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Comments on: Innovation or Imitation in Uganda Comments on: Innovation or Imitation in Uganda Innovation starts with people By: Homepage <strong>... (...) Read More Infos here: unhcr.org/innovation/innovation-imitation-in-uganda/ [...] By: World: Community Engagement & Humanitarian Partnerships Newsletter, December 2016 – StateStability […] The UNHCR Emergency Lab successfully adopts the Interviews 'Boda Boda Talk Talk' project from South Sudan to meet information and feedback needs for refugees in Northern Uganda. More […] By: Innovation or Imitation in Uganda - Times of News France […] (Internews’ audio information project in South Sudan is covered in this article from UNHCR Innovation.) […]
Language:English
Score: 1347187.9 - https://www.unhcr.org/innovati...tion-imitation-in-uganda/feed/
Data Source: un
Imitation and inspiration: the ceramic trade from China to Basra and back | Silk Roads Programme Skip to main content Silk Roads Programme About About the Silk Roads The UNESCO Silk Roads Programme The International Network for the Silk Roads Programme Silk Roads Youth Research Grant Youth Eyes on the Silk Roads Photo Contest Who are we? (...) Being the port where, in the 9 th century, imported Tang stoneware and porcelain were first off-loaded from ships, meant that local potters were exposed to new inspiration, which led to experimentation in their own production techniques. However, imitating Chinese porcelain techniques was no easy feat, especially since the base colour of the raw clay in Basra was yellow and not pure white. (...) As a result, it took the Chinese until the 15 th century to overcome their own technical problems to re-imitate the Middle Eastern porcelain makers, going on to produce some of the finest Chinese Blue and White porcelain.
Language:English
Score: 1296883 - https://en.unesco.org/silkroad...c-trade-china-basra-and-back-0
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Sections 3 and 4 discuss the role of technology licensing, imitation, and FDI in the process of international technology transfer. (...) The basic idea of product cycle models (for details see Grossman and Helpman, 1991) is that new products are invented in the North and due to lower relative Southern wage (endogenous in the model) firms in the South can successfully undercut Northern producers once they succeed in imitating Northern products. A typical good is initially produced in the North till either further innovation (in the quality ladders model) or successful Southern imitation (in both the variety model and the quality ladders model) makes profitable production in the North infeasible. Consequently, either production ceases all together (if product is innovated over) or shifts to the South (if imitated). Thus, prior to imitation, all products are exported by the North whereas post imitation they are imported, thereby completing the cycle.
Language:English
Score: 1179912.9 - https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/devel_e/sem03_e/w88.doc
Data Source: un
adp_statindex_e.doc Section Description I Live Animals; Animal Products II Vegetable Products III Animal or Vegetable Fats and Oils and Their Cleavage Products; Prepared Edible Fats; Animal or Vegetable Waxes IV Prepared Foodstuffs; Beverages, Spirits and Vinegar; Tobacco and Manufactured Tobacco Substitutes V Mineral Products VI Products of the Chemical or Allied Industries VII Plastics and Articles Thereof; Rubber and Articles Thereof VIII Raw Hides and Skins, Leather, Furskins and Articles Thereof; Sadderly and Harness; Travel Goods, Handbags and Similar Containers; Articles of Animal Gut (Other than Silk-Worm Gut) IX Wood and Articles of Wood; Wood Charcoal; Cork and Articles of Cork; Manufactures of Straw, of Esparto or of Other Plaiting Materials; Basketware and Wickerwork X Pulp Of Wood or of Other Fibrous Cellulosic Material; Recovered (Waste and Scrap) Paper or Paperboard; Paper and Paperboard and Articles Thereof XI Textiles and Textile Articles XII Footwear, Headgear, Umbrellas, Sun Umbrellas, Walking-Sticks, Seat-Sticks, Whips, Riding-Crops and Parts Thereof; Prepared Feathers and Articles Made Therewith; Artificial Flowers; Articles of Human Hair XIII Articles of Stone, Plaster, Cement, Asbestos, Mica or Similar Materials; Ceramic Products; Glass and Glassware XIV Natural or Cultured Pearls, Precious or Semi-Precious Stones, Precious Metals, Metals Clad with Precious Metal and Articles Thereof; Imitation Jewellery; Coin Thereof; Imitation Jewellery; Coin XV Base Metals and Articles of Base Metal XVI Machinery and Mechanical Appliances; Electrical Equipment; Parts Thereof; Sound Recorders and Reproducers, Television Image and Sound Recorders and Reproducers, and Parts and Accessories of Such Articles XVII Vehicles, Aircraft, Vessels and Associated Transport Equipment XVIII Optical, Photographic, Cinematographic, Measuring, Checking, Precision, Medical or Surgical Instruments and Apparatus; Clocks and Watches; Musical Instruments; Parts and Accessories Thereof XIX Arms and Ammunition; Parts and Accessories Thereof XX Miscellaneous Manufactured Articles XXI Works of Art, Collectors' Pieces and Antiques ...
Language:English
Score: 1178477.05 - https://www.wto.org/english/tr...op_e/adp_e/adp_statindex_e.pdf
Data Source: un
scm_statindex_e.doc Section Description I Live Animals; Animal Products II Vegetable Products III Animal or Vegetable Fats and Oils and Their Cleavage Products; Prepared Edible Fats; Animal or Vegetable Waxes IV Prepared Foodstuffs; Beverages, Spirits and Vinegar; Tobacco and Manufactured Tobacco Substitutes V Mineral Products VI Products of the Chemical or Allied Industries VII Plastics and Articles Thereof; Rubber and Articles Thereof VIII Raw Hides and Skins, Leather, Furskins and Articles Thereof; Sadderly and Harness; Travel Goods, Handbags and Similar Containers; Articles of Animal Gut (Other than Silk-Worm Gut) IX Wood and Articles of Wood; Wood Charcoal; Cork and Articles of Cork; Manufactures of Straw, of Esparto or of Other Plaiting Materials; Basketware and Wickerwork X Pulp Of Wood or of Other Fibrous Cellulosic Material; Recovered (Waste and Scrap) Paper or Paperboard; Paper and Paperboard and Articles Thereof XI Textiles and Textile Articles XII Footwear, Headgear, Umbrellas, Sun Umbrellas, Walking-Sticks, Seat-Sticks, Whips, Riding-Crops and Parts Thereof; Prepared Feathers and Articles Made Therewith; Artificial Flowers; Articles of Human Hair XIII Articles of Stone, Plaster, Cement, Asbestos, Mica or Similar Materials; Ceramic Products; Glass and Glassware XIV Natural or Cultured Pearls, Precious or Semi-Precious Stones, Precious Metals, Metals Clad with Precious Metal and Articles Thereof; Imitation Jewellery; Coin Thereof; Imitation Jewellery; Coin XV Base Metals and Articles of Base Metal XVI Machinery and Mechanical Appliances; Electrical Equipment; Parts Thereof; Sound Recorders and Reproducers, Television Image and Sound Recorders and Reproducers, and Parts and Accessories of Such Articles XVII Vehicles, Aircraft, Vessels and Associated Transport Equipment XVIII Optical, Photographic, Cinematographic, Measuring, Checking, Precision, Medical or Surgical Instruments and Apparatus; Clocks and Watches; Musical Instruments; Parts and Accessories Thereof XIX Arms and Ammunition; Parts and Accessories Thereof XX Miscellaneous Manufactured Articles XXI Works of Art, Collectors' Pieces and Antiques ...
Language:English
Score: 1178477.05 - https://www.wto.org/english/tr...op_e/scm_e/scm_statindex_e.pdf
Data Source: un
Section Section Description I Live Animals; Animal Products II Vegetable Products III Animal or Vegetable Fats and Oils and Their Cleavage Products; Prepared Edible Fats; Animal or Vegetable Waxes IV Prepared Foodstuffs; Beverages, Spirits and Vinegar; Tobacco and Manufactured Tobacco Substitutes V Mineral Products VI Products of the Chemical or Allied Industries VII Plastics and Articles Thereof; Rubber and Articles Thereof VIII Raw Hides and Skins, Leather, Furskins and Articles Thereof; Sadderly and Harness; Travel Goods, Handbags and Similar Containers; Articles of Animal Gut (Other than Silk-Worm Gut) IX Wood and Articles of Wood; Wood Charcoal; Cork and Articles of Cork; Manufactures of Straw, of Esparto or of Other Plaiting Materials; Basketware and Wickerwork X Pulp Of Wood or of Other Fibrous Cellulosic Material; Recovered (Waste and Scrap) Paper or Paperboard; Paper and Paperboard and Articles Thereof XI Textiles and Textile Articles XII Footwear, Headgear, Umbrellas, Sun Umbrellas, Walking-Sticks, Seat-Sticks, Whips, Riding-Crops and Parts Thereof; Prepared Feathers and Articles Made Therewith; Artificial Flowers; Articles of Human Hair XIII Articles of Stone, Plaster, Cement, Asbestos, Mica or Similar Materials; Ceramic Products; Glass and Glassware XIV Natural or Cultured Pearls, Precious or Semi-Precious Stones, Precious Metals, Metals Clad with Precious Metal and Articles Thereof; Imitation Jewellery; Coin Thereof; Imitation Jewellery; Coin XV Base Metals and Articles of Base Metal XVI Machinery and Mechanical Appliances; Electrical Equipment; Parts Thereof; Sound Recorders and Reproducers, Television Image and Sound Recorders and Reproducers, and Parts and Accessories of Such Articles XVII Vehicles, Aircraft, Vessels and Associated Transport Equipment XVIII Optical, Photographic, Cinematographic, Measuring, Checking, Precision, Medical or Surgical Instruments and Apparatus; Clocks and Watches; Musical Instruments; Parts and Accessories Thereof XIX Arms and Ammunition; Parts and Accessories Thereof XX Miscellaneous Manufactured Articles XXI Works of Art, Collectors' Pieces and Antiques ...
Language:English
Score: 1178477.05 - https://www.wto.org/english/tr...op_e/scm_e/scm_statindex_e.doc
Data Source: un
Section Section Description I Live Animals; Animal Products II Vegetable Products III Animal or Vegetable Fats and Oils and Their Cleavage Products; Prepared Edible Fats; Animal or Vegetable Waxes IV Prepared Foodstuffs; Beverages, Spirits and Vinegar; Tobacco and Manufactured Tobacco Substitutes V Mineral Products VI Products of the Chemical or Allied Industries VII Plastics and Articles Thereof; Rubber and Articles Thereof VIII Raw Hides and Skins, Leather, Furskins and Articles Thereof; Sadderly and Harness; Travel Goods, Handbags and Similar Containers; Articles of Animal Gut (Other than Silk-Worm Gut) IX Wood and Articles of Wood; Wood Charcoal; Cork and Articles of Cork; Manufactures of Straw, of Esparto or of Other Plaiting Materials; Basketware and Wickerwork X Pulp Of Wood or of Other Fibrous Cellulosic Material; Recovered (Waste and Scrap) Paper or Paperboard; Paper and Paperboard and Articles Thereof XI Textiles and Textile Articles XII Footwear, Headgear, Umbrellas, Sun Umbrellas, Walking-Sticks, Seat-Sticks, Whips, Riding-Crops and Parts Thereof; Prepared Feathers and Articles Made Therewith; Artificial Flowers; Articles of Human Hair XIII Articles of Stone, Plaster, Cement, Asbestos, Mica or Similar Materials; Ceramic Products; Glass and Glassware XIV Natural or Cultured Pearls, Precious or Semi-Precious Stones, Precious Metals, Metals Clad with Precious Metal and Articles Thereof; Imitation Jewellery; Coin Thereof; Imitation Jewellery; Coin XV Base Metals and Articles of Base Metal XVI Machinery and Mechanical Appliances; Electrical Equipment; Parts Thereof; Sound Recorders and Reproducers, Television Image and Sound Recorders and Reproducers, and Parts and Accessories of Such Articles XVII Vehicles, Aircraft, Vessels and Associated Transport Equipment XVIII Optical, Photographic, Cinematographic, Measuring, Checking, Precision, Medical or Surgical Instruments and Apparatus; Clocks and Watches; Musical Instruments; Parts and Accessories Thereof XIX Arms and Ammunition; Parts and Accessories Thereof XX Miscellaneous Manufactured Articles XXI Works of Art, Collectors' Pieces and Antiques ...
Language:English
Score: 1178477.05 - https://www.wto.org/english/tr...op_e/adp_e/adp_statindex_e.doc
Data Source: un
  – No formal transaction may be necessary in cases where a technology  is easily imitated or copied, such as software and pharmaceuticals.  (...) • Trade in goods and services • Foreign direct investment (FDI) through multinational enterprises  (MNEs) • Technology licensing, either within firms (where MNE retains  proprietary control of the intellectual property and know‐how) or  between unrelated firms at arm's‐length. – Mixed form of licensing and FDI ‐ joint ventures • Cross‐border movement of technical and managerial personnel • Non‐market channels such as imitation – through product inspection, reverse engineering, decompilation of  software, and even simple trial and error – studying patent applications – temporary migration of students and scientists to universities,  laboratories, and conferences  IPRs may reduce learning through non‐market channels  5 Do IPRs help or hinder technology transfer? • Theory tells us of dual role of IPRs – resolves market distortions of one kind (underinvestment) but introduces another (raise imitation costs) – IPRs could solve some potential problems in tech transfer – weak appropriability because of spillovers, asymmetric information, and high transactions costs in contracting and monitoring • Other critical determinants of TT include market size, demand growth, supplies of skilled labour, infrastructure, openness to trade and FDI, and fundamental governance • Evidence from empirical studies – –Foreign patents account for over 90% of productivity growth in most OECD countries (Eaton&Kortum); Low human capital level and greater distance from knowledge sources, lead to lower spillovers (Peri, 2005); greater integration into GVCs, greater knowledge diffusion (Piermartini, 2014). • Patent reforms: – Have significant impact on volume and pattern of high tech exports (Maskus, Yang, 2012); Attract local production in IPR-sensitive sectors (Javorick, 2004); Increase unaffiliated licensing by foreign firms (Maskus et al, 2005); Increase volume of affiliated technology flows, R&D investments (Branstetter et al, 2006) – more in long life cycle industries (Bilir, 2010); • What is clearer from recent studies is that patent reforms lead to more trade (imports), more FDI and more technology transfer – Caveat– not clear if applicable to small countries; or those with low education levels. • Stronger IPRs may block learning through non-market channels, mainly imitation – some anecdotal evidence – Indian pharma sector • Difference between sectors – debate about green technologies Technology transfer and climate change • UNFCCC could have specific legal obligations to reduce green  house gases on the model of other MEAs such as the MP – Technology is the essential cause of anthropogenic climate change and is  necessary part of the solution – Need enabling environment to generate break‐through, disruptive, new  platform technologies as well as cumulative and adaptive innovation • A growing sense of urgency – need to increase transparency,  reduce transaction costs and reduce diffusion time – Many economists advocate a carbon tax and other market formation  policies that would induce faster development of new and diffusion of  existing technologies – Some argue that at least patents or other IPRs taken out on green  innovation financed by governments should be diffused widely on  reasonable terms – But diffusion needs deployment, not localization (Gallagher, 2014) • Large market a necessary condition for localization • Ethical/human rights context for adaptation technologies – Adaptation technologies linked to right to food, health, shelter Lessons from the diffusion of clean energy technologies • For 4 CETs (gas turbine, advanced automotive batteries, solar  PV, coal gasification), volume of world trade grew at 259%  between 2000‐2010 • Chinese exports of solar PV were 45% of global exports in 2011‐ from  3% in 1997; price fell by 75% from 2008‐2011 • In 3 out of 4 sectors, Chinese patents have overtaken foreign patents • Market formation through government policy crucial for rapid  diffusion • Localization not necessary for deployment/diffusion • Fear of IPR infringement not serious impediment to diffusion • Equally, IPRs not a barrier to access for most CETs – possible exception: gas turbines, advanced batteries but IP role  difficult to isolate as there are many other challenges ‐ weak policy  support, high costs and technological complexity – Anticompetitive/monopolistic behaviour hinders diffusion Montreal Protocol: case studies on IPRs being a barrier to access to ESTs 1.
Language:English
Score: 1170956.9 - https://www.wto.org/english/tr...HK_Watal_HK_The_role_of_IP.pdf
Data Source: un
Based on the extension of markets and trade, imitation and innovation of both products and production processes fosters long-run growth. (...) Accordingly, in a modern economy the innovation or imitation driven expansion of the range and variety of production as well as quality improvements matter much more for competitiveness than factors that influence volume growth. (...) For the case of variety produced domestically, this finding indicates that imitation might have played a prominent role in the process of increasing variety, a topic that will be further analysed in section 6.4 below.
Language:English
Score: 1165493.3 - https://unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/ead/pub/041/041c6.pdf
Data Source: un
Soybean and soy-based products | Dry soybeans and their sprouts, including derived and manufactured products such as tofu, soy drinks, texturized soy proteins, meat imitates, milk and milk product imitates. 3.3.            (...) Vegetables - all types, mixed and unspecified: processed (excluding dried) | Processed (excluding dried) leafy and other vegetables, excluding starchy and sugary roots and tubers, including canned and jarred vegetables, concentrates such as tomato concentrate, pickled, salted, marinated and fermented vegetables, manufactured vegetable products such as vegetable pastes, dairy and meat imitates (excluding soy-based imitates). 9.6.            (...) Tea, herbal tea, coffee and cocoa | Coffee including coffee imitate beverages, coffee beans, coffee-beverage preparation powder and other coffee imitate ingredients and teas, and herbal teas and infusions, including the ingredients for preparation of such infusions: leaves, flowers, roots, cocoa beans, as well as powders based on teas, infusions and cocoa. 14.4.        
Language:English
Score: 1162247.5 - https://www.fao.org/gift-indiv...food-groups-and-sub-groups/zh/
Data Source: un