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Scientists have predicted a 100 percent increase in plastic debris by 2030; this increase is likely to worsen due to the  consumption of single-use plastic during the COVID-19 pandemic .  (...) Facilitating the Sound Transboundary Movement of Waste  The transboundary movement of waste presents distinct challenges and opportunities.  (...) This means that, with the required infrastructure in place, transboundary movements of waste and its disposal/exchange can be tracked and traced electronically in compliance with the convention, greatly facilitating legal movements and dematerializing all potential exchanges between actors.
Language:English
Score: 848166.8 - https://unece.org/circular-eco...ternational-movement-hazardous
Data Source: un
• Falling urbanization levels in the 1980-90s, both national and/or localised • but urban growth has remained high due to high natural growth rates • Narrowing of rural-urban gaps in income and access to basic services has resulted in urban-rural migration • The aggregate service sector share of GDP is higher than agriculture’s, but dominated by the ‘informal’ sector Asia: export-led industrialisation and peri-urbanization • High rates of economic growth in many nations, linked to high levels of spatial concentration and emerging extended metropolitan regions • Combined with widening rural-urban gaps, a key driver of rural-urban migration and other forms of mobility (commuting and short-term circular migration) • Peri-urban regions: typically unplanned, with no integration between infrastructure provision and population, and growing environmental and social problems • Management systems and processes are an emerging issue Migration and mobility: the policy view • Rural-urban migration seen increasingly as a problem (increase rural and urban poverty; spread of crime and disease; pressure on urban areas through urban growth…) • Policy responses are geared primarily to reduce or prevent it (51% of low-income nations in 1996, to 73% in 2005), while ignoring economic and natural growth factors • Migrants’ access to housing and employment is worse than non-migrants’ only where there are discriminatory policies in place Growing circular and temporary movement in both Africa and Asia • Eludes national data, but increasingly a key element of rural and urban livelihoods, overlapping with income diversification • Essential to maintain asset bases and safety nets in different locations – especially user rights to rural land • In Asia, temporary movement is increasingly towards urban centres and non-farm employment (in northern Bihar from 3% in 1983 to 24% in 2000) • In export manufacturing, low wages and poor working conditions encourage further mobility (China) Growing circular and temporary movement in both Africa and Asia (c’d) • In Africa, circular migration is traditional in drought-prone areas (and affected by climate change) • But its scale is underestimated (urban-rural movement was 61% of rural-urban in Malawi 1976-77, and 76% in Botswana 1980-81) • Limited infrastructure and transport links make movement costly and therefore people may move for longer periods (not only seasonally) • Economic and political insecurity in urban centres reinforces links with (and investment in) rural home areas, and supported urban-rural movement in the 1990s Remittances and multi-local, multi- activity households • Remittances are a growing proportion of rural households’ incomes in both Africa and Asia • Driver of social change? even in the most traditional areas, young women are allowed to move independently – as long as they send remittances • In China, in 2004 remittances overtook earnings from farming in rural households’ budgets • Remittances are important for the poor, but perhaps even more so for wealthier groups • But the obligation to remit may increase migrants’ vulnerability in the cities – especially single women’s Urban centres, agriculture and rural development • Domestic urban markets and demand stimulate food production far more than export markets (eg West Africa and Vietnam), especially by small-scale farmers • Non-farm incomes finance investment in intensification and diversification • Access to markets is ensured by local traders, but these are often ignored in agricultural policies • Local traders whose activities are based in small towns and villages stimulate rural development through economic diversification Rural industrialisation • Or mainly industries based in small towns, large villages, peri-urban corridors? • In Asia, rural industries are mainly micro, small and medium sized enterprises that employ large sections of the population (especially the poor) and contribute to GDPs (e.g. 41% in Vietnam) • But are negatively affected by trade liberalisation • And also contribute to environmental degradation because spatial dispersion and low capital mean they often cannot afford to comply with regulations Issues for policy • A blurring of the rural-urban divide, rather than clear-cut transitions, with reciprocal and positive links between rural and urban development – but also emerging challenges • Mobility and migration can increase social polarisation and access to natural resources • Occupational diversification can increase environmental degradation • Local governance systems are crucial, but often lack capacity and national governments’ support and have limited accountability The links between rural and urban development in Africa and Asia What this presentation will cover Patterns of urbanization in Africa and Asia Africa: slower than expected urbanization Asia: export-led industrialisation and peri-urbanization Migration and mobility: the policy view Growing circular and temporary movement in both Africa and Asia Growing circular and temporary movement in both Africa and Asia (c’d) Remittances and multi-local, multi-activity households Urban centres, agriculture and rural development Rural industrialisation Issues for policy
Language:English
Score: 832241.4 - https://www.un.org/en/developm...vents/pdf/expert/13/Tacoli.pdf
Data Source: un
Forecasts of transit and transfer passengers at an airport are particularly sensitive to the structure of airline services in the region which, in turn, is influenced by many factors, including the geographical pattern of demand, aircraft sizes, constraints on service frequencies, numbers of competing airlines and government regulation of air services. Aircraft Movements 5. Aircraft movements can generally be grouped into commercial air transport movements (for carriage of passenger and freight traffic), general aviation movements (flying training, private and business flying, aerial work, etc.), and military movements. (...) The simplest method of forecasting future aircraft movements is to extrapolate the historic trend. However, although it is prudent to take historic trends in movements into account, a common approach is to derive forecasts of aircraft movements from passenger traffic forecasts and assumptions about future load factors and aircraft sizes. (...) In some studies aircraft movements by route were forecast for the busiest month.
Language:English
Score: 827759.4 - https://www.icao.int/MID/Docum...s/2010/fepw/docs/fepw_wp06.pdf
Data Source: un
Agreement on Movement and Access (AMA) - Thirty-second bi-weekly implementation report (OCHA) - Question of Palestine Skip to content Welcome to the United Nations عربي 中文 English Français Русский Español Search for: Home About The Committee on Palestinian Rights Division for Palestinian Rights Key Topics Key issues at stake The Quartet History Fast facts The Committee Background Bureau Membership Mandate and Objectives Areas of Activities Working Group Reports Statements Newsletters Events Upcoming Events Committee Meetings International Conferences and Side Events Delegation visits Solidarity Day Capacity Building Programme UNISPAL About UNISPAL Search Document Collection Map Collection Civil Society Overview Responsibilities of Civil Society Partners NGO Action News Get accredited Benefits of accreditation Civil Society Partners UN System FAQ Search for: Home / Agreement on Movement and Access (AMA) – Thirty-second bi-weekly implementation report (OCHA) Agreement on Movement and Access (AMA) – Thirty-second bi-weekly implementation report (OCHA) Report No 32 Implementation of the Agreement on Movement and Access (24 January – 6 February 2007) The United Nations 1  is submitting the 32nd bi-weekly report on the implementation of the 15 November 2005 Agreement on Movement and Access (AMA), covering the period 24 January – 6 February 2007 inclusive. 2 1. (...) The number of senior traders crossing Erez into Israel continues to increase although it remains closed for workers. 2. (...) An average of 280 traders are crossing Erez each day, up from 253 last period. • Obstacles to movement in the West Bank increased to 529. This represents an increase of 165 or 41% over the baseline figure of August 2005. 3.
Language:English
Score: 825280.8 - https://www.un.org/unispal/document/auto-insert-196718/
Data Source: un
However, this would require a generally predictable growth in overseas demand and a policy framework that would make that demand accessible to increasing numbers of Jamaicans. Failing this, the increased training of hospitality workers would simply result in an oversupply to the local market further depressing the wages of this group of workers. 2.3 Schoolteachers Work Programme This is the most recent example of the temporary movement of persons to supply services overseas. (...) These provisions must be temporary as the ultimate determinant of the efficient deployment of human resources should be market driven. 3.0 Overview of Informal Initiatives Resulting in the Trade in Services through the Movement of Natural Persons In the last 50 years increasing numbers of Jamaicans have migrated to the major cities of North America and the UK in search of economic opportunity. (...) Jamaica is a large net recipient of remittances which is the nation’s third largest source of foreign currency. 3.1 Movement of Jamaican Professionals In more recent times, permanent migration has been increasing among young professionals primarily as a result of host country immigration laws that show preference to this category of persons, who include computer programmers and accountants.
Language:English
Score: 824013.9 - https://www.wto.org/english/tr...serv_e/symp_apr_02_brown_e.doc
Data Source: un
In particular:   • The implementation of the Rafah crossing agreement has provided the Palestinian Authority with responsibility for its border with Egypt and increased access to Arab markets and the outside world. • The agreement to operate continuous crossings at Karni and Erez will improve movement of goods from Gaza to Israel and increase market access for Palestinian exports, with 150 trucks per day due to cross by the end of 2005, and 400 by the end of 2006. • The back-to-back system (where all goods are unloaded from Palestinian trucks, passed through the security barrier and reloaded onto Israeli trucks) will be improved through the installation of a new generation of scanners. This will increase the volume of throughput and speed up transit times, helping to reduce transaction costs. • The construction of the seaport in Gaza and plans to continue discussions to reopen airport access will enhance the transport structure and links to the outside world. • Development of an integrated Palestinian economy will be helped by bus and truck convoys to transport people and goods between the West Bank and Gaza. • Measures to facilitate greater movement in the West Bank will continue and help minimize disruption to Palestinian lives. (...) The World Bank 1 estimate that a full lifting of the restrictions on movement and access will result in an 8 per cent increase in GDP in the short term.
Language:English
Score: 819105.3 - https://www.un.org/unispal/document/auto-insert-204869/
Data Source: un
As a result of both increasing aircraft size and improving load factors, the growth in aircraft movements was quite small in the 1970s despite rapid growth in passenger traffic. (...) Aircraft movements for the same period are projected to increase at an average annual growth rate of 3.5 per cent. (...) These growth prospects present a major challenge to air transport as airports and air traffic management systems will be expected to accommodate almost a 2.7 fold increase in traffic and doubling of aircraft movements. 7.
Language:English
Score: 815330.8 - https://www.icao.int/Meetings/...nsconf2000/Documents/wp13e.pdf
Data Source: un
National Level Unilateral Approaches to Managing Movement and Temporary Stay of Workers 1 National Level Unilateral Approaches to Managing Movement and Temporary Stay of Workers 2 Managing Movement & Temporary Stay No global system on labour migration Most temporary labour migration today: - Outside state-to-state agreements between countries of origin & destination - Definitions - Common features - Reasons for growth Most programmes to admit foreign workers: - Unilateral - Strengths - Weaknesses 3 Unilateral Approaches & Mode 4 Understanding regulatory framework furthers Mode 4 discussions Although schemes cover workers beyond scope of Mode 4 (including sectors other than services) Their experience, strengths and weaknesses can provide valuable lessons for Mode 4 Shows how schemes focused on Mode 4 workers mesh with existing regimes 4 IOM Survey of Temporary Labour Migration Policies and Practices Contribute to GATS Mode 4 discussions by: Assessing data sources: How much data on temporary movements is collected? (...) Asia & Gulf: Kuwait: 500,000 of 700,00 foreign workers semi/low-skilled Among GATS Mode 4 movements: Fastest growth: mobility of intra-company transferees Temporary workers are mainly low and semi-skilled In OECD countries: Rise in no. of seasonal lower-skilled workers (e.g. US, Italy, Spain and the U.K.) 11 Growth in Temporary Labour Schemes Reasons Development of info. & comm. technology: Increased demand for highly-skilled labour Free flow of trade in goods and capital: Increasing demand for employment & provision of training, expertise & services abroad May cause shortages, esp. in low-skill occupations Slow labour market adjustment: Mid-term, high demand for replacement labour Ageing populations in some OECD countries: 12 National Unilateral Approaches Strengths Flexibility in adjusting to economic cycles “Trade commitments = predictability, Migration schemes = premium on flexibility” More acceptable to public opinion than policies of free movement Protection of: - Nationally important economic sectors; - Working conditions of national workers 13 National Unilateral Approaches Weaknesses Difficult to select migrant workers in cost-effective manner Lack of predictability & transparency regarding regulations Many restrictions placed on temporary migrants: - Reduce availability of human capital resources; - Limit trade-led growth Limit ability of sending states to protect citizens abroad Difficult to enforce temporary stay of foreign workers 14 Conclusions Demand for foreign temporary workers growing Factors driving increased immigration will not abate soon Challenges facing policymakers: Best manage growing temporary movement of persons Create appropriate temporary entry channels
Language:English
Score: 814314.6 - https://www.wto.org/english/tr...ct04_e/managing_movement_e.pdf
Data Source: un
This heterogeneity has important consequences for the aggregate impact of exchange rate movements. The presence of fixed costs to export means that only high productivity firms can export, firms which precisely react to an exchange rate depreciation by increasing their export price rather than their sales. (...) Consistent with our theoretical framework, we show that the probability of firms to enter the export market following a depreciation increases. The extensive margin response to ex- change rate changes is modest at the aggregate level because firms that enter, following a depreciation, are smaller relative to existing firms. 1 Introduction Movements of nominal and real exchange rates are large. (...) The extensive margin represents around 20% of the total increase in exports. However, because the new entrants are on average smaller than existing exporters, the extensive margin of exchange rate movements on exports has a limited effect at the aggregate level.
Language:English
Score: 813772.56 - https://www.wto.org/english/re.../gtdw_e/wkshop10_e/mayer_e.pdf
Data Source: un
The aviation industry contributes a significant proportion of the UAE GDP both directly and indirectly and therefore has a direct relationship with the growth of the nation. 1.2 The total Daily Average Air Traffic Movements for the Emirates ACC rise by 5.1% in January 2014 totalling 68,620 movements. Dubai International recorded 360,000 air traffic movements in 2013 whilst Abu Dhabi International recorded a 12% increase in passenger numbers over the same period. Coupled with this are the aggressive growth forecasts of the UAE airline fleets and the expansion plans for most of the airfields within the UAE, especially Dubai World International and Abu Dhabi International. 1.3 By 2020 aircraft movements will surpass 560.000 and passenger numbers is expected to increase to 98.5 million.
Language:English
Score: 811788.1 - https://www.icao.int/MID/Documents/2014/ATM%20SG1/IP%206.pdf
Data Source: un