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PowerPoint Presentation Care Jobs and the Care Economy: framing the issues for the future of decent work Panel on Care Jobs and the Care Economy – an opportunity for the future of decent work Conference on Regulating for Decent Work ILO, Geneva, 3-5 July 2017 Susan Himmelweit, Open University and Women’s Budget Group 1 The care economy Source: Based on Rasavi, 2007 Based on Rasavi, • Care diamond give four sectors of care provision • Both paid and unpaid care: • Three sectors mainly employ paid care • Family mostly unpaid care – though should really also add growing sector of directly employed care workers • These sectors allocate care in a variety of different ways eg • By social norms as to who should care for whom • By the market according to who can pay • By charities according to assessed need • Private for-profit sector is unique in using market as its sole way of allocating care 2 Care is highly gendered • Within families, women give more unpaid care and tend to receive less • Norms determine who gives unpaid care within families and who is seen as needing care • Women often poorer in old age due to spending time on unpaid care and more often living alone • Women less likely to be able to purchase own care • Public/community care sectors particularly needed by women • Paid care workers also more likely to be women • Care work seen as unskilled because women do it • Skills learned in the home go unrecognised, and undervalued • Underinvestment in other skills needed to provide good care • Tendency towards low pay and poor working conditions in paid care • Austerity/lack of public care provision impacts particularly on women as: • Care receivers • Care workers • Those whose unpaid work makes up for failures in public provision 3 Care is relational work • Hard to assess quality from outside • Difficult to regulate • Continuity of care matters to building relationships • Exit costly – for both children and adult care receivers → Market mechanisms do not work well in improving care quality • Intrinsic motivation of care givers matters • Cannot care well without caring “about” → Good treatment of care workers improves quality of care → Training and career structure matter to both quality of work and quality of care • Hard to spread relationships over too many people to raise productivity • Indeed low productivity care-giver/care-recipient ratio taken as indices of quality → Labour intensive with limited scope for improving productivity without reducing quality → Training/technology tends to improve quality rather than reduce need for care workers • Quality of work = quality of care 4 Problems with for-profit care services • Difficulties in assessing care quality • Purchasers often income constrained → Competition between for-profit providers tends to be over cost not quality → Little incentive to train or to improve quality • Care is highly labour intensive → Only way to reduce costs is by cutting payments to staff → employing fewer or worse paid/less well qualified staff → worsening conditions of employment → directly reducing quality: quality of work = quality of care • The public sector and non-profits can resist such pressures, if • they are mandated to provide high quality care • funded sufficiently to be able to retain their mission and professionalism • and are trusted to use funding in that way →Requires good conditions of employment and training: quality of work = quality of care 5 Investing in the care economy • Investing in care means increasing the share of paid care by • Providing paid care for those with unmet care needs • Shifting some care from unpaid family care to paid care sectors • This has benefits for both those with care needs and some of their unpaid carers • Public spending on care is an investment in social infrastructure • Has long-term benefits – thus investment • Benefits extend beyond the immediate recipients of care – thus infrastructure • Also has immediate benefits for women’s employment and gender equality in both paid and unpaid work • Only high quality care provision will improve care quality, provide good jobs and transform gender inequalities 6 A study conducted for the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) • An international comparative study conducted by the UK Women’s Budget Group • Seven OECD countries: Australia, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK, USA • Compared effects of a large public investment (2% of GDP) in: • Care industry, broadly defined to include both child and adult paid care, enhancing social infrastructure • Construction industry, as a typical focus of stimulus policies, justified as physical infrastructure • Assumed everything else stayed the same including wages and gender employment ratios in all industries: • So not specifically about improving conditions in paid care work 7 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 const care const care const care const care const care const care const care AUS DEN GER ITA JAP UK USA % p ts in cr ea se in e m pl oy m en t r at e Women Men Findings: total employment effects • Height of bars gives overall increase in the employment rate as a result of investing 2% of GDP in paid care or construction in each economy • In all economies number of jobs created by investing in care is much greater than from investing in construction (at least half as much again except in Japan) • These are large investments creating large numbers of jobs (eg nearly 13 million care jobs in the US, 2 million in Germany) 8 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 const care const care const care const care const care const care const care AUS DEN GER ITA JAP UK USA % p ts in cr ea se in e m pl oy m en t r at e Women Men Findings: gendered employment effects • Gender segregation in both industries → Investment in care reduces gender employment gap, but in construction increases it • Much larger effect on women’s employment from investment in care than in construction • Greater overall employment effect of investment in care → Men’s employment rises by almost as much as from investing in construction 9 Investment in care • Provides care for those with unmet needs and shifts care from unpaid to paid sectors → Not only creates jobs it also frees up unpaid carers to take them • Net gain for the economy as a whole • including for government in increased tax revenue and decreased social security spending that reduces net cost to public purse of such investment substantially • eg in UK, Jerome De Henau of the WBG estimates that 89%-95% of the gross costs of providing universal publicly funded childcare would be recouped (depending on employment conditions) • This effect does not apply to investment that just gives jobs to existing workers eg many construction projects 10 Quality of care jobs and provision matters to gender equality • Training, recognition of skills and reasonable working conditions in the paid care sector are required to provide both • High quality care and • Good jobs in the care industry • Care quality and quality of jobs in care industry intimately related • Both are important to gender equality because • Low quality care will be used only by those who have no alternative • will not change norms overall or free up higher skilled women to participate in employment • Conditions of paid care workers have substantial effects on overall gender gaps • and affect bargaining conditions for women elsewhere in the economy • In practice investment in care would have to improve conditions of care workers too • Our model, by assuming wages unchanged, did not take account of that • Underestimates effect on gender wage gap • Overestimates effect on gender employment gap and on overall employment 11 Policy to get good quality care services • Investing in care involves increasing the share of paid care • Within paid care private for- profit produces: • less good quality care • worse working conditions than public sector or non-profits • Evidence from Europe where cost cutting has led to privatisation and casualisation of care 12 Conclusion • Investing in care will • Meet unmet care needs and shift care from unpaid to paid sectors • Increase employment, generating more jobs than investment in other forms of infrastructure • Reduce the gender employment gap by generating more jobs for women • Free up people, mostly women, currently providing unpaid care to take employment • Recoup much of its costs because employing new workers • But to transform gender inequalities need to provide good quality care and employment conditions • So also closing gender pay gap • For that important to develop care systems based on public sector (or non-profit) provision 13 Care Jobs and the Care Economy: framing the issues for the future of decent work The care economy Care is highly gendered Care is relational work Problems with for-profit care services Investing in the care economy A study conducted for the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) Findings: total employment effects Findings: gendered employment effects Investment in care Quality of care jobs and provision matters to gender equality Policy to get good quality care services Conclusion
Language:English
Score: 1137358 - https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/gro...s/presentation/wcms_565112.pdf
Data Source: un
UN Committee of Experts, Thailand Hungary, India, Italy, France Australia, UK, US 5 Unilateral country measures Common features of highly digitalised business models, and their tax implications 6 Cross-jurisdictional scale without mass Reliance on intangible assets Data and user participation Impacting the distribution of taxing rights over time by reducing the number of jurisdictions where a taxing right can be asserted over the business profits of an MNE Significant progress under BEPS project, but often difficult to determine how to allocate income from intangibles among different parts of an MNE group If considered a source of value creation, could pose challenges, as such a concept of value creation is currently not captured by the existing tax framework Nexus Profit allocation Divergent perspectives 7 Three groups of jurisdictions: User participation may lead to misalignments between where profits are taxed and where value is created. (...) First Group Third GroupSecond Group Digitalisation and globalisation of the economy present challenges to the existing international tax framework, BUT these challenges are not exclusive or specific to highly digitalised business models. Review of the key concepts 8 Members of the Inclusive Framework have agreed to: Undertake a coherent and concurrent review of the profit allocation and nexus rules that would consider the impacts of digitalisation on the economy, relating to the principle of aligning profits with underlying economic activities and value creation Work towards a consensus- based solution by 2020 with an update to be provided in 2019 3 Interim Measures 9 Suggest lack of conceptual basis and potential for adverse consequences • Impact of a gross tax on investment, innovation and welfare, • Potential economic incidence of taxation on consumers and business • Possibility of over-taxation • Concern that interim measure may prove not to be interim • Compliance and administration costs Acknowledge challenges but consider imperative to act pending global solution • Untaxed value is being generated within their jurisdiction • Current position undermines the fairness, sustainability and public acceptability of the current CIT system. • Any challenges need to be weighed against the consequences of not acting • At least some of the possible adverse consequences can be mitigated through the design of the measure. 1. (...) How may emerging technology like blockchain (in the form of crypto-currencies) place recent progress on tax transparency at risk 12 Beyond the international tax rules (2) 4 13 European Commission Proposals EU Commission proposal on new measures to tax digital businesses 21 March 2018 • Digital services tax on advertising, intermediation and transmission of data • Threshold of 750m + 50m of digital services revenue Interim Measure • A “virtual PE” based on revenue, users or business contracts • Changes to profit allocation rules between Member States • Changes to tax treaties with non-EU MS Long Term Solution 14 Timetable for delivery for Inclusive Framework 2018 2019 2020 TFDE Meeting July 2018 Update 2019 Final Report 2020 • Test feasibility of technical options relating to profit attribution and nexus • Monitor the impact of BEPS implementation and the introduction of any unilateral measures • Explore opportunities and risks for tax policy and administration as a result of new technologies.
Language:English
Score: 1134739.5 - https://www.un.org/esa/ffd/wp-...M_SM_Digital_GPerezNavarro.pdf
Data Source: un
The surveyed poultry businesses are profitable yet face limited growth prospects due to internal weaknesses and external challenges. (...) Study on the presence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus and Newcastle disease virus in live bird markets in Tanta District, Gharbia Governorate, Egypt AHBL - Promoting strategies for prevention and control of HPAI Reports of the project GCP/INT/010/GER summarize the findings from an integrated approach to prevent and control Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in the smallholder environment of Cambodia, Egypt and Uganda by considering the components of animal health (AH), poultry breeds (B) and livelihoods (L). Highly pathogenic avian influenza: a rapid assessment of its socio-economic impact on vulnerable households in Egypt AHBL - Promoting strategies for prevention and control of HPAI This report is the result of the efforts of many people.
Language:English
Score: 1117908.6 - https://www.fao.org/egypt/ectad/publications/en/
Data Source: un
WHO | The Patan Academy of Health Sciences Access Home Alt+0 Content Alt+2 Search Search Submit Language عربي 中文 English Français Русский Español Menu Global Health Workforce Alliance About the Alliance Members & partners Country responses Knowledge centre Media centre Global Forums The Patan Academy of Health Sciences Member profile The Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS) is an autonomous, not-for-profit public institution of higher education. Currently, most medical schools in Nepal are for-profit, and medical education is very traditional. (...) In contrast, PAHS employs highly innovative strategies in several areas to encourage its graduates to work to improve the health status of the rural poor. (...) PAHS is implementing a highly progressive curriculum, modeled after modern curricula used by a growing number of Western medical schools.
Language:English
Score: 1107985.4 - https://www.who.int/workforcea...partners/member_list/patan/en/
Data Source: un
This is because the commoditization of access requires a highly competitive market structure as an outcome of licensing policy. (...) If costs are kept low or reduced, a reduced P will reduce revenues but not profits. 5. Where costs are not reduced, Government could choose to encourage price reductions to customers by imposing a formula along the following lines: Let X = ( [(* + max ((^ - (*; 0)] = X* where ( is the marginal rate of tax; (^ is the actual level of profits realised; and (* is the estimated level of monopoly profits which triggers X = X* ( 0. When (^ ( (* then X = ( ((* + 0) and when (^ ( (* then X = ( [(* + ((^ - (*)] This says (a) when realised profits, (^, fall short of (*, no tax is paid; but as realised profits, (^, exceed monopoly profits, (*, the marginal rate of taxation, (, will increase and so therefore will X.
Language:English
Score: 1101006.5 - https://www.itu.int/osg/spu/ni...nfo_3G_Auctions_John%20Ure.doc
Data Source: un
“mis-pricing”) result in base erosion and profit shift- ing. These practices are particularly prevalent in relation to multinational profits generated by brands, intellectual property or digital services that are highly mobile and can be located anywhere in the world, but can also exist in relation to the pricing of extractive resource-related contracts, for example. (...) G20 countries and the OECD have jointly committed to addressing base erosion and profit shifting. In June 2012, the G20 leaders discussed the need to prevent base erosion and profit shifting at their meeting in Mexico. (...) When you consider an MNE’s activity in your country, how do you judge whether the MNE has reported an appropriate amount of profit in your jurisdiction? 4. What main obstacles have you encountered in assessing whether the appropriate amount of profit is reported in your jurisdiction and in ensuring that tax is paid on such profit?
Language:English
Score: 1053461.5 - https://www.un.org/esa/ffd/wp-...4/08/2014_4BEPS_Newsletter.pdf
Data Source: un
[NEW PARA: Innovation can help unlock new opportunities for youth to engage profitably in agriculture and supporting markets and secure decent livelihoods for them and their families. Farming and other work in agriculture and food systems must be profitable to entice youth to the profession and safeguard the sustainability of agriculture for future generations.] (...) Farming and other work in agriculture and food systems must be profitable to entice youth to the profession and safeguard the sustainability of agriculture for future generations.] 15.
Language:English
Score: 1043019.4 - https://www.fao.org/fileadmin/...outh/First_round/Indonesia.pdf
Data Source: un
Social services such as health and education are highly subsidized by the state to meet the needs of the masses and the vulnerable. (...) Many SIDS are blessed with an elaborate network of rivers and streams Food The majority of low income and low middle income households in SIDS are obliged to consume highly processed canned foods with high sugar and salt contents with many additives and preservatives. (...) For many social reasons including benefits to health, availability and accessibility to wholesome food and poverty alleviation it is necessary for SIDS to invest in a well-established agricultural sector and not as an economic activity that competes with other highly profitable investments like tourism or industrial fisheries but in such a way that the society can meet its international and national obligations on food and nutrition security. expand to read more read on a separate page Access your account Lost password?
Language:English
Score: 1042447.95 - https://www.fao.org/fsnforum/comment/8932
Data Source: un
Social services such as health and education are highly subsidized by the state to meet the needs of the masses and the vulnerable. (...) Many SIDS are blessed with an elaborate network of rivers and streams Food The majority of low income and low middle income households in SIDS are obliged to consume highly processed canned foods with high sugar and salt contents with many additives and preservatives. (...) For many social reasons including benefits to health, availability and accessibility to wholesome food and poverty alleviation it is necessary for SIDS to invest in a well-established agricultural sector and not as an economic activity that competes with other highly profitable investments like tourism or industrial fisheries but in such a way that the society can meet its international and national obligations on food and nutrition security.
Language:English
Score: 1042447.95 - https://www.fao.org/fsnforum/ar/comment/8932
Data Source: un
Social services such as health and education are highly subsidized by the state to meet the needs of the masses and the vulnerable. (...) Many SIDS are blessed with an elaborate network of rivers and streams Food The majority of low income and low middle income households in SIDS are obliged to consume highly processed canned foods with high sugar and salt contents with many additives and preservatives. (...) For many social reasons including benefits to health, availability and accessibility to wholesome food and poverty alleviation it is necessary for SIDS to invest in a well-established agricultural sector and not as an economic activity that competes with other highly profitable investments like tourism or industrial fisheries but in such a way that the society can meet its international and national obligations on food and nutrition security. expand to read more read on a separate page Access your account Lost password?
Language:English
Score: 1042447.95 - https://www.fao.org/fsnforum/index.php/comment/8932
Data Source: un