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Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes, only for those with legal immigration status Yes, only for those with legal immigration status Yes, only for those with legal immigration status Yes, only for those with legal immigration status Yes, only for those with legal immigration status Yes Not Applicable Yes Yes Yes No No 5 Without any conditions or restrictions Without any conditions or restrictions Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No .. .. .. .. .. (...) Yes Yes No Yes, regardless of immigration status Yes, only for those with legal immigration status Yes, only for those with legal immigration status Yes, only for those with legal immigration status Yes, regardless of immigration status Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Applicable Yes No No Any one who has held a Residence Permit for at least 10 years Without any conditions or restrictions Without any conditions or restrictions .. .. (...) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes, regardless of immigration status Yes, regardless of immigration status No Yes, only for those with legal immigration status Yes, regardless of immigration status No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No 10 Without any conditions or restrictions Without any conditions or restrictions .. ..
Language:English
Score: 1137223.6 - https://www.un.org/en/developm...cy/Module%20III%20Country.xlsx
Data Source: un
For national security reasons, the competent authority may still forbid the entry into the country of non-immigrant aliens, even though all the conditions mentioned in Article 8 were all satisfied. (...) For national security reasons, each immigrant alien shall also fulfill other necessary conditions as required by the Kingdom of Cambodia, even though he has already completed all the conditions as set forth in the above paragraphs. (...) ARTICLE 27: Foreigners coming to Cambodia to conduct feasibility studies for their investments shall comply with the conditions as set forth in Chapter 3 on "Immigrant Aliens"; except their period of stay is for one year.
Language:English
Score: 1094960.7 - https://www.wto.org/english/th...e/khm_e/WTACCKHM3A3_LEG_44.pdf
Data Source: un
Cohort 2 = 1985-1990 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Iran1 Iran2 Conditional probability of return migration from Sweden 1990-1996 by years since immigration, country of origin and immigration cohort. (...) Cohort 2 = 1985-1990 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Iran1 Iran2 Poland1 Poland2 Conditional probability of return migration from Sweden 1990-1996 by years since immigration, country of origin and immigration cohort. (...) Cohort 2 = 1985-1990 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Chile2 Iran1 Iran2 Poland1 Poland2 Conditional probability of return migration from Sweden 1990-1996 by years since immigration, country of origin and immigration cohort.
Language:English
Score: 1078059.2 - https://www.un.org/en/developm.../pdf/other/turin/KLINTHALL.pdf
Data Source: un
Each Member for which this Annex is in force which maintains a system of supervision of contracts of employment between an employer, or a person acting on his behalf, and a migrant for employment undertakes to require -- (a) that a copy of the contract of employment shall be delivered to the migrant before departure or, if the Governments concerned so agree, in a reception centre on arrival in the territory of immigration; (b) that the contract shall contain provisions indicating the conditions of work and particularly the remuneration offered to the migrant; (c) that the migrant shall receive in writing before departure, by a document which relates either to him individually or to a group of migrants of which he is a member, information concerning the general conditions of life and work applicable to him in the territory of immigration. 2. Where a copy of the contract is to be delivered to the migrant on arrival in the territory of immigration, he shall be informed in writing before departure, by a document which relates either to him individually or to a group of migrants of which he is a member, of the occupational category for which he is engaged and the other conditions of work, in particular the minimum wage which is guaranteed to him. 3. (...) There should, as far as possible, be a reasonable interval between the publication and the coming into force of any measure altering the conditions on which emigration or immigration or the employment of migrants is permitted in order that these conditions may be notified in good time to persons who are preparing to emigrate. 9.
Language:English
Score: 1052377.7 - www.ilo.org/public/engl...ards/relm/ilc/ilc87/r3-1b9.htm
Data Source: un
Each Member for which this Annex is in force which maintains a system of supervision of contracts of employment between an employer, or a person acting on his behalf, and a migrant for employment undertakes to require -- (a) that a copy of the contract of employment shall be delivered to the migrant before departure or, if the Governments concerned so agree, in a reception centre on arrival in the territory of immigration; (b) that the contract shall contain provisions indicating the conditions of work and particularly the remuneration offered to the migrant; (c) that the migrant shall receive in writing before departure, by a document which relates either to him individually or to a group of migrants of which he is a member, information concerning the general conditions of life and work applicable to him in the territory of immigration. 2. Where a copy of the contract is to be delivered to the migrant on arrival in the territory of immigration, he shall be informed in writing before departure, by a document which relates either to him individually or to a group of migrants of which he is a member, of the occupational category for which he is engaged and the other conditions of work, in particular the minimum wage which is guaranteed to him. 3. (...) There should, as far as possible, be a reasonable interval between the publication and the coming into force of any measure altering the conditions on which emigration or immigration or the employment of migrants is permitted in order that these conditions may be notified in good time to persons who are preparing to emigrate. 9.
Language:English
Score: 1052377.7 - https://www.ilo.org/public/eng...ards/relm/ilc/ilc87/r3-1b9.htm
Data Source: un
CONDITION YES NO a. Minimum residency period b. Limited to immigrants from selected countries (country- specific quotas) c. (...) Access to justice: Off 10 Under what conditions does the Government allow immigrants with regular status to become naturalized citizens? b: Limited to immigrants from selected countries (country-specific quotas): Off 10 Under what conditions does the Government allow immigrants with regular status to become naturalized citizens?
Language:English
Score: 1044009.1 - https://www.un.org/en/developm...0International%20Migration.pdf
Data Source: un
Between the 1970s and 1980s these countries underwent a deep migration turnaround, ceasing its main condition of emigration countries and becoming immigrants’ receiving societies. (...) Most recent waves of LAC immigrants are in a very different condition: they often stay for a long time as undocumented immigrants and are affected by several problems, including housing, employment (low wages, bad working conditions, instability and unemployment) and access to health. (...) However, the amount of illegal immigration in these countries, giving place to successive amnesties, demonstrates how harsh the conditions still are for effective control.
Language:English
Score: 1041902.9 - https://www.un.org/en/developm...pdf/expert/10/P07_JPeixoto.pdf
Data Source: un
One possible proposal would be for the component on the “temporary movement of natural persons” in the Model Schedule to refer to the “intra-corporate movements for training and skills development purposes” as one of its applicable components. (2) Securing Transparency in Immigration Regulations and Procedures and Clarifying Member Country’s Schedule of Specific Commitments (See Annex 2) Japanese corporations are facing a variety of problems with regard to transparency of immigration procedures, including: (a) lack of clarity on categories for visas and work permits; (b) lack of information on procedures for such matters as the required documentation and required time, and conditions for extension of visas and permits for immigration control procedures; and (c) lack of clarity on standards for judging visa and work permit applications. (...) Given the fact that immigration procedures are dealt with in the same manner as immigration control procedures for immigrants seeking permanent residency even if a country makes some commitments in its schedule, it should be noted that corporations cannot actually enjoy the benefits of the merits of liberalization commitments. (...) Annex 3 Facilitation and Expedition of Immigration Control Procedures 1. Introduction of the GATS Visa (1) Basic Concept Even if a country makes some commitments concerning temporary movement of natural persons in its schedule, administrative procedures relating to visas and work permits are dealt with in the same manner as immigration control procedures for immigrants seeking permanent residency.
Language:English
Score: 1039565.6 - https://www.wto.org/english/fo...e/ngo_e/nippon_keidanren_e.doc
Data Source: un
One possible proposal would be for the component on the “temporary movement of natural persons” in the Model Schedule to refer to the “intra-corporate movements for training and skills development purposes” as one of its applicable components. (2) Securing Transparency in Immigration Regulations and Procedures and Clarifying Member Country’s Schedule of Specific Commitments (See Annex 2) Japanese corporations are facing a variety of problems with regard to transparency of immigration procedures, including: (a) lack of clarity on categories for visas and work permits; (b) lack of information on procedures for such matters as the required documentation and required time, and conditions for extension of visas and permits for immigration control procedures; and (c) lack of clarity on standards for judging visa and work permit applications. (...) Given the fact that immigration procedures are dealt with in the same manner as immigration control procedures for immigrants seeking permanent residency even if a country makes some commitments in its schedule, it should be noted that corporations cannot actually enjoy the benefits of the merits of liberalization commitments. (...) Annex 3 Facilitation and Expedition of Immigration Control Procedures 1. Introduction of the GATS Visa (1) Basic Concept Even if a country makes some commitments concerning temporary movement of natural persons in its schedule, administrative procedures relating to visas and work permits are dealt with in the same manner as immigration control procedures for immigrants seeking permanent residency.
Language:English
Score: 1038940.8 - https://www.wto.org/english/forums_e/ngo_e/keidanren_e.doc
Data Source: un
untitled Immigrant Entrepreneurship: Creating New opportunities UN Symposium on International Migration and Development, Turin, June 30, 2006 Jan Rath Universiteit van Amsterdam, Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies (IMES) http://users.fmg.uva.nl/jrath Immigrants as Entrepreneurs Many advanced economies, especially their larger cities, have acquired a more cosmopolitan outlook Immigrants embody the complex process of globalization in a very palpable sense Some start businesses in their countries of settlement and become ‘self-employed’ or ‘immigrant entrepreneurs’ By becoming self-employed, immigrants acquire different roles than immigrants who become workers By becoming self-employed, immigrants also acquire different roles than mainstream entrepreneurs. Facts and figures Definition of ‘immigrants’ or ‘ethnic’ minorities is contingent on the specific national incorporation regime and differs from country to country Definition of ‘entrepreneurship’ or ‘self-employment’ also depends on the regulatory regime and differs from country to country Availability of statistical data is contingent on these definitions and is thus product of national idiosyncrasies International comparisons are iffy without a sound uniform conceptual and statistical base of immigrant self-employment “There is nothing more practical than good theory”. But: research on immigrant entrepreneurship has taken its own theoretical path in the past three decades and has usually been national or local in focus Uneven Developments Immigrant self-employment rates differ from country to country from city to city from ethnic/national (sub)group to ethnic/national (sub)group from sector to sector from period to period Immigrant entrepreneurs tend to gravitate to retail and catering, although their involvement in the service industries is on the rise the lower end of these sectors, although they are increasingly penetrating the higher end working-class neighborhoods, although they are increasingly venturing into middle-class neighborhoods as well as CBDs Supply side perspectives Revolves around immigrants as the dramatis personae of the small business economy Focus on their resources / capital Human capital (education, experience etc) Cultural capital (cultural endowment) Social capital (embeddedness in social networks) Access to these forms of capital shapes business operations and, consequently, business success, or lack of it Example: acquiring financial capital Demand side perspectives Economies in which entrepreneurs operate are not given, undifferentiated, or unregulated Different markets offer different opportunities and obstacles, demand different skills, and lead to different outcomes in terms of business success or—at a higher level of agglomeration—a different ethnic division of labor There is an array of (governmental and non-governmental) regulatory structures that promote certain economic activities while inhibiting others (Immigrant) entrepreneurs’ concrete relations and transactions are embedded in a more abstract way in wider economic and politico- institutional structures: mixed embeddedness Regulation, to be sure, is not just a matter of repression and constraining, but also of enabling – sticks and carrots Policies Aiming at supply side: training aspiring entrepreneurs increasing access to financial capital appreciating cultural capital strengthening economically relevant social networks or opening up social networks of mainstream entrepreneurs Aiming at demand side: privatizing and deregulating, while taking account with conditions of specific markets and with complex institutional interdependencies of market economies matching supply and demand Thank you
Language:English
Score: 1033291.5 - https://www.un.org/en/developm...vents/pdf/other/turin/RATH.pdf
Data Source: un