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• Analyse problems of making change • Compare cities to identify reasons for comparative success • Learn lessons from history What is it? Individual Community self interest shared interest conflicting interests Power is the capacity to induce change So, changing to sustainable urban water management requires that there exists the power to induce that change Does anyone have that power individually or collectively? Do they have the incentives to use that power? Does the city have the power to induce that change? (...) What are the incentives to use that power either to promote or inhibit? Look for the boundaries Lots of painstaking work Informal rules Public road A B Access road Car parking Surface water drainage Differences when (a) land owner rents out individual Apartments or (b) condominial apartments Who has incentive to minimise capital costs?
Language:English
Score: 902268 - https://www.un.org/waterforlif...f/06_suwm_conf_colin_green.pdf
Data Source: un
In its Decision, the Trial Chamber addresses two issues: a. the basis of the authority and power of the International Tribunal to issue compulsory orders to States as well as individuals, including high government officials, and ; b. the duty to comply with such orders. (...) DUTY TO COMPLY WITH ORDERS OF THE TRIBUNAL Having found that the Tribunal has the power to issue subpoenas to States and Government officials, the Tribunal then examined the closely related question of the scope of the duty, if any, of States and individuals to comply with such orders. (...) SUMMING UP In conclusion, a Judge or Trial Chamber of the International Tribunal has the authority and power to issue orders to States and individuals, including high government officials, for the production of documents required for the preparation or conduct of a trial.
Language:English
Score: 902068.5 - https://www.icty.org/en/press/...ena-duces-tecum-issued-croatia
Data Source: un
In its Decision, the Trial Chamber addresses two issues: a. the basis of the authority and power of the International Tribunal to issue compulsory orders to States as well as individuals, including high government officials, and ; b. the duty to comply with such orders. (...) DUTY TO COMPLY WITH ORDERS OF THE TRIBUNAL Having found that the Tribunal has the power to issue subpoenas to States and Government officials, the Tribunal then examined the closely related question of the scope of the duty, if any, of States and individuals to comply with such orders. (...) SUMMING UP In conclusion, a Judge or Trial Chamber of the International Tribunal has the authority and power to issue orders to States and individuals, including high government officials, for the production of documents required for the preparation or conduct of a trial.
Language:English
Score: 902068.5 - https://www.icty.org/en/node/1624
Data Source: un
In its Decision, the Trial Chamber addresses two issues: a. the basis of the authority and power of the International Tribunal to issue compulsory orders to States as well as individuals, including high government officials, and ; b. the duty to comply with such orders. (...) DUTY TO COMPLY WITH ORDERS OF THE TRIBUNAL Having found that the Tribunal has the power to issue subpoenas to States and Government officials, the Tribunal then examined the closely related question of the scope of the duty, if any, of States and individuals to comply with such orders. (...) SUMMING UP In conclusion, a Judge or Trial Chamber of the International Tribunal has the authority and power to issue orders to States and individuals, including high government officials, for the production of documents required for the preparation or conduct of a trial.
Language:English
Score: 902068.5 - https://www.icty.org/fr/node/1625
Data Source: un
In its Decision, the Trial Chamber addresses two issues: a. the basis of the authority and power of the International Tribunal to issue compulsory orders to States as well as individuals, including high government officials, and ; b. the duty to comply with such orders. (...) DUTY TO COMPLY WITH ORDERS OF THE TRIBUNAL Having found that the Tribunal has the power to issue subpoenas to States and Government officials, the Tribunal then examined the closely related question of the scope of the duty, if any, of States and individuals to comply with such orders. (...) SUMMING UP In conclusion, a Judge or Trial Chamber of the International Tribunal has the authority and power to issue orders to States and individuals, including high government officials, for the production of documents required for the preparation or conduct of a trial.
Language:English
Score: 902068.5 - https://www.icty.org/fr/press/...ena-duces-tecum-issued-croatia
Data Source: un
A development initiative can provide resources such as land or micro credits to women in a community, but unless women are empowered the gendered power relations at individual, household and community level may restrain women’s abilities to maximise their use of the outcomes of the initiative. (...) For empowerment to be transformative it must be seen as a process existing on all levels - individual, group and societal. Unless the gendered power structures that subordinate women on the societal level are addressed, individual women cannot take full control over their lives. (...) However, in order to be able to monitor progress on regional level and to be able to compare countries with each other, predefined or general indicators are needed for empowerment on individual, group and societal level. Examples of general indicators can be related to the awareness of gendered power structures in society, participation in formal or informal decision making structures, collective action, ability to negotiate safe sex etc.
Language:English
Score: 897507.3 - https://www.un.org/womenwatch/...r/documents/Strandberg-EP6.pdf
Data Source: un
Definitions • Data: refers to all representation of information notwithstanding format or medium; • Data controller:…; who determines the purpose and means of processing of personal data • Data processing officer: an individual appointed by the data controller charged with ensuring in an independent way compliance with obligations of the Model law; • Data subject: any person who is the subject of the processing of personal data and who is identified or identifiable General Principles • Openness: – Most important principle; – Openness towards the data subject; – Other principles stem from this one; • Legitimacy: – Must be in accordance with the expectation of the individuals; – In accordance with the law • Necessity and proportionality: – Processing necessary to the specified purpose (choice of the less invasive way); – Data which is necessary for the processing General Principles Continued • Accountability: • Information must be correct, relevant and updated; • Not disclosed without permission; Duties of Data Controller • Observing and complying with the principles above; • Accountability; • Answerable to the DPA (obligation for notifications to the DPA); • Security of data (technical and organizational measures); • Assessing the capacity and competence of trans boundary operators; • Implementation of measures ensuring the safety and treatment of; – non sensitive data; – Sensitive data Rights of Data Subject • Transparency; • Right of access; • Individual control of data ; • Right of rectification and opposition; • Right of deletion; • Security and confidentiality; • Recourse to the DPA and courts Sensitive and Non Sensitive Information • Two categories of data exist: • sensitive data which is data that can affect in itself an individual's privacy and • data that is not sensitive. • The first category may reveal a person's religious affiliation, ethnic origin or health. (...) Recourse to Judicial Authority • Individual’s rights to approach courts on infringements of rights preserved • Appeal system set up under law to be exhausted; • Thereafter appeal to the judicial system Protection Authority • Establishment of a Protection Authority in order to foster compliance with the law and protection of the principles discussed; • Independent; • Composition; • Status; • Protection Authority endowed with regulatory powers; • Powers to sanction; • Powers to interpret the law; • Protection regime to meet the particularities of each country; • Financing arrangements Sanctions • Need to set up a system of sanctions to make the law fully effective; • A law without sanctions is subject to violation; • The DPA’s role; • Civil and criminal sanctions Limitations • Personal data protections not absolute rights; • Country may impose limitations on the protections offered for various reasons including: • State security • Defence; • Health; • Public safety; • criminal offences; and • Any other justifiable reasons Trans boundary Flow • With globalization, traditional borders between territories regions and countries are becoming increasingly permeable; • Personal data is subject to cross-border treatments more and more often; • States need to determine the rules that govern such transfers in order to only allow them under conditions that ensure personal data is protected; • Rules of data protection will be more easily applicable if many countries adopt equivalent ones; • Assurance of equivalent protection; • Treatment of transfers to member states who have transposed; • To non members or those who have not transposed • Creation of a uniform system in order to create a safe environment for citizens; Codes of Conduct • DPA to set up system of codes of conduct; • Codes to comply with the Model law Whistle blowing • DPA to establish rules governing whistle blowing; • Such rules to preserve;  principles of fairness;  Principles of proportionality;  Rules concerning rights of the data subject;  Rules of notification to the DPA; and  Others. Conclusion • Provision of information for transposition critical; • Ground work guiding the transposition strategy; • Model law not to operate in isolation of other laws; • Model law sets out the Minimum requirements; • Countries may impose limitations; • Countries have discretionary powers on certain matters; • Balance between the discretionary powers and harmonisation; • Trans boundary issues important for better protection; Thank you For more information: http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/projects/ITU_EC_ACP/index.html Adv.
Language:English
Score: 892855.9 - https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/P...w%20on%20Data%20Protection.pdf
Data Source: un
Theoretically, these NSAs can exert power broadly on three areas (Bas Arts, 2003): (1) decisional power in terms of policy making and political influence; (2) discursive power in terms of framing/reframing of discourses; and (3) regulatory power in terms of rule-making and setting standards. (...) Therefore, the cumulative impact of these NSAs in Bangladesh is more pronounced on discursive power than on other two areas, i.e., on decisional power and regulatory power. (...) And at the same time, means and ways have to be devised to maximize NSAs contribution to WTO by creating conducive environment for NSAs through which they can enjoy more decisional, discursive, and regulatory powers. Finally, it is pertinent to conclude that WTO’s individualized approach to NSAs has reached its limit.
Language:English
Score: 891573.4 - https://www.wto.org/english/fo..._e/session03_pres_barkat_e.doc
Data Source: un
 Page 106 - ITU Journal - ICT Discoveries - Volume 1, No. 2, December 2018 - Second special issue on Data for Good           Basic HTML Version Table of Contents View Full Version Page 106 - ITU Journal - ICT Discoveries - Volume 1, No. 2, December 2018 - Second special issue on Data for Good P. 106 ITU JOURNAL: ICT Discoveries, Vol. 1(2), December 2018 claims to power about their data. Governance shall dignity in at least two ways: first, the linkages make strive to make individuals data sovereigns. data processing more invasive than ever and result in an unprecedented degree of transparency of the One important clarification is immediately in order. individual. (...) There respect of just any claim to power. Compatible with is a spectrum ranging from harmless nudging to and arguably inherent to the concept of sovereignty potentially more egregious interferences with is a relational aspect: whether a claim to sovereign decision making and even preference formation. power is legitimate depends on its content and the The worry is that self-determination and autonomy relationship between the putative sovereign and come under fire, and that the ideal of data her claim’s addressees. (...) On the other hand, data Secondly, individuals cease to be data sovereigns if sharing can be the expression of solidarity, they are unable to articulate or enforce claims to orientation towards claims of others, and power and/or if they are unaware of the flow of commitment to the common good.
Language:English
Score: 890555.1 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page106.html
Data Source: un
ITU TELECOM Young Innovators 2014 - Part 1 64 | Advertorial Crowdicity, the easier way to think collectively without loosing the power of the individual Crowdicity is the award winning Idea Management Software that enables organisations to harness individuals in an internal, external or hybrid crowd to source, refine and select ideas, insights and opinions in response to a challenge posed. The result is a powerful tool for idea generation, problem solving and innovation management. Recent Crowdicity awards: the individual
Language:English
Score: 890392.4 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/Publ..._brochure_updated_part1_68.pdf
Data Source: un