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Firstly, the Commission has continued to participate actively in the discussions on Transfer Pricing in the OECD, including in its Tax and Development Forum. (...) The conferences topics vary, but have included transfer pricing and are likely to do so in the future. (...) The types of transfer pricing and related technical assistance and capacity building activities undertaken by the OECD (through the aforementioned programmes and other activities) include: Publication of reference materials, including: o Practical guidance – The OECD has developed and published numerous transfer pricing related publications, including: The OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Administrations, which provide comprehensive guidance on the interpretation and application of the arm’s length principle.
Language:English
Score: 882051.6 - https://www.un.org/esa/ffd/wp-...rPricing-capacity-building.pdf
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Capacity-building and transfer of marine technology 6.1 Objectives of capacity-building and the transfer of marine technology: The manner in which the objectives of capacity-building and the transfer of marine technology would be included in the instrument. (...) (c) Modalities for capacity-building and the transfer of marine technology that would be included in the instrument. (...) Tonga’s response Yes 6.5.3 General principles and approaches (a) Which general principles and approaches pertaining to capacity-building and the transfer of marine technology could be included in the instrument?
Language:English
Score: 878777.05 - https://www.un.org/bbnj/sites/...ww.un.org.bbnj/files/tonga.pdf
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 Page 26 - The Digital Financial Services (DFS) Ecosystem           Basic HTML Version Table of Contents View Full Version Page 26 - The Digital Financial Services (DFS) Ecosystem P. 26 ITU-T Focus Group Digital Financial Services Ecosystem 2.2.2.1 Domestic Transfers (Remittances) A domestic digital funds transfer is the exchange of funds from one user to another through a DFS provider using electronic means, including a mobile handset, to either initiate and/or complete the transaction. (...) The regulated environment includes licenced money transfer companies such as banks and post offices, the unregulated environment includes both unstructured and structured personal cash-transport services: in some parts of the world, these structured services are referred to as “hawala”. (...) Traditional models for sending cross-border remittances include money transfer services, many of which are specific to certain corridors (pairs of countries); banks, and structured cash transfer “hawala” style services.
Language:English
Score: 878588.9 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...m/files/basic-html/page26.html
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In defining policy measures in this area, a thorough understanding of the factors that influence companies' environmental and economic performance is needed, including their adoption of best practices in environmental management and the use of environmentally sound technologies in production processes; (c) In the context of technology transfer and adaptation, it is important that environmentally sound technologies be transferred to developing countries, with support, including, as appropriate, financial support, from developed countries and relevant international institutions, in cooperation with the private sector. (...) The creation of centres for the transfer of technology at various levels, including the regional level, could greatly contribute to achieving the objective of transfer of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries. (...) Governments of developing countries should take appropriate measures to strengthen South-South cooperation for technology transfer and capacity-building. Such measures could include the networking of existing national information systems and sources on environmentally sound technologies, and the networking of national cleaner production centres, as well as the establishment of sector-specific regional centres for technology transfer and capacity-building.
Language:English
Score: 874854.6 - https://www.un.org/esa/dsd/dsd...ofw_tec/tec_integovedeci.shtml
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This implies that when discussing transfer of technologies, the human resource development and local capacity-building aspects of technology choices, including gender-relevant aspects, should also be addressed. (...) The activities proposed in this chapter aim at improving conditions and processes on information, access to and transfer of technology (including the state-of-the-art technology and related know-how), in particular to developing countries, as well as on capacity-building and cooperative arrangements and partnerships in the field of technology, in order to promote sustainable development. (...) A collaborative network of national, subregional, regional and international research centres on environmentally sound technology should be established to enhance the access to and development, management and transfer of environmentally sound technologies, including transfer and cooperation among developing countries and between developed and developing countries, primarily based on existing subregional or regional research, development and demonstration centres which are linked with the national institutions, in close cooperation with the private sector.
Language:English
Score: 874486.5 - https://www.un.org/esa/dsd/agenda21/res_agenda21_34.shtml
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Questionnaire on the impact of arms transfers on human rights 1. Please identify the ways that arms transfers impact on the enjoyment of human rights. (...) If your Government does not undertake arms transfers, what considerations should be taken into account by others when assessing the impact an arms transfer may have on human rights, including national procedures and/or laws and international obligations and standards? (...) If your Government undertakes arms transfers, has your Government in the past refused to authorize a proposed arms transfer or arms transfers on the bases that the arms transfer would impact on the enjoyment of human rights?
Language:English
Score: 874282.6 - https://www.ohchr.org/sites/de...aw/ArmsTransfers/Albania_2.pdf
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Presentación de PowerPoint Di ffe re nt m od el st o fa ci lit at e th e cr os s- bo rd er ex ch an ge of pe rs on al d at a W TO S em in ar 10 N ve m be r2 02 0 Rafael García Gozalo Director of the International Relations Division Spanish Data Protection Agency (AEPD) 2 Article 44 GDPR General principles “Any transfer of personal data which are undergoing processing or are intended for processing after transfer to a third country or to an international organisation shall take place only if, subject to the other provisions of this Regulation, the conditions laid down in this Chapter are complied with by the controller and processor (…)” “All provisions in this Chapter shall be applied in order to ensure that the level of protection of natural persons guaranteed by this Regulation is not undermined” 3 General principles GDPR confirms criteria already set out in Directive 95/46  International Transfers (ITs) only possible if: • Other relevant provisions of GDPR are complied with (i.e.: legitimacy of processing operation), AND • Country of destination offers adequate level of protection, OR • Exporter has provided appropriate safeguards by means of one of the instruments listed in the GDPR, OR • One derogation for specific situations may be applied 4 Adequacy decisions • Formal legal act adopted by the EU Commission (with participation of EDPB and MS) • May affect an international organization, a country, a territory or one or more specified sectors within that third country • Assessment takes into account • Rule of law, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, relevant legislation, both general and sectoral, including concerning public security, defence, national security and criminal law and the access of public authorities to personal data (…), data protection rules (…) including rules for the onward transfer of personal data to another third country • Existence and effective functioning of one or more independent supervisory authorities in the third country or to which an international organization is subject, with responsibility for ensuring and enforcing compliance with the data protection rules, including adequate enforcement powers (…) • International commitments the third country or international organisation concerned has entered into (…) • According to the CJUE the notion of “adequate level of protection” must be interpreted as meaning “essentialy equivalent protection” 5 Transfer tools – Appropriate guarantees • Exporter must provide adequate safeguards in a number of tools • Tools must provide for enforceable data subjects’ rights and effective legal remedies • Without previous authorization form Supervisory Authority (SA) • Legally binding and enforceable instrument between public authorities • Binding Corporate Rules (BCRs) • Standard Contractual Clauses adopted by EU COM • Standard Contractual Clauses adopted by SA and approved by EU COM • Approved Code of Conduct together with binding commitments of the importer to apply appropriate safeguards, including those related to data subjects’ rights • Approved Certification Mechanism, in the same conditions as Codes of Conduct 6 Transfer tools – Appropriate guarantees • Exporter must provide adequate safeguards in a number of tools • Tools must provide for enforceable data subjects’ rights and effective legal remedies • With previous authorization from Supervisory Authority (SA) • Ad hoc Contractual Clauses • Provisions inserted in administrative arrangements (not legally binding) between public authorities • Competent SA will seek the favorable opinion of EDPB in terms of art. 63 GDPR 7 Transfer tools – Appropriate guarantees New situation after CJUE ruling Schrems II • Transfer tools must also provide an “essentially equivalent level of protection” • If importer is not in a position to comply with the requirements set out in the tools, must inform the exporter • Exporter and importer must implement appropriate supplementary measures • If they don’t, transfer should be suspended • If t’s not, exporter must inform SA 8 BCRs • Applicable to groups of undertakings or groups of enterprises • Must: • Be legally binding and apply to all members of the group • Expressly confer enforceable rights on data subjects with regard to the processing of their personal data • Include contents listed (not exhaustively) in art. 47.2 GDPR • ITs trans included, types of processing operations and their purposes, data subjects affected,... • Application of general data protection principles, including legal basis, purpose limitation, data minimization… • Security measures,… • Rights of data subjects, including right to lodge a complaint before a SA or a court in MSs,… 9 Derogations for specific situations • Already provided for in Directive 95/46  • Explicit consent • Transfer necessary for the performance of a contract between the data subject and the controller or concluded in the interest of the data subject in which the data subject • Important reasons of public interest • Establishment, exercise or defense of legal claims,… • New  (art. 49 second paragraph) • Derogation when no other tool or derogation is applicable • Transfers based on the “compelling legitimate interests” of the controller which are not overriden by the rights and freedoms of data subjects • Transfer is not repetitive and concerns only a limited number of data subjects • The controller must assess all the circumstances, and on the basis of that assessment provide adequate safegards wit regard to the protection of personal data • The controller must inform controller and affected data subjects • The controller must document the assessment and the suitable safeguards @AEPD_eswww.aepd.es Thank you very much for your attention! https://www.aepd.es/ https://twitter.com/aepd_es Different models to facilitate the cross-border exchange of personal data General principles General principles Adequacy decisions Transfer tools – Appropriate guarantees Transfer tools – Appropriate guarantees Transfer tools – Appropriate guarantees BCRs Derogations for specific situations Thank you very much for your attention!
Language:English
Score: 870507.6 - https://www.wto.org/english/re..._the_european_gdpr_wto_rgg.pdf
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trackB_3_haites.ppt 1 Cooperation on Technology Development and Transfer Roundtable Consultation on Development, Transfer and Deployment of Environmentally Sound Technologies Beijing November 6, 2008 Erik Haites Margaree Consultants Inc. MARGAREE 2 Technology Cycle MARGAREE 3 The Challenge Accelerate development of evolving set of 150 mitigation and 100+ adaptation technologies that are at different stages and have different needs Transfer these technologies to 150 developing countries where the barriers facing each technology differ Do this with only a small fraction of total funding -- most funding is from the private sector and most public funding is domestic in a small number of developed countries MARGAREE 4 Technology RD&D Vast majority of RD&D done in a few developed countries – Japan, USA, EU RD&D in developed countries needs to be scaled up and shifted away from fossil fuels Cooperation with developing countries could include contribution to the cost of: • Participating in international technology agreements • Operating RD&D centres that participate in an international network similar to CGIAR MARGAREE 5 Technology Deployment Technology available but more costly, incentives for use needed to reduce cost (learning curve) Deployment in developed countries needs to be scaled up through domestic policies Cooperation with developing countries could include funding for deployment based on: • Lowest cost bids by developing countries • Fixed amount per unit – e.g., $X/MW for wind turbines – which would decline over time MARGAREE 6 Technology Diffusion Technology more costly by less than the market price of carbon Developed countries scale up diffusion using domestic policies and commit to use of CDM Cooperation with developing countries could include: • CDM and other, expanded crediting mechanisms • Direct funding for agreed technologies, such as CCS and REDD MARGAREE 7 Technology Transfer Technology transfer involves capacity building, creation of enabling environments, and other actions to support adoption of technologies at deployment, diffusion and commercial stages in developing countries Cooperation with developing countries could include funding for preparation and implementation of national technology transfer plans: • Technology transfer plans, similar to Montreal Protocol, build on technology needs assessments • Technology transfer plans identify measures to build capacity and enabling environment for technologies • Plans should include changes to domestic policies where appropriate; removal of import duties on the technology, changes to standards, etc. • Funding would not subsidize the cost of the technology MARGAREE 8 Technology Transfer in the CDM Technology transfer is not a requirement for the CDM, but host countries can encourage transfer through approvals Technology transfer claimed for 39% of projects representing 64% of expected reductions; lower rates of technology transfer for unilateral and small-scale projects Rate varies by project type, ranging from 7% to 100% of projects Korea has higher rate and India lower rate of technology transfer than average Equipment and knowledge for 56% of projects, equipment only for 33%, knowledge only for 11% MARGAREE 9 Technology Financing Currently most funding for technology development and technology transfer is private and in developed countries Technology cooperation with developing countries could require international financing for: • Participation in international RD&D • Accelerated deployment, diffusion of selected technologies • Preparation and implementation of technology transfer plans Amount needed not known, perhaps a few billion USD/yr Several sources identified that could provide sufficient funds for adaptation, mitigation and technology cooperation MARGAREE 10 Thank you!
Language:English
Score: 870021.1 - https://www.un.org/esa/sustdev...lccc_nov08/trackB_3_haites.pdf
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The TRIPS Agreement contains standards that affect transfer of technology and a number of provisions related to directly transfer of technology. The stated objectives of the Agreement include that the “... protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights should contribute to the promotion of technological innovation and to the transfer and dissemination of technology...”. (...) The Group’s work should be identify both needs and the constraints which will include: · Carrying out assessment of needs of developing countries for transfer of technology; · Identifying the problems and constraints faced by developing countries in gaining access to the needed technology available in developed countries including pricing policies. · Examining all the WTO Agreements to identify any constraints that certain provisions in these Agreements may be creating against transfer of technology to developing countries; · Assessing the implementation by developed countries of all WTO provisions related to transfer of technology to developing countries with a view to identifying the needs for appropriate changes/strengthening of these provisions; and · Studying the design of instruments and incentives, including tax incentives, that developed countries could grant to enterprises and institutions in their own territories in order to disseminate and transfer technology to developing countries. · For examining channels including foreign direct investment for transfer of technology. · Impact of TRIPS on competition policy and balance of payments. __________
Language:English
Score: 868727.6 - https://www.wto.org/english/th...1_e/proposals_e/wt_gc_w443.doc
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The TRIPS Agreement contains standards that affect transfer of technology and a number of provisions related to directly transfer of technology. The stated objectives of the Agreement include that the “... protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights should contribute to the promotion of technological innovation and to the transfer and dissemination of technology...”. (...) The Group’s work should be identify both needs and the constraints which will include: • Carrying out assessment of needs of developing countries for transfer of technology; • Identifying the problems and constraints faced by developing countries in gaining access to the needed technology available in developed countries including pricing policies. • Examining all the WTO Agreements to identify any constraints that certain provisions in these Agreements may be creating against transfer of technology to developing countries; • Assessing the implementation by developed countries of all WTO provisions related to transfer of technology to developing countries with a view to identifying the needs for appropriate changes/strengthening of these provisions; and • Studying the design of instruments and incentives, including tax incentives, that developed countries could grant to enterprises and institutions in their own territories in order to disseminate and transfer technology to developing countries. • For examining channels including foreign direct investment for transfer of technology. • Impact of TRIPS on competition policy and balance of payments. __________
Language:English
Score: 868727.6 - https://www.wto.org/english/th...1_e/proposals_e/wt_gc_w443.pdf
Data Source: un