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UNCITRAL DIGEST OF CASE LAW ON THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE INTERNATIONAL SALE OF GOODS
A period of time for acceptance fixed by the offeror by telephone, telex or other means of instantaneous communication, begins to run from the moment that the offer reaches the offeree (...) Article 20 sets out rules for determining the calculation of the time period for communications to reach the other party. 2. Paragraph (1) provides for when the time period begins to run. The paragraph distinguishes between communications at a distance (sentence 1) and instantaneous communications (sentence 2).
Language:English
Score: 1024884.1 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce....9/SER.C/DIGEST/CISG/20&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
The proposed unit cell can provide a usable double negative functional characteristic around 5.3 GHz. (...) Finally, we show how the RIM can be employed for vehicular communications, acting as a coated access point along the street. We derive the instantaneous data rate at the receiver node, the outage probability and the channel capacity, as affected by different beam widths, distances and vehicle speed.
Language:English
Score: 1024465.1 - https://www.itu.int/pub/S-ITUJNL-JFETS.V1I1-6-2020
Data Source: un
MEASURES OF GAS CONSERVATION AND STUDY OF RESULTS : FINAL REVISED CONSOLIDATED REPORT / PREPARED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NETHERLANDS
Therefore in this report all consumption figures provided by the countries are considered as natural gas consumption, without drawing any distinction between natural gas types of different calorific values. (...) The survey shows that these data are not available in Italy, that in Poland only instantaneous water heaters are in use for the hot water production, that hot water production by means of tap coils apparently does not occur in Romania, and that in the former Soviet Union only the average gas consumption for instantaneous water heaters and storage water heaters is known. (...) With regard to the temperature adjustment of the thermostat by the consumers, the following table provides information from the different countries: Germany (Fed.
Language:English
Score: 1024331.7 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...S=ENERGY/WP.3/GE.2/R.12&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
Discussion 2.1 Following the restoration of services a high level meeting was held with the Service Provider, Telecommunication Services of Trinidad and Tobago (TSTT) with the objective to design and implement a solution to mitigate against another single point of failure. (...) The radar routers at Martinique and Piarco will be made redundant. Work is underway to provide two (2) transport mediums between Piarco and Martinique a) The first through International Private Leased Circuits (IPLC) provided by Telecommunication Services of Trinidad and Tobago (TSTT) and France Telecoms; b) The second through the E/CAR AFS network. The circuits to Martinique and Guadeloupe on the E/CAR AFS Network are provided by Southern Caribbean Fibre (SCF) and TSTT. 3.
Language:English
Score: 1024244 - https://www.icao.int/NACC/Docu.../ECARNTG6/ECARNTG6-RD4WP09.pdf
Data Source: un
REPORT OF THE TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE FOREST MANAGEMENT REFERENCE LEVEL SUBMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION SUBMITTED IN 2011
Some discrepancies were observed between the areas provided in this table and those reported in the 2010 and/or 2011 GHG inventory of the member States (see annex). (...) FCCC/TAR/2011/EU 10 information on each approach used is provided in the individual submissions of those member States. (...) Rueter) (B) assuming instantaneous oxidation (provided for transparency reasons only) (1) No correction of area was done for G4M where the difference with GHGI was very small (less than 4%).
Language:English
Score: 1020865.2 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...pen&DS=FCCC/TAR/2011/EU&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
STATUS REPORT ON THE ANNUAL INVENTORY OF DENMARK
Additional informationb CRF tables provided for years 1990–2016 Base year or periodc 1990 Base year for HFCs, PFCs and SF6d 1995 Base year for NF3e 1995 Gases covered CO2 CH4 N2O HFCs PFCs MIX SF6 NF3 NOX CO NMVOCs SO2             N IR Description The organization of the NIR generally follows the structure outlined in the “Guidelines for the preparation of national communications by Parties included in Annex I to the Convention, Part I: UNFCCC reporting guidelines on annual greenhouse gas inventories” (annex to decision 24/CP.19). (...) FCCC/ASR/2018/DNK 4 PART I Provision of information for the latest reported inventory year in the CRF tables: 2016 T a b le s Energy IPPU Agriculture LULUCF KP-LULUCFa Waste Sectoral report tables 1  2(I)  3  4  NIR-1  5  2(II)  SBDT 1.A(a)  2(I).A–H  3.A  4.1  NIR-2  5.A  1.A(b)  2(II).B-H  3.B(a)  4.A  NIR-3  5.B  1.A(c)  3.B(b)  4.B  4(KP) Recalculations 5.C  1.A(d)  3.C  4.C  4(KP)  5.D  1.B.1  3.D  4.D  4(KP-I)A.1  1.B.2  3.E  4.E  4(KP-I)A.1.1  1.C  3.F  4.F  4(KP-I)A.2  1.D  3.G-I  4(I)  4(KP-I)A.2.1  4(II)  4(KP-I)B.1  4(III)  4(KP-I)B.1.1  4(IV)  4(KP-I)B.1.2 4(V)  4(KP-I)B.1.3  4(KP-I)B.2  4(KP-I)B.3  4(KP-I)B.4  4(KP-I)B.5  4(KP-I)C  4(KP-II)1  4(KP-II)2  FCCC/ASR/2018/DNK 5 PART I Provision of information for the latest reported inventory year in the CRF tables: 2016 (continued) 4(KP-II)3  4(KP-II)4  Accounting table  Summary tables Summary table 1.A  Summary table 2  Summary table 3  Other tables Table 6 (Indirect emissions of N2O and CO2)  Table 7 (Overview for key categories)  Table 8 (Recalculation – recalculated data) Table 9 (Completeness) Table 10 (Emission trends)  Comments Key categories are reported differently in the NIR compared with in CRF table 7, which may lead to inconsistencies (e.g. in the level of aggregation and categories identified). T o ta ls Provided for gases CO2  CH4  N2O  HFCs  PFCs  MIX  SF6  NF3  Provided for years 1990–2016 1990–2016 1990–2016 1990–2016 1990–2016 1990–2016 1990–2016 1990–2016 C O 2 Comparison of CO2 emissions from fuel combustion Reference approach Sectoral approach Difference more than 2% If difference is more than 2% explanation provided in CRF table 1.A(c)    Explanation provided in CRF table 1.A(c) and NIR chapter 3.4 H F C s a n d P F C s Disaggregation by species HFCs PFCs   N o ta ti o n ke ys Used in Summary table 1.A  Sectoral report tables  SBDT  Comments a Parties are required to report anthropogenic GHG emissions by sources and removals by sinks from LULUCF activities under Article 3, paragraph 3, of the Kyoto Protocol, and, if any, elected activities under Article 3, paragraph 4, using the agreed CRF tables adopted under decision 6/CMP.9. 6 F C C C /A S R /2 0 1 8 /D N K PART II Provision of CRF tables for years reported Years Base yeara 1 9 9 0 1 9 9 5 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 5 2 0 0 6 2 0 0 7 2 0 0 8 2 0 0 9 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 2 0 1 3 2 0 1 4 2 0 1 5 2 0 1 6 Comments E n er g y Sectoral report: Table 1   S B D T Table 1.A(a)   Table 1.A(b)   Table 1.A(c)   Table 1.A(d)   Table 1.B.1  No numerical data are reported in this table for the years 1990–2016. (...) For this purpose, the Party shall include information showing: That all lands subject to exclusion due to natural disturbances are identified  The Party does not apply any the provision for natural disturbances How annual emissions resulting from natural disturbances and the subsequent removals are estimated and excluded from the accounting  The Party does not apply any the provision for natural disturbances That no land-use change has occurred on lands for which the provisions in decision 2/CMP.7, annex, paragraph 33, are applied  The Party does not apply any the provision for natural disturbances That events and circumstances were beyond the control of the Party  The Party does not apply any the provision for natural disturbances 1 4 F C C C /A S R /2 0 1 8 /D N K PART IV Provision of information relating to KP-LULUCF activities under Article 3, paragraphs 3 and 4, of the Kyoto Protocol (continued) Provided Observation The efforts taken to rehabilitate the land for which the provisions contained in decision 2/CMP.7, annex, paragraph 33, are applied  The Party does not apply any the provision for natural disturbances That emissions associated with salvage logging were not excluded from the accounting  The Party does not apply any the provision for natural disturbances If not accounted for by instantaneous oxidation, information on GHG emissions/removals resulting from changes in the HWP pool accounted for in accordance with decision 2/CMP.7, including: Activity data for the HWP categories used for estimating the pool removed from domestic forests, for domestic consumption and for export  Half-lives used in estimating emissions/removals for the HWP categories used  Whether emissions from HWP originating from forests prior to the start of the second commitment period have been included in the accounting, if the forest management reference level is based on a projection  How emissions from the HWP pool accounted for in the first commitment period on the basis of instantaneous oxidation have been excluded from the accounting for the second commitment period  How HWP resulting from deforestation has been accounted on the basis of instantaneous oxidation  How CO2 emissions from HWP in solid waste disposal sites and from wood harvested for energy purposes have been accounted on the basis of instantaneous oxidation  The Party clarified that the emissions from wood used for energy purposes are accounted based on instantaneous oxidation.
Language:English
Score: 1018984.3 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...en&DS=FCCC/ASR/2018/DNK&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
STATUS REPORT OF THE ANNUAL INVENTORY OF AUSTRALIA
FCCCFCCC/ASR/2017/AUS 4 PART I Provision of information for the latest reported inventory year in the common reporting format: 2015 T a b le s Energy IPPU Agriculture LULUCF KP-LULUCF a Waste Sectoral report tables 1  2(I)  3  4  NIR-1  5  2(II)  Sectoral background data tables 1.A(a)  2(I).A–H  3.A  4.1  NIR-2  5.A  1.A(b)  2(II).B-H  3.B(a)  4.A  NIR-3 5.B  1.A(c)  3.B(b)  4.B  4(KP) Recalculations  5.C  1.A(d)  3.C  4.C  4(KP)  5.D  1.B.1  3.D  4.D  4(KP-I)A.1  1.B.2  3.E  4.E  4(KP-I)A.1.1  1.C  3.F  4.F  4(KP-I)A.2  1.D  3.G-I  4(I)  4(KP-I)A.2.1  4(II)  4(KP-I)B.1  4(III)  4(KP-I)B.1.1  4(IV)  4(KP-I)B.1.2 4(V)  4(KP-I)B.1.3  4(KP-I)B.2  4(KP-I)B.3  4(KP-I)B.4  4(KP-I)B.5  4(KP-I)C  4(KP-II)1  4(KP-II)2  FCCC/ASR/2017/AUS 5 PART I Provision of information for the latest reported inventory year in the common reporting format: 2015 (continued) 4(KP-II)3  4(KP-II)4  Accounting table  Summary tables Summary table 1.A  Summary table 2  Summary table 3  Other tables Table 6 (Indirect emissions of N2O and CO2)  Table 7 (Key categories)  Table 8 (Recalculation) Table 9 (Completeness)  Table 10 (Emission trends)  Comments Key categories are reported in the NIR with differences compared to CRF Table 7 that may lead to inconsistency, e.g. in the level of aggregation and categories identified. T o ta ls Provided for gases CO2  CH4  N2O  HFCs  PFCs  MIX  SF6  NF3  Provided for years 1990–2015 1990–2015 1990–2015 1990–2015 1990–2015 1990–2015 1990–2015 1990–2015 C O 2 Comparison of CO2 emissions from fuel combustion Reference approach Sectoral approach Difference more than 2% If difference is more than 2% explanation provided in CRF table 1.A(c)    H F C s a n d P F C s Disaggregation by species HFCs PFCs   N o ta ti o n k ey s Used in Summary table 1.A  Sectoral report tables  Sectoral background data tables  Comments a Parties are required to report anthropogenic GHG emissions by sources and removals by sinks from LULUCF activities under Article 3, paragraph 3, of the Kyoto Protocol, and, if any, elected activities under Article 3, paragraph 4, using the agreed CRF tables adopted under decision 6/CMP.9. (...) For this purpose the Party shall include information showing: That all lands subject to exclusion due to natural disturbances are identified  How annual emissions resulting from natural disturbances and the subsequent removals are estimated and excluded from accounting  That no land-use change has occurred on lands for which the provisions in decision 2/CMP.7, annex, paragraph 33, are applied  F C C C /A S R /2 0 1 7 /A U S 1 5 1 5 PART IV Provision of information relating to KP-LULUCF activities under Article 3, paragraphs 3 and 4, of the Kyoto Protocol (continued) Provided Observation That events and circumstances were beyond the control of the Party  The efforts taken to rehabilitate the land for which the provisions contained in decision 2/CMP.7, annex, paragraph 33, are applied  That emissions associated with salvage logging were not excluded from accounting  If not accounted for by instantaneous oxidation, information on GHG emissions/removals resulting from changes in the HWP pool accounted for in accordance with decision 2/CMP.7, including: Activity data for the HWP categories used for estimating the pool removed from domestic forests, for domestic consumption and for export  Half-lives used in estimating emissions/removals for the HWP categories used  Whether emissions from HWP originating from forests prior to the start of the second commitment period have been included in the accounting, if the forest management reference level is based on a projection  How emissions from the HWP pool accounted for in the first commitment period on the basis of instantaneous oxidation have been excluded from the accounting for the second commitment period  How the HWP resulting from deforestation have been accounted on the basis of instantaneous oxidation  The Party has opted not to estimate emissions from HWP from deforestation on the basis of instantaneous oxidation. (...) F C C C /A S R /2 0 1 7 /A U S 1 7 1 7 PART IV Provision of information relating to KP-LULUCF activities under Article 3, paragraphs 3 and 4, of the Kyoto Protocol (continued) Provided Observation A demonstration that a new forest of at least equivalent area to the harvested forest plantation is established through direct human-induced planting and/or seeding of non- forested land that did not contain forest on 31 December 1989  The Party has not applied the provision of carbon equivalent forests.
Language:English
Score: 1017698.6 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...en&DS=FCCC/ASR/2017/AUS&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
STATUS REPORT ON THE ANNUAL INVENTORY OF ITALY
That no land-use change has occurred on lands for which the provisions in decision 2/CMP.7, annex, paragraph 33, are applied  In chapter 9.4.4 of the NIR, the Party reports that no land was subject to exclusion due to natural disturbance in years 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016. 1 4 F C C C /A S R /2 0 1 8 /IT A PART IV Provision of information relating to KP-LULUCF activities under Article 3, paragraphs 3 and 4, of the Kyoto Protocol (continued) Provided Observation That events and circumstances were beyond the control of the Party  In chapter 9.4.4 of the NIR, the Party reports that no land was subject to exclusion due to natural disturbance in years 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016. (...) If not accounted for by instantaneous oxidation, information on GHG emissions/removals resulting from changes in the HWP pool accounted for in accordance with decision 2/CMP.7, including: Activity data for the HWP categories used for estimating the pool removed from domestic forests, for domestic consumption and for export  Half-lives used in estimating emissions/removals for the HWP categories used  Whether emissions from HWP originating from forests prior to the start of the second commitment period have been included in the accounting, if the forest management reference level is based on a projection  How emissions from the HWP pool accounted for in the first commitment period on the basis of instantaneous oxidation have been excluded from the accounting for the second commitment period  The Party clarified that the emissions from the HWP pool accounted for in the first commitment period on the basis of instantaneous oxidation have been not excluded from the accounting for the second commitment period. How HWP resulting from deforestation has been accounted on the basis of instantaneous oxidation  How CO2 emissions from HWP in solid waste disposal sites and from wood harvested for energy purposes have been accounted on the basis of instantaneous oxidation  How emissions/removals from changes in the HWP pool accounted for do not include imported HWP  The Party clarified that the emissions and removals from changes in the HWP pool accounted for do not include imported harvested wood products, consistently with the HWP reporting under the Convention. 1 5 F C C C /A S R /2 0 1 8 /IT A PART IV Provision of information relating to KP-LULUCF activities under Article 3, paragraphs 3 and 4, of the Kyoto Protocol (continued) Provided Observation Information on anthropogenic GHG emissions from LULUCF activities under Article 3, paragraph 3, and Article 3, paragraph 4, factoring out removals from: Elevated CO2 concentrations above pre-industrial levels  Indirect nitrogen deposition  The dynamic effects of age structure resulting from activities prior to 1 January 1990  Specific information to be reported for activities under Article 3, paragraph. 3: Activities that began on or after 1 January 1990 and before 31 December of the last year of the commitment period, and are directly human-induced  How harvesting or forest disturbance that is followed by the re-establishment of forest is distinguished from deforestation  Specific information to be reported for activities under Article 3, paragraph 4: Activities that have occurred since 1 January 1990 and are human induced  Cropland management, grazing land management, revegetation, wetland drainage and rewetting: emissions/removals reported for each year of the commitment period and for the base year for each of the elected activities on the geographical locations reported  Emissions/removals from activities under Article 3, paragraph 4, are not accounted for under activities under Article 3, paragraph 3  Information on how emissions arising from the conversion of natural forests to planted forests are accounted for  Methodological consistency between the reference level and reporting for forest management  Technical corrections made pursuant to decision 2/CMP.7, annex, paragraph 14  Forest management: if emissions/removals from the harvest and conversion of forest plantations to non-forest land were included, information on how requirements set out in decision 2/CMP.7, annex, paragraphs 37–39 were met, including: The identification of all lands and associated carbon pools subject to decision 2/CMP.7, annex, paragraph 37, including the georeferenced location and year of conversion  The Party clarified that it does not apply the provision of carbon equivalent forests in the accounting of forest management. 1 6 F C C C /A S R /2 0 1 8 /IT A PART IV Provision of information relating to KP-LULUCF activities under Article 3, paragraphs 3 and 4, of the Kyoto Protocol (continued) Provided Observation A demonstration that the forest plantation was first established through direct human-induced planting and/or seeding of non-forest land before 1 January 1990, and, if the forest plantation was re-established, that this last occurred on forest land through direct human-induced planting and/or seeding after 1 January 1960  The Party clarified that it does not apply the provision of carbon equivalent forests in the accounting of forest management.
Language:English
Score: 1017698.6 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...en&DS=FCCC/ASR/2018/ITA&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
The scale of their lethality—the instantaneous, enduring and indiscriminate nature of the destruction they wreak—creates an essential qualitative distinction with all other weapons. 3. (...) It lies in their potential to instantaneously obliterate and render meaningless the painstaking efforts of generations of human beings… They are a denial and rejection of our very humanity…” 1 4. (...) The world’s Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones (NWFZs) represent a crucial source of legal 2 Budda no kotoba [Buddha’s Words], by Hajime Nakamura, 1958. 3 A/CONF.229/2017/NGO/WP.8 and practical precedent for a treaty outlawing nuclear weapons. They also provide an invaluable body of learning and experience regarding the positive transformation of security thinking that disarmament brings.
Language:English
Score: 1017576.7 - https://www.un.org/disarmament...8%20_SGIWorkingPaper_Final.pdf
Data Source: un
LEGAL ASPECTS OF ELECTRONIC COMMERCE : ELECTRONIC CONTRACTING : BACKGROUND INFORMATION : NOTE : ADDENDUM / BY THE SECRETARIAT
The main difficulty in fact seems to be that the formulation in article 11 of the EU Directive does not provide a presumption or indication of the time from which a party should be deemed to have been “able to access” a message. (...) The new law implementing the EU Directive provides that the specific rule on receipt of an “order” applies “notwithstanding” the earlier law. (...) This wide definition encompasses not only a provider’s web server, but also the computer stations of the provider’s clients, from which they retrieve their messages or through which they forward their messages to the provider for transmission to the addressees.
Language:English
Score: 1016838.9 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...CN.9/WG.IV/WP.104/ADD.2&Lang=E
Data Source: ods