• Importance of the work of the Working Group on Trade and Transfer of Technology • Critical importance of technology transfer in the context of climate change mitigation and sustainable development • Multilateral trade rules especially TRIPs and TRIMs Agreements have important implications for the ability of host countries to adopt policies that facilitate technology transfer Understanding transfer of technology • Transfer of skills and technological learning that lead to enhanced local technological capability • Absorption of knowledge and ability to meaningfully employ the knowledge including with necessary adaptations Sources of technological learning • Learning from the production process itself • Shop floor learning, trouble shooting and minor adaptations • Imitation, reverse engineering, adaptation, R&D are important sources of technology absorption and learning • Assimilation, ‘imitative duplication’ or reverse engineering of foreign technology was a ‘critical component of Asian miracle’ – (Nelson & Pack, Kim, Hobday, Amsden, Wade, Lall, a.o.) – Generics drugs are result of reverse engineering • Absorptive capacity is defined by availability of skilled manpower, R&D activity, and other elements of the national innovation system Globalization of R&D activity by MNEs • R&D activity is least globalized of MNE activities • Globalized R&D is highly concentrated in advanced economies and emerging economies • Designed to absorb spillovers from centres of excellence and benefit from availability of low cost talent • Motivations of R&D by foreign subsidiaries and local firms are different and benefits for host countries are different Factors that facilitate technological learning • Training of workers and specialization, mobility of skilled workers is often a source of learning and transfer of knowledge • Vertical inter‐firm linkages provide valuable opportunities for transfer of technology • Participation in global or regional value chains • Joint ventures provide greater opportunities for learning and absorption than sole ventures • Case studies from Korea (Kim 1997); India (UNCTAD 2003) • Knowledge spillovers to competitors • Technology gap hypothesis: Knowledge spillovers take place when technology gap is not too wide; negative spillovers when gap is wide Policy Issues • Policies for industrial deepening through industrial policy • Public procurement, pioneer industry programmes, joint venture promotion can be helpful • Vertical linkages promotion/ fostering vendors/ value chains • Governments have employed a number of performance requirements to foster industrial deepening and linkages • Extensively employed by the developed countries in the early stages of their development • A number of developing countries also effectively employed performance requirements to build competitive industrial capacities • Many of the performance requirements are now prohibited under TRIMs Agreement 8 Policy Issues contd. • International knowledge‐spillovers and reverse engineering have been important sources of learning and building of technological capabilities • Developed countries and NICs have employed soft patent regimes in their own process of development and have absorbed technology from other more developed countries • IPR regimes have been strengthened after they reached a certain stage of development • At levels of per capita income about US$ 20,000 e.g.
Score: 1094572.5 - https://www.wto.org/english/tr...p_e/devel_e/RD_DEV_UNESCAP.pdf
Data Source: un