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The Green Jobs Assessment Institutions Network (GAIN) Form or template | 20 July 2017 Contact(s): greenjobs@ilo.org GAIN is a network of policy research institutions and experts that analyses social and employment-related outcomes of greening policies. (...) A standardized methodology allows GAIN analysing the labour market implications of going green by quantifying existing green jobs, estimating green jobs potentials and jobs lost under various policies and investment scenarios. This analysis allows countries to foresee the opportunities and risks to reshape their economic and labour policies and investment decisions to maximize employment gains. GAIN aims to provide a common pool of expertise and standardized but country-level calibrated macroeconomic employment projection models.
Language:English
Score: 600631.84 - https://www.ilo.org/global/top...WCMS_565193/lang--ru/index.htm
Data Source: un
Jobs Market access liberalization Increased operators sustainability Increased operators sustainability Operational savings/efficiency gains Operational savings/efficiency gains Operational savings/efficiency gains User satisfaction/predictability for operators. (...) Jobs Operational savings/efficiency gains for stakeholders. Increased operators sustainability Increased operators sustainability Increased operators sustainability Political support for air transport Operational savings/efficiency gains. (...) Operational savings/efficiency gains. Political support for air transport. Operational savings/efficiency gains.
Language:English
Score: 600257.96 - https://www.icao.int/Meetings/...S%20Country%20Profile%20EN.pdf
Data Source: un
The Green Jobs Assessments Institutions Network (GAIN) establishes its First Training Hub in Africa Skip to main content ILO Advancing social justice, promoting decent work ILO is a specialized agency of the United Nations Countries Topics Sectors Search: Search Menu Home About the ILO Newsroom Meetings and events Publications Research Labour standards Statistics and databases Contact Us Green jobs Areas of work Climate change and jobs GAIN About GAIN Members of the Network Research Institutions International Organizations and Governmental Bodies Individual Researchers Training Guidebook Reports Webinar Series Activities United Nations Climate Action Summit News, articles and events Trainings Projects Africa Asia Europe Latin America Publications Green jobs assessment reports Rapid situational analysis Multimedia Partnerships ILO home Topics Green jobs News, articles and events The Green Jobs Assessments Institutions Network (GAIN) establishes its First ... (...) News | 25 September 2019 GAIN is a global network of currently 33 members, mostly research institutions. (...) Will rural households gain as well? How much waste and pollution is generated and jobs impacted?
Language:English
Score: 599816.7 - https://www.ilo.org/global/top...WCMS_721194/lang--en/index.htm
Data Source: un
Ault UN HANDBOOK ON SELECTED ISSUES IN PROTECTING THE TAX BASE OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES • supplement/complement to OECD BEPS project • focus on OECD BEPS issues of primary interest to developing countries • also includes other issues that are not part of BEPS project but important for developing countries: – income from services – capital gains – tax incentives • doesn’t deal with transfer pricing aspects UN Handbook: Protecting the Tax Base of Developing Countries UN Handbook: Protecting the Tax Base of Developing Countries • draft papers discussed at workshop in June 2014 in New York and in September 2014 in Paris with experts and tax officials from developing countries • papers revised in light of workshops • UN Handbook published and presented at Financing for Development Conference in Addis Ababa in July 2015 Topics Covered • Introduction and Overview: Hugh Ault and Brian Arnold • Services: Brian Arnold • Capital Gains: Wei Cui • Interest: Peter Barnes • Hybrids: Peter Harris • Treaty Abuse: Graeme Cooper • PE Issues: Adolfo Martin Jimenez • Digital Economy: Jinyan Li • Tax Incentives: Eric Zolt • Transparency and Disclosure:Diane Ring GENERAL POINTS • Issues considered exclusively from perspective of base erosion • base erosion issues result from 1) lack of coherence in international tax rules 2) disconnect between economic activities and taxing rights • dealing with base erosion requires improved transparency, disclosure and information sharing • no recommendations – identification of the risks of base erosion and possible responses GENERAL POINTS • UN Handbook focuses on domestic law generally and on UN Model, not on situation of particular countries • Therefore, there is a need for capacity development that is customized for each particular country Concerns of Developing Countries • primarily concerned with reductions in source country taxation • corporate tax revenue accounts for larger portion of total revenue for developing countries • capacity development and administrative resources are serious challenges for developing countries in dealing with base erosion Income from Services • base-eroding payments for services have been a serious concern for developing countries for many years • UN Committee of Experts has been working on the issue since 2010 – in particular, on a new article for fees for technical services • services is not part of the OECD BEPS project Income from Services • relatively easy for MNEs to erode tax base of developing countries through payments for services • payments are deductible against source country tax base • payments may not be subject to source country tax • payments may be subject to no or low tax by country of residence of service provider Income from Services • Chapter provides an overview of the taxation of nonresidents on income from services under domestic law and tax treaties • identification of the risks of base erosion with respect to various types of services • identification of possible responses – domestic law responses: tax income or deny deduction – tax treaty provisions – coordinated international action • no recommendations, but discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the various responses and constraints imposed by treaties (GATS and Art. 24 of OECD Model) Hybrid Mismatch Arrangements • chapter provides useful insights into the problem of hybrids • puts BEPS Action 2 into a broader context – identifies meaning of hybrid mismatch arrangements by reference to fundamental concepts of income tax – hybrid arrangements are similar to use of tax havens • detailed analysis of the examples in Action 2 Hybrid Mismatch Arrangements • notes problems with OECD recommendations for developing countries – especially need to consider treatment of arrangements under foreign law • identifies alternative ways for developing countries to deal with hybrids – for example, encourage nonresidents to create a PE, focus on source of revenue and expenses, greater use of withholding taxes on base-eroding payments, application of earnings-stripping rules to all base-eroding payments Interest Deductions • chapter provides a valuable introduction to both the tax and non-tax issues involved in financing with debt and equity • chapter considers interest deductions by subsidiaries and branches of foreign enterprises • chapter emphasizes the multifaceted nature of the problem and the need for developing countries to adopt solutions that can be administered effectively Interest Deductions • 5 main issues related to “excessive” interest deductions: 1) how to determine whether amount of debt and interest is excessive? (...) 4) related-party debt 5) the role of withholding taxes Treaty Abuse • developing countries with tax treaties consider the misuse or abuse of those treaties to be a high-priority item • chapter notes that OECD Action 6 may be useful for developing countries because its focus is on preventing the reduction of source taxation • Action 6 will lead to changes in the OECD Model • may result in parallel changes to the UN Model Treaty Abuse • chapter considers extent to which OECD recommendations for a minimum standard are appropriate for developing countries • detailed analysis of limitation-on-benefits (LOB) provisions with detailed objective tests and principal purpose test (PPT) based on the purpose of the transaction Treaty Abuse • chapter also analyzes additional options for preventing treaty abuse • necessity for effective anti-avoidance rules in domestic law – their relationship with tax treaties – also, effective administrative rules for determining access to treaty benefits • discusses proposed saving clause and importance of choosing treaty partners carefully Capital Gains • not dealt with in OECD BEPS project • chapter explains the basic relationship between source country taxation of income and capital gains • tax treaties allow source country to tax income from various sources but capital gains on underlying assets only for immovable property and assets of a PE • important for developing countries to carefully consider these inconsistencies Capital Gains • chapter argues that taxing nonresidents on capital gains is justified in principle despite the lack of an international norm • however, source countries face problems in enforcing tax on capital gains and in preventing avoidance • Special issues in taxing gains on indirect interests – Adjustments to cost basis and multiple taxation Capital Gains • capital gains don’t fit easily into the active-passive income distinction • should capital gains be taxed on net or gross basis? (...) • chapter examines special problems such as taxing capital gains on shares in listed entities and enforcing taxes, especially for transactions between nonresidents • chapter includes a detailed analysis of Article 13 of the UN Model, including residual power to tax capital gains and indirect transfers Thank you http://www.un.org/esa/ffd/ TaxffdCapDev@un.org
Language:English
Score: 598765.67 - https://www.un.org/esa/ffd/wp-...5/11/11STM_PPT_Arnold-Ault.pdf
Data Source: un
In this document we review the design of the new VLCs, which we refer to as UVLC2 and UVLC3, and report on results from intra coding with compression gains up to about 5.5%. As an example of other usage, we report on coding the Coded Block Pattern (CBP) symbols with UVLC2 as well. 2. (...) Coding improvements The coding improvements are reported in the included Excel sheet VCEG-M58_intra.xls, using TML 5.91 and quantizers 12,14,16,18,20,22 and 24. The bit rate gains were computed for each rate-distortion point of the old curves by comparing with the linearly interpolated bit rates of the new curves at the same PSNR values. (...) In this case, the following information must be provided as part of this declaration: · patent registration/application number; · an indication of which portions of the Recommendation are affected. · a description of the patent claims covering the Recommendation; Signature Organization Name of authorized person Title of authorized person Signature Place, Date File:VCEG-M58.doc Page: 4 Date Printed: 03/27/01 _1047221564.xls Container QCIF Old container qcif intra 10Hz QP bps PSNR 24 131734 31.58 22 158499 33.07 20 193919 34.53 18 238612 35.98 16 284361 37.32 14 344399 38.7 12 417876 40.2 New2 container qcif New3 container qcif QP bps PSNR QP bps PSNR 24 131734 31.58 24 131734 31.58 22 156791 33.09 22 156674 33.09 20 190979 34.55 20 190427 34.55 18 234065 36 18 232829 36 16 277708 37.34 16 275628 37.34 14 335063 38.72 14 331300 38.73 12 404854 40.21 12 399357 40.21 OldPSNR Oldbps BitSavings OldPSNR Oldbps BitSavings 31.58 131734 0 31.58 131734 0 33.07 158499 1.29 33.07 158499 1.36 34.53 193919 1.76 34.53 193919 2.04 35.98 238613 2.15 35.98 238613 2.67 37.32 284361 2.57 37.32 284361 3.3 38.7 344399 2.95 38.7 344399 4.15 40.2 417876 3.23 40.2 417876 4.54 Container QCIF New3 New2 Old bit/s PSNR Container QCIF Intra 10Hz News QCIF New3 New2 PSNR % bit rate gain Container QCIF Intra 10Hz Foreman QCIF Old news qcif intra 10Hz QP bps PSNR 24 157093 31.65 22 187512 33.26 20 222345 34.82 18 267627 36.38 16 313160 37.93 14 372652 39.45 12 442415 40.96 New2 news qcif New3 news qcif QP bps PSNR QP bps PSNR 24 157093 31.65 24 157093 31.65 22 185927 33.3 22 185480 33.3 20 219530 34.84 20 218611 34.84 18 262607 36.4 18 261034 36.4 16 306132 37.95 16 303438 37.96 14 362265 39.48 14 358027 39.48 12 428184 41 12 421896 41 OldPSNR Oldbps BitSavings OldPSNR Oldbps BitSavings 31.65 157093 0 31.65 157093 0 33.26 187512 1.22 33.26 187512 1.45 34.82 222345 1.46 34.82 222345 1.87 36.38 267627 2.08 36.38 267627 2.67 37.93 313160 2.42 37.93 313160 3.36 39.45 372652 3.08 39.45 372652 4.21 40.96 442415 3.61 40.96 442415 5.02 Foreman QCIF New3 New2 Old bit/s PSNR News QCIF Intra 10Hz Silent QCIF New3 New2 PSNR % bit rate gain News QCIF Intra 10Hz Paris CIF Old foreman qcif intra 10Hz QP bps PSNR 24 115336 31.36 22 148839 32.76 20 185117 34.15 18 231355 35.55 16 283062 36.98 14 347292 38.45 12 424188 39.94 New2 foreman qcif New3 foreman qcif QP bps PSNR QP bps PSNR 24 115336 31.36 24 115336 31.36 22 148766 32.77 22 148809 32.77 20 184481 34.17 20 184424 34.17 18 229363 35.57 18 229142 35.58 16 279296 37.01 16 278662 37.01 14 340878 38.48 14 339392 38.48 12 413740 39.96 12 410954 39.96 OldPSNR Oldbps BitSavings OldPSNR Oldbps BitSavings 31.36 115336 0 31.36 115336 0 32.76 148839 0.21 32.76 148839 0.18 34.15 185117 0.62 34.15 185117 0.65 35.55 231355 1.14 35.55 231355 1.37 36.98 283062 1.7 36.98 283062 1.92 38.45 347292 2.21 38.45 347292 2.63 39.94 424188 2.7 39.94 424188 3.35 Paris CIF New3 New2 Old bit/s PSNR Foreman QCIF Intra 10Hz Mobile CIF New3 New2 PSNR % bit rate gain Foreman QCIF Intra 10Hz Tempete CIF Old silent qcif intra 10Hz QP bps PSNR 24 183043 31.17 22 239082 32.41 20 298891 33.72 18 373810 35.06 16 461193 36.5 14 572724 37.98 12 705996 39.55 New2 silent qcif New3 silent qcif QP bps PSNR QP bps PSNR 24 183043 31.17 24 183043 31.17 22 239822 32.44 22 239980 32.43 20 299535 33.75 20 299708 33.75 18 372385 35.09 18 372328 35.09 16 456082 36.52 16 455582 36.52 14 564011 38.02 14 562725 38.02 12 692180 39.59 12 689132 39.59 OldPSNR Oldbps BitSavings OldPSNR Oldbps BitSavings 31.17 183043 0 31.17 183043 0 32.41 239082 0.25 32.41 239082 0 33.72 298891 0.24 33.72 298891 0.18 35.06 373810 0.82 35.06 373810 0.83 36.5 461193 1.36 36.5 461193 1.47 37.98 572724 2.02 37.98 572724 2.24 39.55 705996 2.42 39.55 705996 2.84 Tempete CIF New3 New2 Old bit/s PSNR Silent QCIF Intra 10Hz New3 New2 PSNR % bit rate gain Silent QCIF Intra 10Hz Old paris cif intra 15Hz QP bps PSNR 24 1176171 30.62 22 1423140 32.21 20 1701536 33.78 18 2052563 35.31 16 2425421 36.86 14 2886068 38.43 12 3419820 39.99 New2 paris cif New3 paris cif QP bps PSNR QP bps PSNR 24 1176171 30.62 24 1176171 30.62 22 1407894 32.22 22 1406051 32.23 20 1675897 33.79 20 1671087 33.8 18 2014647 35.34 18 2003086 35.34 16 2369013 36.88 16 2348982 36.88 14 2809908 38.46 14 2779109 38.46 12 3317390 40.02 12 3270943 40.02 OldPSNR Oldbps BitSavings OldPSNR Oldbps BitSavings 30.62 1176171 0 30.62 1176171 0 32.21 1423140 1.17 32.21 1423140 1.4 33.78 1701536 1.61 33.78 1701536 1.99 35.31 2052563 2.17 35.31 2052563 2.73 36.86 2425421 2.52 36.86 2425421 3.34 38.43 2886068 2.93 38.43 2886068 3.99 39.99 3419820 3.28 39.99 3419820 4.63 New3 New2 Old bit/s PSNR Paris CIF Intra 15Hz New3 New2 PSNR % bit rate gain Paris CIF Intra 15Hz Old mobile cif intra 30Hz QP bps PSNR 24 4203560 28.49 22 5011133 30.19 20 6017423 31.94 18 7286998 33.68 16 8523343 35.46 14 10072113 37.25 12 11820625 39.06 New2 mobile cif New3 mobile cif QP bps PSNR QP bps PSNR 24 4203560 28.49 24 4203560 28.49 22 4935523 30.22 22 4924923 30.22 20 5894640 31.97 20 5867023 31.97 18 7106992 33.72 18 7053513 33.72 16 8270378 35.49 16 8180521 35.49 14 9735394 37.28 14 9595225 37.28 12 11382984 39.09 12 11179389 39.09 OldPSNR Oldbps BitSavings OldPSNR Oldbps BitSavings 28.49 4203560 0 28.49 4203560 0 30.19 5011133 1.76 30.19 5011133 1.97 31.94 6017423 2.31 31.94 6017423 2.77 33.68 7286998 2.85 33.68 7286998 3.58 35.46 8523343 3.2 35.46 8523343 4.25 37.25 10072113 3.59 37.25 10072113 4.97 39.06 11820625 3.93 39.06 11820625 5.65 New3 New2 Old bit/s PSNR Mobile CIF Intra 30Hz New3 New2 PSNR % bit rate gain Mobile CIF Intra 30Hz Old tempete cif intra 30Hz QP bps PSNR 24 2351094 29.88 22 2933506 31.41 20 3614121 33.01 18 4458339 34.61 16 5332193 36.24 14 6406534 37.92 12 7650124 39.63 New2 tempete cif New3 tempete cif QP bps PSNR QP bps PSNR 24 2351094 29.88 24 2351094 29.88 22 2915685 31.43 22 2916267 31.43 20 3572915 33.04 20 3569790 33.04 18 4383868 34.64 18 4372844 34.64 16 5214222 36.27 16 5188048 36.27 14 6232315 37.95 14 6181394 37.96 12 7406763 39.66 12 7318971 39.67 OldPSNR Oldbps BitSavings OldPSNR Oldbps BitSavings 29.88 2351094 0 29.88 2351094 0 31.41 2933506 0.86 31.41 2933506 0.84 33.01 3614121 1.48 33.01 3614121 1.56 34.61 4458339 2.01 34.61 4458339 2.26 36.24 5332193 2.5 36.24 5332193 2.98 37.92 6406534 3 37.92 6406534 3.88 39.63 7650124 3.45 39.63 7650124 4.68 New3 New2 Old bit/s PSNR Tempete CIF Intra 30Hz New3 New2 PSNR % bit rate gain Tempete CIF Intra 30Hz _1047221702.xls Container QCIF old.exe c:\seqs\h26l\container_qcif.yuv 1frames 10Hz endframe:299 QP bps PSNR CBP_P 28 6119 28.2 5342 24 10354 31.09 9199 20 17802 33.95 15039 16 34146 36.68 26063 new.exe c:\seqs\h26l\container_qcif.yuv 1frames 10Hz endframe:299 QP bps PSNR CBP_P 28 6141 28.2 5557 24 10325 31.09 8904 20 17668 33.95 13701 16 33791 36.68 22515 QP bps bps %gain 28 6119 6141 -0.35 24 10354 10325 0.28 20 17802 17668 0.75 16 34146 33791 1.04 QP CBP_P CBP_P %gain 28 5342 5557 -4.02 24 9199 8904 3.21 20 15039 13701 8.9 16 26063 22515 13.61 Container QCIF New2 PSNR % bit rate gain Container QCIF 10Hz Foreman QCIF New2 PSNR % CBP bits gain Container QCIF 10Hz News QCIF old.exe c:\seqs\h26l\foreman_qcif.yuv 1frames 10Hz endframe:299 QP bps PSNR CBP_P 28 23731 28.8 20541 24 37080 31.55 27626 20 59581 34.17 37377 16 97592 36.89 49258 new.exe c:\seqs\h26l\foreman_qcif.yuv 1frames 10Hz endframe:299 QP bps PSNR CBP_P 28 23920 28.8 22423 24 37167 31.55 28496 20 59426 34.17 35829 16 97126 36.89 44601 QP bps bps %gain 28 23731 23920 -0.79 24 37080 37167 -0.23 20 59581 59426 0.26 16 97592 97126 0.48 QP CBP_P CBP_P %gain 28 20541 22423 -9.16 24 27626 28496 -3.15 20 37377 35829 4.14 16 49258 44601 9.45 News QCIF New2 PSNR % bit rate gain Foreman QCIF 10Hz Silent QCIF New2 PSNR % CBP bits gain Foreman QCIF 10Hz Paris CIF old.exe c:\seqs\h26l\news_qcif.yuv 1frames 10Hz endframe:299 QP bps PSNR CBP_P 28 13245 28.42 9926 24 21923 31.4 14659 20 36034 34.47 20688 16 57732 37.56 26891 new.exe c:\seqs\h26l\news_qcif.yuv 1frames 10Hz endframe:299 QP bps PSNR CBP_P 28 13196 28.42 9439 24 21811 31.4 13548 20 35823 34.47 18584 16 57429 37.56 23864 QP bps bps %gain 28 13245 13196 0.37 24 21923 21811 0.51 20 36034 35823 0.58 16 57732 57429 0.52 QP CBP_P CBP_P %gain 28 9926 9439 4.91 24 14659 13548 7.58 20 20688 18584 10.17 16 26891 23864 11.26 Paris CIF New2 PSNR % bit rate gain News QCIF 10Hz Mobile CIF New2 PSNR % CBP bits gain News QCIF 10Hz Tempete CIF old.exe c:\seqs\h26l\silent_qcif.yuv 1frames 15Hz endframe:299 QP bps PSNR CBP_P 28 15409 28.4 15213 24 26810 31.05 23349 20 45463 33.64 32093 16 75165 36.43 42209 new.exe c:\seqs\h26l\silent_qcif.yuv 1frames 15Hz endframe:299 QP bps PSNR CBP_P 28 15309 28.4 14213 24 26595 31.05 21203 20 45110 33.64 28566 16 74642 36.43 36983 QP bps bps %gain 28 15409 15309 0.65 24 26810 26595 0.8 20 45463 45110 0.78 16 75165 74642 0.7 QP CBP_P CBP_P %gain 28 15213 14213 6.57 24 23349 21203 9.19 20 32093 28566 10.99 16 42209 36983 12.38 Tempete CIF New2 PSNR % bit rate gain Silent QCIF 10Hz New2 PSNR % CBP bits gain Silent QCIF 10Hz old.exe c:\seqs\h26l\paris_cif.yuv 1frames 15Hz endframe:299 QP bps PSNR CBP_P 28 80597 27.25 65286 24 141948 30.29 95625 20 246782 33.32 132199 16 411199 36.4 172716 new.exe c:\seqs\h26l\paris_cif.yuv 1frames 15Hz endframe:299 QP bps PSNR CBP_P 28 80290 27.25 62216 24 141051 30.29 86658 20 245235 33.32 116724 16 409005 36.4 150781 QP bps bps %gain 28 80597 80290 0.38 24 141948 141051 0.63 20 246782 245235 0.63 16 411199 409005 0.53 QP CBP_P CBP_P %gain 28 65286 62216 4.7 24 95625 86658 9.38 20 132199 116724 11.71 16 172716 150781 12.7 New2 PSNR % bit rate gain Paris CIF 15Hz New2 PSNR % CBP bits gain Paris CIF 15Hz old.exe c:\seqs\h26l\mobile_cif.yuv 1frames 30Hz endframe:299 QP bps PSNR CBP_P 28 372404 25.45 414366 24 675533 28.41 614513 20 1310146 31.56 811904 16 2352643 34.88 888914 new.exe c:\seqs\h26l\mobile_cif.yuv 1frames 30Hz endframe:299 QP bps PSNR CBP_P 28 373865 25.45 428969 24 671901 28.41 578199 20 1301707 31.56 727517 16 2342160 34.88 784085 QP bps bps %gain 28 372404 373865 -0.39 24 675533 671901 0.54 20 1310146 1301707 0.64 16 2352643 2342160 0.45 QP CBP_P CBP_P %gain 28 414366 428969 -3.52 24 614513 578199 5.91 20 811904 727517 10.39 16 888914 784085 11.79 New2 PSNR % bit rate gain Mobile CIF 30Hz New2 PSNR % CBP bits gain Mobile CIF 30Hz old.exe c:\seqs\h26l\tempete_cif.yuv 1frames 30Hz endframe:259 QP bps PSNR CBP_P 28 265236 27.05 245338 24 490081 29.8 380227 20 964528 32.7 544833 16 1812393 35.79 655661 new.exe c:\seqs\h26l\tempete_cif.yuv 1frames 30Hz endframe:259 QP bps PSNR CBP_P 28 265799 27.05 250218 24 487588 29.8 358616 20 957732 32.7 485933 16 1802948 35.79 573803 QP bps bps %gain 28 265236 265799 -0.21 24 490081 487588 0.51 20 964528 957732 0.7 16 1812393 1802948 0.52 QP CBP_P CBP_P %gain 28 245338 250218 -1.99 24 380227 358616 5.68 20 544833 485933 10.81 16 655661 573803 12.48 New2 PSNR % bit rate gain Tempete CIF 30Hz New2 PSNR % CBP bits gain Tempete CIF 30Hz _1046783302.doc X
Language:English
Score: 597750.15 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...deo-site/0104_Aus/VCEG-M58.doc
Data Source: un
The Green Jobs Assessment Institutions Network (GAIN) Form or template | 20 July 2017 Contact(s): greenjobs@ilo.org GAIN is a network of policy research institutions and experts that analyses social and employment-related outcomes of greening policies. (...) A standardized methodology allows GAIN analysing the labour market implications of going green by quantifying existing green jobs, estimating green jobs potentials and jobs lost under various policies and investment scenarios. This analysis allows countries to foresee the opportunities and risks to reshape their economic and labour policies and investment decisions to maximize employment gains. GAIN aims to provide a common pool of expertise and standardized but country-level calibrated macroeconomic employment projection models.
Language:English
Score: 597713.9 - www.ilo.org/global/topi...WCMS_565193/lang--en/index.htm
Data Source: un
In order to foster the capacity of countries in answering these and designing evidence-based green policy strategies, GAIN arises as a very useful network for identifying options and opportunities to promote decent work through environmental actions, providing solutions-focused empirical research to inform policy making processes. (...) The two specific objectives of GAIN are as follows: To build and improve knowledge on quantitative and analytical methodologies and tools relevant for the assessment of employment dimensions of greening policies. (...) Indicative products and services Through activities outlined above, GAIN aims to achieve the following results: Enhanced capacity of research institutions participating in the Network, The elaboration of tools (a guide, for instance) for assessment of green jobs, Improved assessments and assessment methods, A series of high quality assessment reports, Extended outreach of research products by Network member Related Documents GAIN Founding Statute © 1996-2022 International Labour Organization (ILO) | Copyright and permissions  | Privacy policy | Fraud alert | Disclaimer   Skip to top
Language:English
Score: 597046.53 - https://www.ilo.org/global/top.../gain/about/lang--en/index.htm
Data Source: un
In order to foster the capacity of countries in answering these and designing evidence-based green policy strategies, GAIN arises as a very useful network for identifying options and opportunities to promote decent work through environmental actions, providing solutions-focused empirical research to inform policy making processes. (...) The two specific objectives of GAIN are as follows: To build and improve knowledge on quantitative and analytical methodologies and tools relevant for the assessment of employment dimensions of greening policies. (...) Indicative products and services Through activities outlined above, GAIN aims to achieve the following results: Enhanced capacity of research institutions participating in the Network, The elaboration of tools (a guide, for instance) for assessment of green jobs, Improved assessments and assessment methods, A series of high quality assessment reports, Extended outreach of research products by Network member Related Documents GAIN Founding Statute © 1996-2022 International Labour Organization (ILO) | Copyright and permissions  | Privacy policy | Fraud alert | Disclaimer   Skip to top
Language:English
Score: 597046.53 - www.ilo.org/global/topi.../gain/about/lang--en/index.htm
Data Source: un
The analysis also provides a compression gain comparison between different transform block sizes. (...) Estimated Silicon Area Increase vs. Compression Gain 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 8x816x1632x3264x64 max block sizes compression gain (%) and silicon area increase (x100%) bit reduction % silicon area (x 100%) Figure 2: Compression gain and estimated silicon area increase When the large transform block size is 64, the hardware cost of the transform block itself is increased by approximately eight times. (...) Meanwhile, the compression gain is almost saturated when the transform block size is greater than 16.
Language:English
Score: 595947.27 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a..._10_C_Guangzhou/JCTVC-C117.doc
Data Source: un
Combining those equations with equation (1), the condition for signing an RTA becomes: (1 − δeRTA)T︸ ︷︷ ︸ trade gains + δ ( e− eRTA ) W︸ ︷︷ ︸ security gains ≥ c, (2) where on the LHS we have decomposed the net expected surplus of RTA into pure economic gains and security gains. (...) Two effects indeed go in opposite directions: on the one hand a high probability of conflict δe reduces the expected gain of an RTA because these gains are lost in times of war. (...) In absence of security gains, the only impact of a larger probability of conflict is to reduce the expected gain of an RTA because the RTA related trade gains are lost in times of war.
Language:English
Score: 594276.7 - https://www.wto.org/english/re...tdw_e/wkshop09_e/thoenig_e.pdf
Data Source: un