 JULY 2009 FROM THE SECRETARY-GENERAL ADDRESSED TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL
, De Standaard, 20 september 2000, p. 9. 40. “Muscles from Brussels, a muscled attempt to improve case handling in the Brussels Court of appeals” Managementthesis, mei 2000, niet gepubliceerd.
语言:中文
得分: 1133430.2 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc.../get?open&DS=S/2009/386&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON TORTURE AND OTHER CRUEL, INHUMAN OR DEGRADING TREATMENT OF PUNISHMENT ON HIS MISSION TO BRAZIL
The Special Rapporteur notes with great concern that partners and family members, including children, adolescents, women and the elderly, in order to gain access to penitentiaries, prisons and socioeducational centres to visit inmates, are often subjected to violent, humiliating and oppressive body searches and other forms of sexual violence. This entails stripping women and forcing them to squat over a mirror, contract their muscles and open their anus and vagina with the fingers to allow prison personnel to inspect them.
语言:中文
得分: 1118671.2 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...en&DS=A/HRC/31/57/ADD.4&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
REPORT OF THE WORKING GROUP ON THE USE OF MERCENARIES AS A MEANS OF VIOLATING HUMAN RIGHTS AND IMPEDING THE EXERCISE OF THE RIGHT OF PEOPLES TO SELF-DETERMINATION : ADDENDUM
The Working Group was informed that most of the coups d’état — albeit instigated by mercenaries — also involved the collusion of Comorians, attracted not only by the prospect of financial gain but also by political power. The consequences of that difficult past should not be underestimated. (...) The constant changes of government and the lure of political gain have given rise to many factions and led to rivalry between, on the one hand, the three Comorian islands of Anjouan, Mohéli and Grande Comore, where the capital Moroni is located, and Mayotte, on the other. 29. (...) It was widely reported that the absence of political alternation was a key element in both the successive coups d’état and the question of mercenarism, since, in the context of a country with little experience of democracy, it encouraged Comorian politicians wishing to gain power to do so by force with the support of mercenaries from abroad.
语言:中文
得分: 927744.9 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...en&DS=A/HRC/27/50/ADD.1&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
NOTE VERBALE DATED 2007/02/20 FROM THE PERMANENT MISSION OF THE REPUBLIC OF TURKEY TO THE UNITED NATIONS OFFICE AT GENEVA ADDRESSED TO THE OFFICE OF THE HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS
In paragraph 20 of the report it is stated that “some lawyers did, however voice the concern that in some instances of crimes related to terrorism, the possibility for the defence to gain access to documents related to prosecutions is in practice restricted”. 20. The authority of defence lawyers to gain access to and examine case files, has been ensured in Article 153 of the Criminal Procedure Code No. 5271. According to this article, defence lawyers have the authority to gain access to case files and obtain copies of documents contained therein, free of charge, during the investigation.
语言:中文
得分: 913392.6 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...get?open&DS=A/HRC/4/G/4&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
VISIT TO CHAD : REPORT OF THE WORKING GROUP ON THE USE OF MERCENARIES AS A MEANS OF VIOLATING HUMAN RIGHTS AND IMPEDING THE EXERCISE OF THE RIGHT OF PEOPLES TO SELF-DETERMINATION
It has undertaken visits to several countries to assess these phenomena and has since issued reports in which foreign fighters were identified as mercenary-related actors, where the motivation to engage in armed conflict was for financial or material gain. 4. The delegation held meetings in N’Djamena and was able to visit refugees and returnees in the Gaoui camp. (...) The Government also referred to specific individuals, some of whom were former Chadian military personnel, who had left to join armed groups, lured by financial gain. The Chadian authorities further stated that the challenges of mercenarism had led to the adoption of the new provision on mercenarism in the Penal Code in 2017. (...) The primary motivation of mercenaries is financial gain, while foreign fighters can be motivated by a range of factors that include, in addition to financial gain, religious and ideological beliefs.
语言:中文
得分: 878077.9 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...en&DS=A/HRC/42/42/ADD.1&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
VISIT TO CANADA : REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE RIGHT OF EVERYONE TO THE ENJOYMENT OF THE HIGHEST ATTAINABLE STANDARD OF PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH
GE.19-10107 (C) 200619 230719  人权理事会 第四十一届会议 2019年 6月 24日至 7月 12日 议程项目 3
语言:中文
得分: 878077.9 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...en&DS=A/HRC/41/34/ADD.2&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
VISIT TO AUSTRIA : REPORT OF THE WORKING GROUP ON THE USE OF MERCENARIES AS A MEANS OF VIOLATING HUMAN RIGHTS AND IMPEDING THE EXERCISE OF THE RIGHT OF PEOPLES TO SELF-DETERMINATION
It has undertaken visits to several countries to assess these phenomena and has since issued reports in which foreign fighters were identified as mercenary-related actors, where the motivation to engage in armed conflict was for financial or material gain. 4. In connection with the Working Group’s mandate, the Human Rights Council emphasized its utmost concern, in its resolution 33/4, about the activities of private military and security companies operating in privatized prisons and immigration detention facilities and the impact of those activities on human rights. (...) A mercenary is defined in the International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries as someone who is specially recruited locally or abroad in order to fight in an armed conflict, is motivated essentially to take part in hostilities by a desire for private gain, and is promised, by or on behalf of a party to the conflict, material compensation substantially in excess of that promised or paid to combatants of similar rank and functions in the armed forces of that party. (...) Some of the main factors include ideology, religious conviction, a search for identity and a sense of belonging, economic and financial gain, and adventure. Financial gain is of particular interest to the Working Group with regard to its mandate and, given the wealth that groups such as ISIL have accumulated through illicit means, there was a likelihood of individuals being drawn to become members of those groups primarily for material and financial gain.
语言:中文
得分: 856177.7 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...en&DS=A/HRC/42/42/ADD.2&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
REPORT OF THE WORKING GROUP ON THE USE OF MERCENARIES AS A MEANS OF VIOLATING HUMAN RIGHTS AND IMPEDING THE EXERCISE OF THE RIGHT OF PEOPLES TO SELF-DETERMINATION ON ITS MISSION TO THE CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC : NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
The primary motivation of mercenaries participating in hostilities is financial gain. Foreign fighters are motivated by a range of factors, notably ideology, but they can also be motivated by financial or material gain. (...) In the Central African Republic, mercenaries and foreign fighters had engaged in the past conflicts, largely out of a desire for financial gain or personal enrichment. Other factors, including religion and territorial control through criminal activities, had also attracted foreign-armed elements, who had taken advantage of the security vacuum in the country. (...) According to some sources, some mercenaries did not receive the payment they had been promised and became disgruntled, then remained in the country, where some had resorted to criminal activities for financial gain. Those activities had included theft, pillaging and illegal taxation imposed on the local population.
语言:中文
得分: 856177.7 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...en&DS=A/HRC/36/47/ADD.1&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
LETTER DATED 21 DECEMBER 2012 FROM THE PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVE OF KAZAKHSTAN TO THE UNITED NATIONS ADDRESSED TO THE SECRETARY-GENERAL
Only in dialogue with other nations our country will be able to succeed and gain influence in the future. In the 21st century Kazakhstan must strengthen its position of a regional leader and become the bridge for dialogue and interaction between East and West.
语言:中文
得分: 848429.5 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...sf/get?open&DS=A/67/681&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
REGIONAL CENTRES FOR SPACE SCIE?NCE AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION (AFFILIATED TO THE UNITED NATIONS) : CURRICULUM ON SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS
订正课程 单元 0: 熟悉情况课程 0.1 课程介绍 0.2 区域中心的活动和详情介绍 0.3 通信技能(口头、书面、演示、小组讨论) 0.4 当地环境介绍(语言、地理环境、社会制度等) 单元 1: 通信系统 1.1 通信和联网原理 1.1.1 讲课 电信概述 信息理论原理 调制和编码原理 微波理论和技术 光通信 网络和协议原理 1.1.2 实验课 MATLAB模拟和硬件实验 1.2 数字信号处理 1.2.1 讲课 离散时间信号和系统 A/AC.105/L.239 6 连续时间信号抽样 Z-变换 离散傅里叶变换 离散傅里叶变换计算 离散时间系统结构 过渡设计技术 卫星通信数字信号处理分系统实例 1.2.2 实验练习/辅导 MATLAB练习 单元 2: 卫星通信系统 2.1 讲课 卫星通信入门 卫星轨道 卫星构型 运载火箭和卫星发射 空间环境 可靠性 卫星总线分系统 通信有效载荷(透明和机上处理) 卫星通信链路 卫星通信频带 电磁干扰、电磁兼容性、射频干扰 对卫星通信链路的传播影响 2.2 实验和示范 链路参数计算,包括真实传播模型 用卫星模拟器进行示范 轨道和足迹模拟 单元 3: 地面站技术 3.1 讲课 卫星通信地面站概述 地面站分系统技术 地面站设计和构造方面的考虑事项 A/AC.105/L.239 7 地面站标准 地面站测试 地面站可靠性 操作和维护 3.2 实验和示范 利用发射/接收卫星终端 单元 4: 传输、多路传输和多路存取 4.1 讲课 模拟和数字调制技术 前向纠错编码 多路传输/多路解编 扩谱技术 多路存取技术 4.2 实验室实验 MATLAB模拟 硬件实验 单元 5: 利用通信卫星广播 5.1 讲课 模拟和数字广播系统标准 数字电视 卫星电视和存取系统 因特网协议广播 有关应用,例如: 用于无线电和电视的卫星新闻搜集 无线电联网 数字音频广播 室外广播工程拖车 电视工作室及其运作 体育节目的电视覆盖范围 多信道传播 卫星电视会议 多媒体(视频显示) A/AC.105/L.239 8 随选录象 5.2 实验室实验和示范 利用电视和因特网协议终端进行实践练习 单元 6: 卫星通信应用和趋势 6.1 讲课 卫星通信服务 卫星通信应用精选,例如: 甚小孔径终端网络 气象数据接收系统 新闻和气象数据传播系统 数据收集系统 利用卫星通信进行灾害管理 搜索和救援系统: 国际 区域 警报传播系统 远程医疗 时间和频率传输系统 移动通信和个人通信服务 战略卫星通信系统 卫星导航系统 卫星因特网系统 多媒体宽带卫星系统 6.2 实验室实验和示范 利用现有设施和终端用户的设备进行有关硬件的实验及系统示范 单元 7: 实用通信卫星系统 7.1 讲课 实用通信卫星系统概述 固定卫星服务 移动卫星服务 广播卫星服务 多媒体广播服务 A/AC.105/L.239 9 实用通信卫星系统精选 国际电信联盟(国际电联)和其他标准化组织(国际标准化组织(标准 化组织)、亚洲太平洋电信共同体(亚太电信共同体)、欧洲电信 标准研究所) 国际规章 单元 8: 卫星通信系统的网络规划/管理/操作问题 8.1 讲课 网络规划方面应考虑的技术问题 空间段规划 地面段规划 网络操作和控制 通信卫星运行管理 系统内/系统间干扰协调 空间法 卫星通信的财务问题 单元 9: 卫星通信促进发展、教育和培训 9.1 讲课 卫星通信促进发展、教育和培训概述 以下方面的区域经验: 硬件 软件 社会调研 地方广播(电视、电台、电缆网络) 卫星通信促进发展规划 促进发展、教育和培训的卫星技术 促进发展的跨国境信道的运作、技术和法律问题 用户利用卫星电话会议促进农村发展的经验 灾害管理 9.2 利用现有系统进行示范 单元 10: 试点项目 项目定义 学员国家的需要 学员感兴趣的课题 A/AC.105/L.239 10 能促成一年期项目的工作 建议的项目课题 地面站分系统 通信卫星系统分析 航天器设计 天线覆盖区设计 通信系统设计 网络规划和相关软件开发 促进通信发展的电视和无线电应用 卫星通信经济学 国内系统定义 政策研究 A/AC.105/L.239 11 Annex I Curriculum for the first three courses Table Curriculum of the course in satellite communications Module/ submodule Topic Number of 45-minute sessions 0 Orientation course (1 week) 0.1 Introduction to the regional centre 2 0.2 Introduction to activities of the local host institution 2 0.3 Communication skills (oral, written, presentation, group discussion etc.) 24 0.4 Introduction to the host country 6 Geographic perspectives of the host country Social systems and customs Festivals of the host country 0.5 Local language—common phrases in the local language 6 Total 40 1 Communication systems and digital signal processing 1.1 Classroom lectures—communication systems (3 weeks) Telecommunications overview Distribution, traffic, signalling, switching 6 Analog and digital communications systems 2 Long-distance communications 1 Fibre optics technology and applications 4 Data networking 10 Signalling and modulation Local area network (LAN) Wiring plans Data services in public networks Introduction to transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP) Internet Asychronous transfer mode (ATM) Personal communication services 4 Integrated services digital network (ISDN) 3 Packet switching fundamentals 3 Broadband—an overview 3 Protocols 3 Microwave theory and techniques 6 Transmission line parameters (Z, Y, ABCD, S) Waveguide and coaxial components Applications of microwave technology Introduction to computers 6 Computer architecture Complex instruction set computer (CISC) Reduced instruction set computer (RISC) Parallel processor Input/output (I/O) devices I/O programming A/AC.105/L.239 12 Module/ submodule Topic Number of 45-minute sessions I/O controlling Interrupt Direct memory access (DMA) Operating systems Standard operating systems Disc operating system (DOS) UNIX and Linux Windows 95 NT Communication theory and mathematical tools Probability theory and basic statistics 10 Information theory 6 Spherical geometry 1 Linear algebra 4 MATLAB mathematical tools 8 Subtotal 80 1.2 Laboratory sessions Computer 4 MATLAB 8 Microwave measurements 8 Analog and digital modems 4 Fibre optics 8 Subtotal 32 1.3 Classroom lectures—digital signal processing (2 weeks) Discrete time signals and systems 4 Discrete time signals: sequences Discrete time systems Linear time-in variant systems Frequency domain representation of sampling Discrete time signals and systems Representation of sequences by Fourier transform Fourier transform theorems Discrete time random signals Sampling of continuous time signals 6 Periodic sampling Frequency domain representation of sampling Reconstruction of a band limited signal from its samples Discrete time processing of continuous time signals Continuous time processing of discrete time signals Changing the sampling rate using discrete time processing Practical considerations Z-transform 10 Properties of region of convergence for Z-transform Inverse Z-transform Z-transform properties Inverse Z-transform using contour integration Complex convolution theorem Parseval’s relation Unilateral Z-transform A/AC.105/L.239 13 Module/ submodule Topic Number of 45-minute sessions Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) 6 Representation of periodic sequences Discrete Fourier series Properties of discrete Fourier series Fourier transform of periodic signals Sampling of Fourier transform Fourier representation of finite duration sequences Discrete Fourier transform Linear convolution using discrete Fourier transform Computation of discrete Fourier transform 8 Efficient computation of discrete Fourier transforms Goertzel algorithm Decimation-in-time fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms Decimation-in-frequency FFT algorithms Implementation of FFT algorithms FFT algorithms for composite N Implementation of DFT using convolution Effects of finite register length in DFT computations Structure for discrete time systems 6 Block diagram representation of linear constant coefficient differential equation Basic structure for infinite impulses response (IIR) systems Basic network structures for finite impulse response (FIR) systems Overview of finite precision numerical effects Effects of coefficient quantization Effects of round-off noise in digital filters Zero input cycles in fixed-point realizations of IIR digital filters Filter design techniques 12 Basic issues in digital filter design IIR filter design Frequency transformation of low-pass IIR filters Design of filters by windowing Optimum approximation of FIR filters FIR equi-ripple approximation Wavelet transform 2 Examples of DSP-based subsystems for satellite communications 4 Subtotal 58 1.4 Laboratory exercises/tutorial MATLAB-based exercises 10 Design of FIR and IIR filters Implementation of DFT/FFT Examples of DSP-based communication subsystems Familiarization with and implementation of evaluation board 12 FIR and IIR filters Demodulator algorithm Viterbi coding FFT and discrete cosine transform (DCT) A/AC.105/L.239 14 Module/ submodule Topic Number of 45-minute sessions Subtotal 22 Totala 192 2 Satellite communication systems (6 weeks) 2.1 Classroom lectures Introduction to satellite communications 4 Evolution of satellite communications Elements of satellite communications Types of satellite orbits Geosynchronous satellite communications Satellite communications services Satellite orbits 4 Launch vehicles and launching of satellites 4 Satellite communications links 4 Frequency bands for satellite communications 2 Propagation effects on satellite communication links 2 Satellite communication techniques 28 Multiplexing techniques 4 Modulation techniques 6 Multiple access techniques 6 Code division multiple access (CDMA) 2 Coding theory and error correction techniques 4 IP over satellite 4 Satellite configurations 2 Space environment 2 Satellite bus subsystems 12 Mechanical structure 2 Attitude and orbit control system (AOCS) 2 Propulsion subsystem 2 Electrical power subsystem 2 Telemetry, tracking and command (TT and C) 2 Thermal subsystem 2 Communication transponder 2 Communication transponder subsystems 6 Antenna and feed 2 Receiver and transmitter 2 I/O multiplexer 2 Advanced communication transponder on-board processing 4 Integration and testing of communication transponders 2 Integration and testing of satellites 2 In-orbit check out of communication payloads 2 Reliability and space qualifications 2 Reliability of satellite communication payloads 2 EMI, EMC and RFI 2 Electrostatic discharge hazards in satellite communications electronics 2 Life of a satellite 2 Satellite communications (video computer-based teaching (CBT) and tutorials) 28 Subtotal 120 A/AC.105/L.239 15 Module/ submodule Topic Number of 45-minute sessions 2.2 Experiments/demonstrations Familiarization with measuring instruments 4 Determination of satellite look angles and optimization of Earth station antennas 4 Azimuth and elevation angles X-Y angles Optimization of sense of polarization Measurement of satellite link parameters 8 Total C/kT and down-link C/kT Antenna gain to system noise temperature ratio (G/T) and effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) Bit error rate (BER) versus C/kT Familiarization with and measurement of satellite transponder characteristics (communication simulator) 4 Familiarization with and operation of single channel per carrier (SCPC), spread spectrum multiple access (SSMA) and time division multiple access (TDMA) equipment 12 Testing of communication transponder subsystems 16 Multiplexer Receiver Power amplifier Antenna and feed Subtotal 48 2.3 Visits to laboratories and other facilities of the host institution 24 Communication payload research and development laboratories Communications techniques laboratories Payload fabrication facility Environmental test facility Communication system laboratories Remote sensing laboratories Subtotal 24 Totala 192 3 Earth station technology (3 weeks) 3.1 Classroom lectures Satellite communications Earth station—an overview 2 Technology of Earth station subsystems 22 Antenna reflector and mount for large, medium and small Earth stations Feed system for large, medium and small Earth stations Antenna tracking system Low-noise amplifier (LNA) Solid-state power amplifier High-power amplifier (HPA) Frequency converter Modulator and demodulator Encoder and decoder Test-loop translator Electrical power supply system Foresight and rearward link Earth station design considerations 5 A/AC.105/L.239 16 Module/ submodule Topic Number of 45-minute sessions Earth station standards EIRP and G/T Antenna size and gain Radiation pattern and antenna coverage Redundancy and reliability Environmental specifications VSAT/mobile/briefcase/hand-held terminals Check out of Earth stations 8 Antenna measurements (farfield, nearfield, anechoic chamber) LNA and G/T HPA and EIRP Frequency converter Test-loop translator Reliability of Earth stations 1 Operations and maintenance of fixed and transportable Earth stations 2 Fabrication techniques 6 Mechanical fabrication techniques Electronics fabrication techniques Microwave integrated circuits (MIC) Subtotal 46 3.2 Local visits 24 Department of Telecommunications (DOT) Earth station Department of Electronics (DOE) Software Technology Park Antenna test facility (host institution) MIC facility (host institution) Electronics fabrication facility (host institution) Mechanical fabrication facility (host institution) Subtotal 24 3.3 Experiments/demonstrations Familiarization with Earth station subsystems 4 Testing of Earth station subsystems 24 Testing of feed system Testing of HPA Testing of LNA Testing of frequency converter Testing of antenna tracking system (manual and auto mode) Subtotal 28 Totala 98 4 Broadcasting using communication satellites (3 weeks) 4.1 Classroom lectures Broadcasting system standards 6 Frequency modulation television (FMTV) High-definition television (HDTV) Digital video broadcasting (DVB) Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) Digital television (video presentation) 6 Satellite links for TV broadcasting (analog and digital) 2 Frequency bands for satellite broadcasting and national/international 2 A/AC.105/L.239 17 Module/ submodule Topic Number of 45-minute sessions regulations Satellite TV and access systems 6 Cable TV Direct broadcasting satellite/direct-to-home (DBS/DTH) Conditional access Network management Satellite news gathering (SNG) for radio and TV 2 Radio networking 2 Digital audio broadcasting 2 Outdoor broadcasting van 2 TV studio and its operations 2 TV coverage of sports 2 Multicasting 2 Videoconferencing via satellite 2 Multimedia (video presentation) 2 Video on demand 2 Subtotal 42 4.2 Laboratory experiments/demonstrations 48 Familiarization with video baseband systems Measurement of video signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio versus carrier-to-noise (C/N) radio and video threshold Measurement of TV audio S/N Measurement of S/N versus FM deviation Measurement of TV signal parameters using waveform monitor, vectorscope and automated test equipment SCPC/multiple channels per carrier (MCPC) digital TV Determination of transponder operating points for: Single carrier per transponder Multicarrier per transponder Familiarization with radio networking terminals Demonstration of operations of SNG terminals Setting up a TV direct reception system Digital sound and data broadcasting (DSDB) system Multimedia broadcasting/multicasting Subtotal 48 4.3 Local visits 12 TV broadcasting station of Doordarshan Radio networking system of All India Radio (AIR) TV studio of the Development and Educational Communication Unit (DECU) Subtotal 12 Totala 102 5 Applications and trends in satellite communications (3 weeks) 5.1 Classroom lectures Satellite communications services 26 Rural/remote area communications 2 VSAT network 8 Time division multiplexing (TDM)-TDMA A/AC.105/L.239 18 Module/ submodule Topic Number of 45-minute sessions SCPC-demand assignment multiple access (DAMA) Remote terminals Hub Network management Meteorological data reception systems (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Indian National Satellite System (INSAT)) 2 News and meteorological data dissemination system 2 Data collection system 2 Disaster management using satellite communications 2 Search and rescue system 2 International Regional (INSAT) Cyclone warning dissemination system 2 Telemedicine 2 Time and frequency transmission system 2 Mobile and personal communication services (IMT-2000, 4G etc.) 8 Strategic satellite communication systems 4 Satellite navigation system 6 Satellite-based Internet system 2 Multimedia broadband satellite system 2 Video CBT and tutorials 14 Subtotal 62 5.2 Laboratory experiments/demonstrations NOAA very high resolution radiometer (VHRR) data reception News and meteorological data dissemination system Search-and-rescue beacon Operations of Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver and INSAT reporting system VSAT terminal and network Data and sound broadcasting system Subtotal 28 5.3 Local visit Press Trust of India (PTI) India Mobile Department (IMD) Airport National Informatics Centre Network (NICNET) Subtotal 16 Totala 106 6 Operational communications satellite systems (1 week) 6.1 Classroom lectures Overview of operational communications satellite systems 8 FSS MSS BSS Broadband multimedia system Operational communications satellite systems 18 International Telecommunication Union and other standardization organizations (ISO, APT, ETSI) 2 A/AC.105/L.239 19 Module/ submodule Topic Number of 45-minute sessions International regulations 2 Totala 30 7 Network planning/management/operational issues of satellite communications systems (1 week) 7.1 Classroom lectures Technical considerations for network planning 2 Planning for space segment 2 Traffic requirements Options for satellite transponder (coverage, power, bandwidth, bent-pipe/regenerative) Cross-pol isolation and collocated satellites Choice of orbits (geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO), MEO, LEO) Planning for ground segment 2 Trade-off between space segment and ground segment HPA power and transmit antenna size Off-axis radiation pattern LNA noise temperature and receive Antenna size Cost Network operations and control 2 Management of communication satellite operations 4 Normal operations Operations of satellite control Earth station (tele-command, telemetry, tracking and ranging) Orbit determinations, station keeping and fuel management Sun outage and eclipse operations Loss of lock Intra-system/inter-system interference coordination 4 Space law 2 Financial aspects of satellite communications 2 Totala 20 8 Satellite communications for development, education and training (2 weeks) 8.1 Classroom lectures Satellite communications for development education and training—an overview 4 Indian experience with the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE), Kneda Communications Project (KCP), Training and Development Communications Channel (TDCC), Jhabua Development Communications Project (JDCP) and University Grant Commission (UGC) 6 Hardware Software Social research Local broadcasting (TV, radio, cable network) 2 Planning for satellite communications for development 4 Research and evaluation Program production for development communications Hardware Cost Satellite technology for development, education and training 8 A/AC.105/L.239 20 Module/ submodule Topic Number of 45-minute sessions Receive system Transmit system Talk-back system DAMA control Value-added services Return video Data broadcasting Internet broadcasting Multimedia broadcasting Two-way videoconferencing Operational, technological and legal issues in transborder channels for development 2 Teleconferencing experiences of users for rural development 4 Disaster management 2 Subtotal 32 8.2 Demonstrations 20 Demonstration of talk-back systems (JDCP and TDCC) Direct reception system (analog and digital) Two-way video conference (Spacenet) 8.3 Field visits 24 Totala 76 9 Pilot project (10 weeks) Project definition Needs of the participant’s country Topic of interest of the participant The work leading towards the one-year project Suggested topics for the project Earth station subsystems Systems analysis for communications satellites Spacecraft design Antenna footprint design Communication systems design Network planning and relevant software development Applications of TV and radio for development communications Economics of satellite communications Domestic system definition Policy research aTotals do not include tests and examinations or library work (see also chap. (...) A/AC.105/L.239 22 Annex III Explanatory notes for the curriculum AIR All India Radio AOCS attitude and orbit control system APT Asia Pacific Telecommunity ATM asynchronous transfer mode BER bit error rate BSS broadcast satellite service CBT computer-based teaching CDMA code division multiple access CISC complex instruction set computer C/kT carrier-to-receiver noise density C/N carrier-to-noise (ratio) DAMA demand assignment multiple access DBS direct broadcasting satellite DCT discrete cosine transform DECU Development and Educational Communication Unit DFT discrete Fourier transform DMA direct memory access DOE Department of Electronics DOS disk operating system DOT Department of Telecommunications DSDB digital sound and data broadcasting DSP digital signal processing DTH direct-to-home DVB digital video broadcasting EIRP effective isotropic radiated power EMC electromagnetic compatibility EMI electromagnetic interference ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute FFT fast Fourier transform FIR finite impulse response FM frequency modulation FMTV frequency modulation television FSS fixed satellite service A/AC.105/L.239 23 GEO geosynchronous Earth orbit GPS Global Positioning System G/T antenna gain to system noise temperature ratio HDTV high-definition television HPA high-power amplifier IIR infinite impulse response IMD India Meteorological Department IMT International Mobile Telecommunication INSAT Indian National Satellite System I/O input/output IP Internet protocol ISDN integrated services digital network ISO International Organization for Standardization ITU International Telecommunication Union JDCP Jhabua Development Communications Project KCP Kheda Communications Project LAN local area network LEO low-Earth orbit LNA low-noise amplifier MBS multimedia broadcast service MCPC multiple channels per carrier MEO medium-Earth orbit MIC microwave integrated circuit MPEG Moving Picture Experts Group MSS mobile satellite service NICNET National Informatics Centre Network NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration OBP on-board processing PTI Press Trust of India RFI radio frequency interference RISC reduced instruction set computer SCPC single channel per carrier SITE Satellite Instructional Television Experiment S/N signal-to-noise (ratio) SNG satellite news gathering SSMA spread spectrum multiple access A/AC.105/L.239 24 TCP/IP transmission control protocol/Internet protocol TDCC Training and Development Communication Channel TDM time division multiplexing TDMA time division multiple access TT and C Telemetry, Tracking and Command TVRO television receive-only system UGC University Grant Commission VHRR very high resolution radiometer VSAT very small aperture terminal
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