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Industry Bitrates for High Quality SD & HD MPEG-2 Distribution, Backhaul and D-Cinema Joint Video Team (JVT) of ISO/IEC MPEG & ITU-T VCEG (ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 and ITU-T SG16 Q.6) 5th Meeting: Geneva, CH, 9-17 October, 2002 Document: JVT-E 046 Filename: JVT-E 046 .doc Title: Industry Bitrates for High Quality SD & HD MPEG-2 Distribution, Backhaul and D-Cinema Status: Input Document to JVT Purpose: Information Author(s) or Contact(s): Tom McMahon Demografx, Inc. 4640 Admiralty Way, Suite 500 Marina Del Rey, CA 90292 USA Tel: Email: +1-310-578-7848 x236 TLM@DEMOGRAFX.COM Source: Demografx, Inc. _____________________________ Introduction An informal poll was conducted to determine the typical bit rates in use today for high quality MPEG-2 systems. (...) Data DTV Network Operations HD Distribution SD Distribution HD Backhaul SD Backhaul Respondent 1 45 Mbps 4:2:2, 60 Mbps future for higher quality 15 Mbps 4:2:2 45 Mbps 4:2:2, 60 Mbps future for higher quality 15 Mbps 4:2:2 Respondent 2 34-42 Mbps 4:2:2 6-10+ Mbps 4:2:2 & 4:2:0 34-42 Mbps 4:2:2 6-10+ Mbps 4:2:2 & 4:2:0 Respondent 3 TBD 20 Mbps 4:2:2 for high quality 45 Mbps 4:2:2 Higher in future 32 Mbps 4:2:2 for sports Respondent 4 41-42 Mbps 4:2:2 N/A (still analog) 41-42 Mbps 4:2:2 N/A (still analog) Respondent 5 26 4:2:0 to 40 Mbps 4:2:2 (still experimenting) 12 Mbps 4:2:0 (still experimenting) 40-45 Mbps 4:2:2 12 Mbps 4:2:0 (still experimenting) Respondent 6 25-45 Mbps 4:2:0 8-15 Mbps 4:2:0 and 4:2:2 45-100 Mbps 4:2:2 15-45 Mbps 4:2:2 and 4:4:4 Field Production Site 1 N/A N/A N/A 18 Mbps 4:2:2 D-Cinema Current Operating Rate Future Rate D-Cinema Company One Head End, Theater Servers, in stage one deployment 60 Mbps 4:2:0 80 Mbps 4:2:0 for higher quality. (...) High quality HD MPEG-2 ranges from 34-80 Mbps, with some inclination to move to a higher quality level at the cost of higher bitrate for critical applications.
Language:English
Score: 1198006.1 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...te/2002_10_Geneva/JVT-E046.doc
Data Source: un
This is increasingly important in countries which are moving towards middle-income country status and aspiring to become knowledge economies, increasing the demand for higher skills.” [ADB ‘Improving Transitions’, Report Launch] Why We Need High Quality Teaching in Higher Education As we have noted, students today are demanding a higher quality of university teaching. (...) The shift towards better teaching has not meant a degrading of the research capacity of higher education – far from it. The demands on individual members of faculty are therefore growing all the time – university staff are now expected to combine high quality teaching with continued high quality research in their chosen fields. (...) Preparing and maintaining high quality higher education staff is a central task for every country, particularly in the developing world.
Language:English
Score: 1192595.5 - https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/gro...eetingdocument/wcms_364831.pdf
Data Source: un
This is increasingly important in countries which are moving towards middle-income country status and aspiring to become knowledge economies, increasing the demand for higher skills.” [ADB ‘Improving Transitions’, Report Launch] Why We Need High Quality Teaching in Higher Education As we have noted, students today are demanding a higher quality of university teaching. (...) The shift towards better teaching has not meant a degrading of the research capacity of higher education – far from it. The demands on individual members of faculty are therefore growing all the time – university staff are now expected to combine high quality teaching with continued high quality research in their chosen fields. (...) Preparing and maintaining high quality higher education staff is a central task for every country, particularly in the developing world.
Language:English
Score: 1192595.5 - www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/grou...eetingdocument/wcms_364831.pdf
Data Source: un
Since higher-income consumers tend to purchase higher-quality products, Linder conjectured that local consumers’ demand causes high-income countries to produce and export high-quality products. (...) Each predicts that high-income locations export high-quality products, consistent with the finding that higher-income countries export products at higher prices within narrowly defined product categories (Schott, 2004; Hummels and Klenow, 2005).2 Similarly, each predicts that high-income locations import high-quality products if prefer- ences are non-homothetic, as indeed they are.3 Thus, both theories are consistent with the finding that higher-income countries import more from countries exporting products at higher prices (Hallak, 2006). (...) Falvey (1981) introduced a partial-equilibrium model of within-industry specialization across qualities by capital intensity consonant with the within-product interpretation of factor-abundance theory suggested by Schott (2004). 13Flam and Helpman (1987) focus on a setting in which the high-wage country, which demands higher qualities, has Ricardian comparative advantage in producing higher-quality varieties.
Language:English
Score: 1159980.5 - https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/news14_e/dingel_e.pdf
Data Source: un
The spirit of the covenant underlies the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which recognize that access to higher education is vital to lifelong learning. SDG 4 includes access to higher education in its 3rd target: “By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university.” This target emphasizes that higher education must be globally accessible to all and of high quality. (...) It has also been shown to improve an individual's quality of life; studies show that compared to high school graduates, college graduates have longer life spans, better access to health care, better dietary and health practices, greater economic stability and security, more stable employment and greater job satisfaction, less dependency on government assistance, greater understanding of government, increased community service and leadership, more self-confidence, and less criminal activity and incarceration.
Language:English
Score: 1158540.5 - https://www.un.org/en/node/82188
Data Source: un
The spirit of the covenant underlies the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which recognize that access to higher education is vital to lifelong learning. SDG 4 includes access to higher education in its 3rd target: “By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university.” This target emphasizes that higher education must be globally accessible to all and of high quality. (...) It has also been shown to improve an individual's quality of life; studies show that compared to high school graduates, college graduates have longer life spans, better access to health care, better dietary and health practices, greater economic stability and security, more stable employment and greater job satisfaction, less dependency on government assistance, greater understanding of government, increased community service and leadership, more self-confidence, and less criminal activity and incarceration.
Language:English
Score: 1158540.5 - https://www.un.org/en/academic-impact/page/higher-education
Data Source: un
The spirit of the covenant underlies the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which recognize that access to higher education is vital to lifelong learning. SDG 4 includes access to higher education in its 3rd target: “By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university.” This target emphasizes that higher education must be globally accessible to all and of high quality. (...) It has also been shown to improve an individual's quality of life; studies show that compared to high school graduates, college graduates have longer life spans, better access to health care, better dietary and health practices, greater economic stability and security, more stable employment and greater job satisfaction, less dependency on government assistance, greater understanding of government, increased community service and leadership, more self-confidence, and less criminal activity and incarceration.
Language:English
Score: 1158540.5 - https://www.un.org/en/academic-impact/higher-education
Data Source: un
The spirit of the covenant underlies the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which recognize that access to higher education is vital to lifelong learning. SDG 4 includes access to higher education in its 3rd target: “By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university.” This target emphasizes that higher education must be globally accessible to all and of high quality. (...) It has also been shown to improve an individual's quality of life; studies show that compared to high school graduates, college graduates have longer life spans, better access to health care, better dietary and health practices, greater economic stability and security, more stable employment and greater job satisfaction, less dependency on government assistance, greater understanding of government, increased community service and leadership, more self-confidence, and less criminal activity and incarceration.
Language:English
Score: 1158540.5 - https://www.un.org/en/node/107024
Data Source: un
If the rm wants to produce a higher quality level, a high e¤ort by the low 7 productive worker is needed, so the rm has to provide incentive to him. (...) Thus, if the rm wants to reach the higher quality level (q3) it has to induce high e¤ort by both workers paying them the following wage: [13] wh;m(q3) = wh;mr + (e1 e0) = wh;mr +: So the rm can realize a higher quality level q3 by spending the same wage cost as for q1 or q2: If the rm keeps production at home hiring immigrants in the manual task (enjoying the lower reservation wage by immigrants, as we will see in what follows) just two output strategies are not dominated: q0 and q3: Assuming p(qi) = qi the prot functions associated to these strategies are: [14] h;m(q0) = q0 2w(q0) = e0H + e0L 2wh;mr [15] h;m(q3) = q3 2w(q3) = e1H + e1L 2wh;mr 2 If the rm chooses to produce abroad, it has to pay a local agent costing 8 who reveals both the type of local workers and how to produce quality level higher than the minimum one abroad. (...) The wage schedule and prot function will be9 : [16] wf (q0) = wfu + eo = w f r 9Notice that because just a low e¤ort level is requested by the rm, there is no reason to pay for the local agent to reveal the workers e¤ort. 8 [17] f (q0) = q0 2w(q0) = e0H + e0L 2wfr When the rm wants to reach a higher quality level, it has to provide an incentive to the low type to obtain q1 or to the high type to obtain q2: But as in the domestic case, the incentive provided to the high productive worker is the same as the incentive provided to the low productive worker, so that the strategy q2 dominates the strategy q1: Quality q1 remains dominated as it is at home but the quality q2 does not.
Language:English
Score: 1151742.5 - https://www.wto.org/english/re...tdw_e/wkshop10_e/orefice_e.pdf
Data Source: un
We test empirically the predictions of the model by combining a unique data set of highly disaggregated Argentinean …rm-level wine export values and volumes between 2002 and 2009 with experts wine ratings as a measure of quality. In response to a real depreciation, we …nd that …rms signi…cantly increase more their markups and less their export volumes for higher quality products, but only when exporting to high income destination countries. (...) Quality is ranked on a (50,100) scale with a larger value indicating a higher quality. (...) Export volumes increase 2 following a real depreciation, but by less for higher quality goods. Finally, we …nd that the response of export prices (volumes) to real exchange rate changes increases (decreases) with quality only when …rms export to high income destination countries.
Language:English
Score: 1149191 - https://www.wto.org/english/re.../wkshop14_e/natalie_chen_e.pdf
Data Source: un