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  • Importance of the work of the Working Group on Trade and Transfer of Technology • Critical importance of technology transfer in the context of climate  change mitigation and sustainable development • Multilateral trade rules especially TRIPs and TRIMs Agreements  have important implications for the ability of host countries to  adopt policies that facilitate technology transfer  Understanding transfer of technology • Transfer of skills and technological learning  that lead to enhanced local technological  capability • Absorption of knowledge and ability to  meaningfully employ the knowledge including  with necessary adaptations  Sources of technological learning • Learning from the production process itself • Shop floor learning, trouble shooting and minor adaptations • Imitation, reverse engineering, adaptation, R&D are  important sources of technology absorption and  learning • Assimilation, ‘imitative duplication’ or reverse engineering of foreign  technology was a ‘critical component of Asian miracle’  – (Nelson & Pack, Kim, Hobday, Amsden, Wade, Lall, a.o.) – Generics drugs are result of reverse engineering • Absorptive capacity is defined by availability of skilled  manpower, R&D activity, and other elements of the  national innovation system  Globalization of R&D activity by MNEs • R&D activity is least globalized of MNE activities • Globalized R&D is highly concentrated in advanced  economies and emerging economies • Designed to absorb spillovers from centres of  excellence and benefit from availability of low cost  talent • Motivations of R&D by foreign subsidiaries and local  firms are different and benefits for host countries are  different Factors that facilitate technological learning • Training of workers and specialization, mobility of skilled  workers is often a source of learning and transfer of knowledge • Vertical inter‐firm linkages provide valuable opportunities for  transfer of technology • Participation in global or regional value chains • Joint ventures provide greater opportunities for learning and  absorption than sole ventures • Case studies from Korea (Kim 1997); India (UNCTAD 2003) • Knowledge spillovers to competitors • Technology gap hypothesis: Knowledge spillovers take place when  technology gap is not too wide; negative spillovers when gap is wide Policy Issues • Policies for industrial deepening through industrial policy • Public procurement, pioneer industry programmes, joint venture promotion can  be helpful • Vertical linkages promotion/ fostering vendors/ value chains • Governments have employed a number of performance  requirements to foster industrial deepening and linkages • Extensively employed by the developed countries in the early  stages of their development • A number of developing countries also effectively employed  performance requirements to build competitive industrial  capacities  • Many of the performance requirements are now prohibited  under TRIMs Agreement 8 Policy Issues contd. • International knowledge‐spillovers and reverse  engineering have been important sources of learning  and building of technological capabilities  • Developed countries and NICs have employed soft  patent regimes in their own process of development  and have absorbed technology from other more  developed countries • IPR regimes have been strengthened after they  reached a certain stage of development • At levels of per capita income about US$ 20,000 e.g. 
Language:English
Score: 1094572.5 - https://www.wto.org/english/tr...p_e/devel_e/RD_DEV_UNESCAP.pdf
Data Source: un
Model UN is a business role-playing game in which students of schools and universities imitate the work of UN bodies. The participants are students who assume the role of official representatives of the UN member countries and international organizations and protect their interests on a number of agendas. (...) The participants in the event imitate the work of such UN bodies as the General Assembly, the Security Council, and UNEP.
Language:English
Score: 1083129.8 - https://www.undp.org/kyrgyzsta...-efforts-conserve-biodiversity
Data Source: un
Test a new means of communication which returns to nature in its imitation of animal behaviour whilst looking forward to technology-driven future interactions.
Language:English
Score: 1081177.9 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/Publ...t2/web/WebSearch/page0017.html
Data Source: un
Test a new means of communication which returns to nature in its imitation of animal behaviour whilst looking forward to technology-driven future interactions.
Language:English
Score: 1081177.9 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/Publ...rs/web/WebSearch/page0077.html
Data Source: un
Test a new means of communication which returns to nature in its imitation of animal behaviour whilst looking forward to technology- driven future interactions.
Language:English
Score: 1075566.1 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/Publ...-ITU-2013_innovators_p2_17.pdf
Data Source: un
Test a new means of communication which returns to nature in its imitation of animal behaviour whilst looking forward to technology- driven future interactions.
Language:English
Score: 1075566.1 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/Publ...013_innovators_brochure_77.pdf
Data Source: un
Can our businesses and our built environment imitate nature’s processes, structure, and functions, particularly of its ecosystems? (...) Everything is recycled within. Thus by imitating this, out built environment will produce no wastes. (...) Our built environment must imitate ecosystems in all respects. 4. Nature regards humans as one of its many species.
Language:English
Score: 1075301.6 - https://www.un.org/esa/sustdev...op/forum_dec07/background1.pdf
Data Source: un
ISO/TR 26122:2008   Emulation Use of a data processing system to imitate another data processing system, so that the imitating system accepts the same data, executes the same programs, and achieves the same results as the imitated system.
Language:English
Score: 1068874.4 - https://archives.un.org/content/glossary-0
Data Source: un
ISO/TR 26122:2008   Emulation Use of a data processing system to imitate another data processing system, so that the imitating system accepts the same data, executes the same programs, and achieves the same results as the imitated system.
Language:English
Score: 1068874.4 - https://archives.un.org/content/glossary
Data Source: un
ISO/TR 26122:2008   Emulation Use of a data processing system to imitate another data processing system, so that the imitating system accepts the same data, executes the same programs, and achieves the same results as the imitated system.
Language:English
Score: 1068874.4 - https://archives.un.org/node/494
Data Source: un